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London Reopens Beautiful Historic Sewage Facility

In the 19th century, civil engineer Joseph Bazalgette changed London forever with the construction of a sewage system. The infamously dirty city—then the largest in the world—had a strong odor, was covered in horse dung, and was fed by contaminated wells (which eventually led to the discovery that diseases like cholera could spread through water). Bazalgette created a network of pipes and pumping stations that kept raw sewage from running directly through the streets into the Thames, though proper water treatment didn’t appear until much later.

One of those magnificent Victorian pumping stations, Crossness, has just been rehabbed and opened to the public, and The Daily Mail has a number of pictures of the ornate interiors.

The 1865 pumping station has been under restoration since 1988, when the Heritage Lottery Fund and other players began funneling a £2.7 million (about $3.5 million) grant restoring the decaying infrastructure.

An archive photo of the site

The revamp included a museum and cafe. And guided tours even include tea and cookies with the price of admission.

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the city’s last cholera outbreak, making it a fitting time to throw open the doors of one of the groundbreaking facilities that helped clean up London’s disease-ridden waters.

[h/t Daily Mail]

All images courtesy the Heritage Lottery Fund

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Buckingham Palace Was Built With Jurassic Fossils, Scientists Find
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iStock

The UK's Buckingham Palace is a vestige from another era, and not just because it was built in the early 18th century. According to a new study, the limestone used to construct it is filled with the fossilized remains of microbes from the Jurassic period of 200 million years ago, as The Telegraph reports.

The palace is made of oolitic limestone, which consists of individual balls of carbonate sediment called ooids. The material is strong but lightweight, and is found worldwide. Jurassic oolite has been used to construct numerous famous buildings, from those in the British city of Bath to the Empire State Building and the Pentagon.

A new study from Australian National University published in Scientific Reports found that the spherical ooids in Buckingham Palace's walls are made up of layers and layers of mineralized microbes. Inspired by a mathematical model from the 1970s for predicting the growth of brain tumors, the researchers created a model that explains how ooids are created and predicts the factors that limit their ultimate size.

A hand holding a chunk of oolite limestone
Australian National University

They found that the mineralization of the microbes forms the central core of the ooid, and the layers of sediment that gather around that core feed those microbes until the nutrients can no longer reach the core from the outermost layer.

This contrasts with previous research on how ooids form, which hypothesized that they are the result of sediment gathered from rolling on the ocean floor. It also reshapes how we think about the buildings made out of oolitic limestone from this period. Next time you look up at the Empire State Building or Buckingham Palace, thank the ancient microbes.

[h/t The Telegraph]

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architecture
5 Scrapped Designs for the World's Most Famous Buildings
Ker Robertson, Getty Images
Ker Robertson, Getty Images

When an architect gets commissioned to build a skyscraper or a memorial, they’re usually not the only applicant for the job. Other teams of designers submit their own ideas for how it should look, too, but these are eventually passed over in favor of the final design. This is the case for some of the world’s most recognizable landmarks—in an alternate world, the Arc de Triomphe might have been a three-story-tall elephant statue, and the Lincoln Memorial a step pyramid.

GoCompare, a comparison site for financial services, dug into these could-have-been designs for Alternate Architecture, an illustrated collection of scrapped designs for some of the most famous structures in the world, from Chicago's Tribune Tower to the Sydney Opera House.

Click through the interactive graphic below to explore rejected designs for all five landmarks.

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