8 Inanimate Objects That Have Been Swallowed By Snakes


Most serpents are not what you’d call discerning diners. If it’s warm or smells like food, it might be fair game to a hungry python. Such open-mindedness is a double-edged sword because, as a great many veterinarians can attest, the limbless reptiles will sometimes devour things that were never meant to be ingested. Here are eight of the wildest items to have ever turned up in a snake’s stomach.


One day in 2015, Queensland man Aaron Rouse was feeding a rat to Winston, his pet Woma python. Suddenly, things got out of hand. With surprising vigor, the two-year-old snake grabbed hold of both the rodent and Rouse’s feeding tongs. After Winston refused to surrender the forceps, his owner walked away and left them inside the cage, assuming they’d be released. Instead, once the python finished his supper, it ate the utensils for dessert.

“I was dumbfounded,” said Rouse. He immediately reached out to Dr. Oliver Funnell, a vet who teaches at Adelaide University, who was equally flabbergasted by Winston’s predicament. “Through the skin you could feel the bumps on the end of the tongs, and at the other end the relatively square hinge could be seen obviously protruding,” he later told the press. Rather than let Winston try to regurgitate the contraption, Funnell’s medical team put the snake under the knife. Rouse’s beloved pet made a full recovery.


“The egg smelled like chicken,” Verona, Pennsylvania resident Alan Hollingsworth explained. In 2014, Hollingsworth’s neighbor, Al Filat, went out to inspect his chicken coop when he came upon an uninvited guest. Coiled up inside the hut was a large black rat snake with a suspicious lump in its midsection. A hardy constrictor, this species is known to supplement its usual diet of birds and small mammals with the occasional egg. Unfortunately, Filat’s snake had accidentally eaten a large, ceramic egg that was left in the coop. (Imitation eggs are often used in the chicken business as a means of encouraging hens to start laying their own.)

Hollingsworth took the serpent to a nearby animal shelter, where it underwent surgery and survived the embarrassing ordeal.


Chicken breeders who can’t afford ceramic eggs will sometimes use golf balls instead. These present a real problem to wild serpents, which tend to mistake the white, dimpled spheres for bird eggs. Back in 2012, kind-hearted South Carolinians rushed a hapless yellow rat snake to a veterinarian after it had gobbled up one farmer’s Titleist-brand ball. Earlier that year, an Australian carpet python was forced to endure a similar operation when it engulfed not one but two golf balls.


Last March, a family living on Queensland, Australia’s Gold Coast received quite a shock when a six-and-a-half-foot carpet python slithered across their backyard. Terrified, they grabbed their pet dog and evacuated the premises. Left behind in the melee was a teddy bear named “Ted,” who happened to be the pooch’s favorite chew toy. Defenseless and covered in dog saliva, poor Ted smelled like an easy meal to the python, who swallowed Ted whole.

Shortly thereafter, local snake catcher Tony Harrison apprehended the intruder. The snake was lucky enough to receive medical attention, where an X-ray scan confirmed Ted’s fate. Through an emergency operation, Dr. Matthew Hollindale extracted the plaything, much to the delight of its canine owner. The python, too, was saved—and given 15 stitches as a souvenir. Since then, the reptile has been released back into the wild.


Talk about a light meal: In 1986, a four-foot pine snake passed through the backyard of Lynn and Carman Clark in Gainesville, Florida. The Clarks were chicken-keepers who illuminated their coop with 15-watt light bulbs. “When the bulbs burn out, we just throw them onto the yard,” Lynn would later admit. One poor snake happened upon two of the family’s discarded bulbs, thought that they looked like chicken eggs, and ate them.

The reptile was soon spotted by the Clarks, who couldn’t help but notice two unnatural-looking bulges protruding from its sides. So the couple brought the snake to a vet at nearby Santa Fe Community College. From there, it was transferred to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, where the bulbs were removed in a 45-minute operation.

Elliott Jacobson, a wildlife medicine specialist at the university, noted that if the critter hadn’t undergone surgery, the glass would’ve shattered inside its stomach and killed him. Instead, the snake was set free after three weeks of observation. “His future looks bright indeed,” Jacobson quipped.


In 2014, a red-tailed boa constrictor known as “Killer” made headlines after his owner, an unnamed reptile hobbyist in the Tampa Bay area, fed him a live rat. As it was being engulfed, the rodent grabbed hold of a towel that was lining the bottom of the cage. Killer then accidentally swallowed the towel and his intended supper in one big gulp. “The towel came with the rat,” said Julia Shakeri, the veterinarian whose surgical team went on to save the boa.


Last year, a female brown tree snake crashed an outdoor barbecue party in Black River, Queensland. An animal control professional was called over to relocate the mildly venomous reptile. At some point, it was discovered that the snake had a hard, golf-ball sized mass nestled inside of its stomach area. Doctors at the Townsville Veterinarian Clinic agreed to remove this mystery object. Bizarrely, an X-ray revealed that it was a round, rubber bush—which is normally found on the torsion bar of an automobile. “The snake was probably trying to eat a frog that was sitting on it,” theorized surgeon Linda Schiemer. Those of you with strong stomachs can watch a video of the clinic’s (successful) operation here.


Up in Ketchum, Idaho, a Burmese python named Houdini once became something of a minor celebrity. The 12-foot snake was kept by snake fancier Carl Beznoska, who endeared his python to kids throughout the community by bringing it to local schools for educational visits.

In 2006, Beznoska noticed that Houdini looked a bit thicker than usual. Moreover, the queen-sized electric blanket with which he’d been heating the snake’s enclosure had mysteriously vanished. Houdini was taken to a vet’s office where, lo and behold, an X-ray confirmed that the overzealous python had eaten his special blanket—cord, control box, and all. In all probability, the massive snake mistook the heated sheet for warm-blooded prey. Thankfully, his dietary misadventure wasn’t fatal; doctors were able to pull out the blanket in an operation that called for making an 18-inch incision across Houdini’s belly.

How Does Catnip Work?

If you have a cat, you probably keep a supply of catnip at home. Many cats are irresistibly drawn to the herb, and respond excitedly to its scent, rubbing against it, rolling around on the floor, and otherwise going nuts. There are few things that can get felines quite as riled up as a whiff of catnip—not even the most delicious treats. But why does catnip, as opposed to any other plant, have such a profound effect on our feline friends?

Catnip, or Nepeta cataria, is a member of the mint family. It contains a compound called nepetalactone, which is what causes the characteristic catnip reaction. Contrary to what you might expect, the reaction isn’t pheromone related—even though pheromones are the smelly chemicals we usually associate with a change in behavior. While pheromones bind to a set of specialized receptors in what’s known as a vomeronasal organ, located in the roof of a cat's mouth (which is why they sometimes open their mouths to detect pheromones), nepetalactone binds to olfactory receptors at the olfactory epithelium, or the tissue that lines the mucus membranes inside a cat’s nose and is linked to smell.

Scientists know the basics of the chemical structure of nepetalactone, but how it causes excitement in cats is less clear. “We don’t know the full mechanisms of how the binding of these compounds to the receptors in the nose ultimately changes their behavior,” as Bruce Kornreich, associate director of the Cornell Feline Health Center, tells Mental Floss. Sadly, sticking a bunch of cats in an MRI machine with catnip and analyzing their brain activity isn’t really feasible, either from a practical or a financial standpoint, so it’s hard to determine which parts of a cat’s brain are reacting to the chemical as they frolic and play.

Though it may look like they’re getting high, catnip doesn’t appear to be harmful or addictive to cats. The euphoric period only lasts for a short time before cats become temporarily immune to its charms, meaning that it’s hard for them to overdo it.

“Cats do seem to limit themselves," Michael Topper, president of the American Veterinary Medical Association, tells Mental Floss. "Their stimulation lasts for about 10 minutes, then it sort of goes away.” While you may not want to turn your house into a greenhouse for catnip and let your feline friend run loose, it’s a useful way to keep indoor cats—whose environment isn’t always the most thrilling—stimulated and happy. (If you need proof of just how much cats love this herb, we suggest checking out Cats on Catnip, a new book of photography from professional cat photographer Andrew Martilla featuring dozens of images of cats playing around with catnip.)

That said, not all cats respond to catnip. According to Topper, an estimated 70 percent of cats react to catnip, and it appears to have a genetic basis. Topper compares it to the genetic variation that causes some individuals to smell asparagus pee while others don’t. Even if a cat will eventually love the smell of catnip, it doesn’t come out of the womb yearning for a sniff. Young kittens don’t show any behavioral response to it, and may not develop one until several months after birth [PDF].

But some researchers contend that more cats may respond to catnip than we actually realize. In one 2017 study, a group of researchers in Mexico examined how cats might subtly respond to catnip in ways that aren’t always as obvious as rolling around on the floor with their tongue hanging out. It found that 80 percent of cats responded to catnip in a passive way, showing decreased motor activity and sitting the “sphinx” position, an indicator of a relaxed state.

There are also other plants that have similar effects on cats, some of which may appeal to a wider variety of felines than regular old catnip. In a 2017 study in the journal BMC Veterinary Research, researchers tested feline responses to not just catnip, but several other plants containing compounds similar in structure to nepetalactone, like valerian root, Tatarian honeysuckle, and silver vine. They found that 94 percent of cats responded to at least one of the plants, if not more than one. The majority of the cats that didn’t respond to catnip itself did respond to silver vine, suggesting that plant might be a potential alternative for cats that seem immune to catnip’s charms.

Despite the name, domestic cats aren’t the only species that love catnip. Many other feline species enjoy it, too, including lions and jaguars, though tigers are largely indifferent to it. The scent of the plant also attracts butterflies. (However, no matter what you’ve heard, humans can’t get high off it. When made into a tea, though, it reportedly has mild sedative effects.)

The reason Nepeta cataria releases nepetalactone doesn’t necessarily have to do with giving your cat a buzz. The fact that it gives cats that little charge of euphoria may be purely coincidental. The chemical is an insect repellant that the plant emits as a defense mechanism against pests like aphids. According to the American Chemical Society, nepetalactone attracts wasps and other insect predators that eat aphids, calling in protective reinforcements when the plant is in aphid-related distress. That it brings all the cats to the yard is just a side effect.

Because of this, catnip may have even more uses in the future beyond sending cats into a delighted frenzy. Rutgers University has spent more than a decade breeding a more potent version of catnip, called CR9, which produces more nepetalactone. It’s not just a matter of selling better cat toys; since catnip releases the compound to ward off insects, it’s also a great mosquito repellant, one that scientists hope can one day be adapted for human use. In that case, you might be as excited about catnip as your cat is.

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12 Furry Facts About Red Pandas

Red pandas have always lived in the shadow of the other, more famous panda. But now it's time to give the little guy its due.


Red panda in a tree.

Currently, red pandas live in the Eastern Himalayas. But the first red panda fossil was found a little bit further afield than that—in the United Kingdom. In 1888, a fossil molar and lower jaw of a cougar-sized animal called the Giant Panda (unrelated to the modern giant panda) were discovered. More fossils have been found in Spain, Eastern Europe, and even the United States. Around 5 million years ago, Tennessee was home to a giant red panda that probably went extinct with the arrival of raccoons.


Red panda eating bamboo.

It might seem like an oxymoron, but carnivore in this case doesn't mean meat eater. Carnivore is a biological order that includes groups like bears, dogs, and cats, and while these animals are generally carnivores, some are omnivores, and some are vegetarians. Red pandas are classified as carnivores because they're descended from the same ancestors as the other carnivores, but they rarely eat anything other than bamboo and a few insects. And while giant pandas eat all of a bamboo plant, red pandas eat only the young leaves. Because this is such a nutritionally poor food source, they need to spend 13 hours a day eating and looking for food and can lose upwards of 15 percent of their body weight in winter.


Red panda sleeping on a branch.

But their tails add as much as 18 inches to their length. Red pandas live solitary lives in trees, high up in the mountains, so they wrap those big, bushy tails around themselves to keep warm. (They also use them for balance.)


Red panda perched on a log.

This is another feature (along with diet) that red pandas and giant pandas share. Because both pandas have false thumbs—which is actually an extended wrist bone—it was thought that it must be an adaption to eating bamboo. But the red panda's more carnivorous ancestors had this feature as well. According to a 2006 study, what happened was "one of the most dramatic cases of convergence among vertebrates." Convergent evolution is when two unrelated animals faced with similar circumstances evolve to look similar. In this case, the red panda's false thumb evolved to help it climb trees, and only later became adapted for the bamboo diet, while giant pandas evolved this virtually identical feature because of their bamboo diet.


Red panda climbing across a tree.

Rusty the red panda had been at the Smithsonian National Zoo for just three weeks when he made a break for it in June 2013. His method of escape? A tree branch that was pushed down over his enclosure's electric fence by heavy rains. The ensuing panda hunt (and endless bad jokes about panda-monium) captivated Twitter (tweeters used the hashtag #findrusty) until he was found in a nearby neighborhood. Soon after his daring escape, Rusty became a father, forcing him to put his wild youth behind him and settle down. But it could have been worse. After a similar escape in Dresden, Germany, the authorities got another red panda down from a tree by using a fire hose to spray it with water. The panda fell 30 feet to the ground, giving it a concussion. (Ultimately, the animal was OK.)

Red pandas have also escaped from zoos in London, Birmingham, and Rotterdam. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums even warn in their official care manual "beware: red pandas are escape artists" [PDF].


Red panda peeking out from behind some tree branches.

Sadly, the red panda involved in the 1978 Rotterdam escape was found dead not long after the search for it began. But the event led to a very peculiar psychological observation. Even after the body of the panda was found, more than 100 people reported seeing it, very much alive. These sightings were clearly mistaken; there's no reason to think that multiple red pandas were loose in Rotterdam, and red pandas are distinctive enough that mistaking them for a dog or cat was unlikely. It's believed that people expected to see a red panda, so they saw one, even though there wasn't one there; researchers called it the Red Panda Effect.


The Mozilla Firefox logo.
LEON NEAL, AFP/Getty Images

Mozilla's flagship browser, Firefox, means red panda. Originally, Mozilla wanted to name the browser Firebird, but found that another open source project was using that name. Not wanting to upset anyone, they decided to go with Firefox, another name for the red panda. And in a true example of adorableness, in 2010 Mozilla adopted two baby red pandas that had been born at Tennessee's Knoxville Zoo.


Engraving of a parti-colored bear.
Engraving of a parti-colored bear, from The New Natural History Volume II by Richard Lydekker, 1901.

After the red panda was discovered in the 1820s, it was just called the panda (the origin of the name is controversial, but it probably comes from the Nepali word ponya, meaning "bamboo or plant eating animal"). Forty years later, Europeans found a new animal in China and called it the Parti-Colored bear—because unlike polar bears, black bears, or brown bears it was multi-colored.


A red panda walking toward the camera.

Prepare to be confused: In the late 19th century, scientists noticed that the parti-colored bear and the (red) panda were very similar. Their jaws were more like each other than they were like any other animal, they lived near each other, they both had false thumbs, and their diets were similar. The decision was made to officially consider the (red) panda as a type of bear.

By the early 20th century, that decision was reversed: Parti-colored bears were declared bears, and (red) pandas were classified as cousins of the raccoon.

Then, in the 1910s, it was decided that parti-colored bears weren't actually bears at all, but were actually large pandas, and also distant relatives of the raccoon. But because parti-colored bears weren't classed as bears anymore, they had to have a name change. They became giant pandas, while the one true panda was renamed the red or lesser panda (to quote a 1920 issue of Popular Science: "Zoologists reverently refer to this rare beast as the "giant panda." Its more popular cognomen is the 'bear-raccoon'").


Two red pandas touch noses.

By the 1980s, genetic evidence indicated that giant pandas actually were a type of bear, and red pandas belonged in their own family, the Ailuridae. They might seem similar, but they're not related.

All of this means that if you're the type of person who rolls their eyes when someone calls a bison a buffalo, or a koala a bear, you need to stop calling the bear a panda and instead refer to it as a "parti-colored bear," the original English name (but if you wanted to call it the bear-raccoon, no one would stop you). Giant pandas are not pandas. There is only one true panda.


Red panda with teeth bared.

There's still a kung fu panda in the series: Shifu, a red panda.


Red panda laying down and sticking his tongue out.

According to the World Wildlife Fund, there are fewer than 10,000 red pandas left in the wild. Habitat destruction increases the species' chances of extinction.

This story originally ran in 2015.


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