The Immune System May Influence Our Social Interactions
BY Jordan Rosenfeld
August 24, 2016
Last year, we reported that researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine made the breakthrough discovery that the immune system and the brain are not isolated from one another as previously thought, but connected through a system of lymphatic vessels. The astonishing discovery of a "new" part of the human body opened the door to new ways of looking at immunity. Now, building on that research, the same team has made a potentially even more startling breakthrough: The immune system may play a key role in controlling and shaping social behavior. Their results were published recently in the journal Nature.
This surprising influence is the result of an age-old tussle between pathogens and immunity, they say. “History shows that [the] immune system affects social behavior, but why?” asks co-author Jonathan Kipnis, chairman of UVA’s department of neuroscience and lab leader for the project. “Things happen for a reason during evolution. Evolution is all about ancient forces: one is pathogens, and the other is the immune system that fights them; that’s how we acquired mitochondria and probably became multi-cellular organisms,” he tells mental_floss.
Anthony J. Filiano, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis’ lab, says they set out to understand how “the immune system can have such a robust effect on the brain” without physically touching the brain. “There had to be some kind of soluble molecule or signal a T cell needed to produce to effect these distant neurons,” he says. They hypothesized that the immune cytokine interferon gamma [IG]—which is crucial to the immune system’s ability to fight pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and parasites—would be involved in social behavior, says Filiano.
Collaborating with the lab of immune system specialist Vladimir Litvack at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, they conducted a series of experiments on genetically modified mice. They compared signatures of cells that were treated with molecules produced by T cells and signatures from the brains of social rodents. The researchers found that IG works through inhibitory neurons that act as a kind of brake “to tone down the prefrontal cortex, which stops aberrant hyperactivity that has been shown to cause social deficits,” he adds.
When they blocked the IG molecule, the mice's prefrontal cortexes became hyperactive, and the mice became less social. When they restored the molecule function, the mice's brains returned to normal activity, and so did their behavior.
Filiano says they also looked back “across the evolutionary tree at rats, mice, fish, and flies” and found that when organisms were social, they were inducing an IG response. Even flies, which lack IG, “have the downstream target” for it, he says. They posit that "IG evolved to more efficiently control the spread of pathogens while organisms are being social. It has a dual role. We think the higher organisms have recycled these social genes into this anti-pathogen gene,” Filiano says.
He and Kipnis are excited about the implications for treating neurological disorders and behavioral disorders. Filiano says, “It’s fun to speculate that perhaps small changes in immunity can affect our day-to-day behaviors.”
Listen to the researchers discuss more details their findings in the video below.
As fast as popular culture could erect wholesome depictions of American life in comics, television, or movies, MAD Magazine was there to tear them all down. A near-instant success for EC Comics upon its debut in 1952, the magazine has inspired generations of comedians for its pioneering satirical attitude and tasteful booger jokes. This month, DC Entertainment is relaunching an "all new" MAD, skewering pop culture on a bimonthly basis and in full color. To fill the gaps in your knowledge, take a look at these facts about the Usual Gang of Idiots.
1. NO ONE KNOWS WHO CAME UP WITH ALFRED E. NEUMAN.
MAD creator Harvey Kurtzman was in the offices of a Ballantine Books editor discussing reprints for the fledging publication when he noticed a grinning, gap-toothed imbecile staring back at him from a bulletin board. The unnamed figure was ubiquitous in the early 20th century, appearing in everything from dentistry ads to depictions of diseases. A charmed Kurtzman adopted him as MAD’s mascot beginning in 1954. Neuman later become so recognizable that a letter was delivered from New Zealand to MAD’s New York offices without an address: the envelope simply had a drawing of Alfred.
2. THEY HAD TO APOLOGIZE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY.
MAD was conceived during a particularly sensitive time for the comics industry, with parents and watchdog groups concerned over content. (It didn't switch to a magazine format until issue #24.) Kurtzman usually knew where the line was, but when he was laid up with acute hepatitis in 1952, publisher William Gaines and others had to step in for him. Gaines thought it would be funny to offer a fictional biography of himself that detailed his father’s Communist leanings, his past as a dope dealer “near nursery schools,” and bouts of pyromania. When wholesalers were shocked at the content and threatened to boycott all of his titles, Gaines was forced to write a letter of apology.
3. THEY PREDICTED JOHN F. KENNEDY'S ELECTION IN 1960.
But it was a cheat. In the run-up to the 1960 Presidential election, MAD printed a cover that featured Neuman congratulating Kennedy on his victory with a caption that read, “We were with you all the way, Jack!” But the issue was shipped long before votes had been tabulated. The secret? It was a dual cover. Flip it over and Neuman is celebrating Richard Nixon’s appointment to office. Stores were told to display the “right” side of the magazine depending on the outcome.
4. ALFRED BRIEFLY HAD A GIRLFRIEND.
A character named Moxie Cowznofski was introduced in the late 1950s as a female companion for Alfred. She made only a handful of cover appearances, possibly due to the fact she looked alarmingly like her significant other.
5. THEY DIDN'T RUN ANY (REAL) ADS FOR 44 YEARS.
From the beginning, Gaines felt that printing actual advertisements next to the products they were lampooning would not only dilute their edge but seem more than a little hypocritical. After some back-and-forth, MAD cut ads starting in 1957. The decision was a costly one—most print publications survive on such revenue—but led to the magazine’s keeping a sharp knife against the throat of seductive advertising, including cigarettes. Faced with dwindling circulation in 2001, Mad finally relented and began taking ads to help pay for a switch to color printing.
6. "SPY VS. SPY" WAS CREATED BY A SUSPECTED SPY.
Cuban cartoonist Antonio Prohias was disenchanted with the regime under Fidel Castro when he began working on what would become “Spy vs. Spy.” Because Prohias’ other newspaper illustrations were critical of Castro, the Cuban government suspected him of working for the CIA. He wasn’t, but the perception had him worried harm might come to his co-workers. To get out of the situation, Prohias came to America in 1960. With his daughter helping translate, he stopped by Mad’s New York offices and submitted his work: his sneaky, triangle-headed spies became regulars.
7. THERE WAS ONE FOLD-IN THEY WOULDN'T RUN.
Artist Al Jaffee, now 94, has been with Mad almost from the beginning. He created the famous Fold-In—the back cover that reveals a new picture when doubled over—in 1964 after seeing the fold-outs in magazines like National Geographic, Playboy, and Life. Jaffee has rarely missed an issue since—but editors backtracked on one of Jaffee’s works that referenced a mass shooting in 2013. Citing poor taste, they destroyed over 600,000 copies.
8. THEIR MOVIE WAS A DISASTER.
With the exception of Fox’s successful sketch series, 1994’s MADTV, attempts to translate the MAD brand into other media have been underwhelming: a 1974 animated special didn’t even make it on air. But a 1980 film venture, a military school spoof directed by Robert Downey, Sr. titled Mad Presents Up the Academy, was so awful William Gaines demanded to have their name taken off of it. (Renamed Up the Academy, the DVD release of the movie still features someone sporting an Alfred E. Neuman mask; Madparodied it in a spoof titled “Throw Up the Academy.”)
9. THE APRIL 1974 COVER HAD PEOPLE FLIPPING.
MAD has never made a habit of good taste, but a depiction of a raised middle finger for one issue in the mid-’70s caused a huge stir. Many stores wouldn’t stock it for fear of offending customers, and the company ended up accepting an irregular number of returns. Gaines took to his typewriter to write a letter of apology. Again. The relaunched #1, out in April 2018, pays homage to this cover, though it's slightly more tasteful: Neuman is picking his nose with his middle finger.
10. THEY INVENTED A SPORT.
MAD writer Tom Koch was amused by the convoluted rules of sports and attempted to one-up them in 43-Man Squamish, a game he invented for the April 1965 issue. Koch and artist George Woodbridge (“MAD’s Athletic Council”) prepared a guide that was utterly incomprehensible—the field was to have five sides, positions included Deep Brooders and Dummies, “interfering with the Wicket Men” constituted a penalty—but it amused high school and college readers enough to try and mount their own games. (Short on players? Try 2-Man Squamish: “The rules are identical,” Koch wrote, “except the object of the game is to lose.”) For the less physically inclined, Mad also issued a board game in which the goal is to lose all of your money.
11. WEIRD AL WAS A GUEST EDITOR.
In what must be some kind of fulfilled prophecy, lyrical satirist “Weird” Al Yankovic was named as a guest editor—their first—for the magazine’s May 2015 issue. Yankovic toldEntertainment Weekly that MAD had put him on “the dark, twisted path to becoming who I am today … I needed to pollute my mind with that kind of stuff.” In addition to his collaborations with the staff, Yankovic enlisted Patton Oswalt, Seth Green, and Chris Hardwick to contribute.
12. FRED ASTAIRE ONCE DANCED AS ALFRED E. NEUMAN.
In a scene so surreal even MAD’s irreverent editors would have had trouble dreaming it up, Fred Astaire decided to sport an Alfred E. Neuman mask for a dance number in his 1959 television special, Another Evening with Fred Astaire. No one seems to recall why exactly Astaire would do this—he may have just wanted to include a popular cultural reference—but it was no off-the-cuff decision. Astaire hired movie make-up veteran John Chambers (Planet of the Apes) to craft a credible mask of Neuman. The result is … well, kind of disturbing. But it’s a fitting addition to a long tradition of people going completely MAD.
Additional Sources: Harvey Kurtzman: The Man Who Created Mad and Revolutionized Humor in America.
GIFs are silent—otherwise they wouldn't be GIFs. But some people claim to hear distinct noises accompanying certain clips. Check out the GIF below as an example: Do you hear a boom every time the structure hits the ground? If so, you may belong to the 20 to 30 percent of people who experience "visual-evoked auditory response," also known as vEAR.
Researchers from City University London recently published a paper online on the phenomenon in the journal Cortex, the British Psychological Society's Research Digest reports. For their study, they recruited more than 4000 volunteers and 126 paid participants and showed them 24 five-second video clips. Each clip lacked audio, but when asked how they rated the auditory sensation for each video on a scale of 0 to 5, 20 percent of the paid participants rated at least half the videos a 3 or more. The percentage was even higher for the volunteer group.
The likelihood of visual-evoked auditory response, according to the researchers, directly relates to what the subject is looking at. "Some people hear what they see: Car indicator lights, flashing neon shop signs, and people's movements as they walk may all trigger an auditory sensation," they write in the study.
Images packed with meaning, like two cars colliding, are more likely to trigger the auditory illusion. But even more abstract images can produce the effect if they have high levels of something called "motion energy." Motion energy is what you see in the video above when the structure bounces and the camera shakes. It's why a video of a race car driving straight down a road might have less of an auditory impact than a clip of a flickering abstract pattern.
The researchers categorize vEAR as a type of synesthesia, a brain condition in which people's senses are combined. Those with synesthesia might "see" patterns when music plays or "taste" certain colors. Most synesthesia is rare, affecting just 4 percent of the population, but this new study suggests that "hearing motion synesthesia" is much more prevalent.