How a 1928 Silent Film Influenced the Creation of the Joker

The shock of green hair. The sickly pale skin. The frozen, Cheshire grin. Everyone knows the trademarks of Batman's greatest foe, the Joker. The king of the comic book villain heap may look like a hellish circus attraction, but the origin of the character doesn't have its roots in some deep-seated fear of clowns shared by creators Bob Kane, Bill Finger, and Jerry Robinson. No, the story behind that nightmarish crimson rictus actually began with a silent German Expressionist film called The Man Who Laughs.

Based on the Victor Hugo novel of the same, the movie is about a young man named Gwynplaine (played by Conrad Veidt), whose father is sentenced to death after offending King James II. But the family's torture didn't end there; the king also ordered Gwynplaine's face be permanently disfigured into a grotesque grin, courtesy of Dr. Hardquanonne. Gwynplaine eventually grows into becoming a traveling actor, who makes money by showcasing his disfigurement to a curious public, all while falling in love with a blind woman named Dea.

Gwynplaine isn't the same homicidal lunatic that his comic book doppelgänger is, but take one look at Veidt's makeup and it's easy to see where the idea for the Clown Prince of Crime started to form. The way Batman creator Bob Kane tells it, the Veidt inspiration was there from the very beginning:

"Bill Finger and I created the Joker. Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way I sum it up. But he looks like Conrad Veidt — you know, the actor in The Man Who Laughs, [the 1928 movie based on the novel] by Victor Hugo. There's a photo of Conrad Veidt in my biography, Batman & Me. So Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and said, 'Here's the Joker.'"

Well that's Kane's recollection of the Joker's creation, anyway. However, there's some debate over how much of a contribution each man made to the character's first appearance in Batman #1. Robinson has gone on record saying he created the character almost from the ground up before it was tweaked to look more like Gwynplaine only after Finger showed him an image of Veidt in costume. Until his dying day, Kane insisted Robinson's main contribution was the character's namesake calling card design and little else. In the early days of comics, you'd be hard-pressed to find any two creators agree on who came up with which character, but the influence The Man Who Laughs had on the Joker's origin can't be questioned.

How intertwined is the character of Gwynplaine in the Joker's history? Sixty-five years after the Joker's debut, DC Comics released a graphic novel depicting the character's first run-in with the Dark Knight. The book's title? Batman: The Man Who Laughs. In the book, writer Ed Brubaker and artist Doug Mahnke took the Joker back to his roots, with a visual depiction of the character that is almost indistinguishable from Gwynplaine. Even Heath Ledger's take on Joker from The Dark Knight took a note from Hugo's creation by portraying his frozen smile as the result of scarred disfigurement, rather than simply being the byproduct of his unhinged temperament, like it has been in the comics in the past.

Though the Joker has evolved, in the nearly 80 years since his debut, the character still owes his very existence to the ghoulish grin Veidt brought to the screen back in 1928.

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Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma
Utility Workers May Have Found One of Rome’s First Churches
Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma
Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma

The remains of what may have been one of Rome’s earliest Christian churches were accidentally discovered along the Tiber River during construction, The Local reports. The four-room structure, which could have been built as early as the 1st century CE, was unearthed by electrical technicians who were laying cables along the Ponte Milvio.

The newly discovered structure next to the river
Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma

No one is sure what to make of this “archaeological enigma shrouded in mystery,” in the words of Rome’s Archaeological Superintendency. Although there’s no definitive theory as of yet, experts have a few ideas.

The use of colorful African marble for the floors and walls has led archaeologists to believe that the building probably served a prestigious—or perhaps holy—function as the villa of a noble family or as a Christian place of worship. Its proximity to an early cemetery spawned the latter theory, since it's common for churches to have mausoleums attached to them. Several tombs were found in that cemetery, including one containing the intact skeleton of a Roman man.

Marble flooring
Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma

A tomb
Romano D’Agostini, Giorgio Cargnel, Soprintendenza Speciale di Roma1

The walls are made of brick, and the red, green, and beige marble had been imported from Sparta (Greece), Egypt, and present-day Tunisia, The Telegraph reports.

As The Local points out, it’s not all that unusual in Rome for archaeological discoveries to be made by unsuspecting people going about their day. Rome’s oldest aqueduct was found by Metro workers, and an ancient bath house and tombs were found during construction on a new church.

[h/t The Local]

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Alexis Pantos, University of Copenhagen
Scientists Just Found the Oldest Known Piece of Bread
Alexis Pantos, University of Copenhagen
Alexis Pantos, University of Copenhagen

An old, charred piece of long-forgotten flatbread has captured the interest of archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians around the world. Found in a stone fireplace in Jordan’s Black Desert, this proto-pita dates back 14,400 years, making it the oldest known example of bread, Reuters reports.

To put the significance of this discovery in context: the flatbread predates the advent of agriculture by 4000 years, leading researchers to theorize that the laborious process of making the bread from wild cereals may have inspired early hunter-gatherers to cultivate grain and save themselves a whole lot of trouble.

“We now have to assess whether there was a relationship between bread production and the origins of agriculture,” Amaia Arranz-Otaegui, a researcher with the University of Copenhagen, told Reuters. “It is possible that bread may have provided an incentive for people to take up plant cultivation and farming, if it became a desirable or much-sought-after food.”

A report on these findings—written by researchers from the University of Copenhagen, University College London, and University of Cambridge—was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

It was once thought that bread was an invention of early farming civilizations. A 9100-year-old piece of bread from Turkey was previously regarded as the oldest of its kind. However, the Jordanian flatbread was made by a group of hunter-gatherers called the Natufians, who lived during a transitional period from nomadic to sedentary ways of life, at which time diets also started to change.

Similar to a pita, this unleavened bread was made from wild cereals akin to barley, einkorn, and oats. These were “ground, sieved, and kneaded prior to cooking,” according to a statement from the University of Copenhagen. The ancient recipe also called for tubers from an aquatic plant, which Arranz-Otaegui described as tasting “gritty and salty."

[h/t Reuters]

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