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10 Facts About Author Lois Duncan

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Whether you were a fan of her thrillers, like I Know What You Did Last Summer, or preferred more lighthearted fare like Hotel For Dogs, Lois Duncan’s name probably appeared somewhere on your bookshelves when you were younger. Here are a few things you might not have known about the prolific author, who died on June 15, 2016 at the age of 82. 

1. DUNCAN SOLD HER FIRST PIECE OF WRITING WHEN SHE WAS JUST 13.

Duncan loved writing from a young age; she submitted her first piece to a magazine at the age of 10. Three years later, her very first acceptance letter arrived. Seeing her piece in Calling All Girls magazine motivated Duncan to keep going. “I could hardly wait to rush home from school each day to fling myself at the typewriter,” she later said.

2. SHE WAS OFFERED HER FIRST YOUNG ADULT BOOK CONTRACT AFTER WINNING A WRITING CONTEST.

All of that after-school practice paid off: As a senior in high school, Duncan was named the winner of a short story contest in Seventeen magazine. Winning the contest required her to make an editorial change, however: A 19-year-old boy in her story was drinking a beer, and Seventeen required her to change it to a Coke to win the prize. She did, and took home $1000. Duncan also nabbed her first young adult writing contract; her debut book, Debutante Hill, was released in 1958.

3. "LOIS DUNCAN” WAS NOT HER REAL NAME.

As she gained acclaim as a writer, Duncan decided she needed a pen name. She was named after her mother, a magazine photographer, and to avoid confusion with the elder Lois Steinmetz, the author decided to write under her first and middle names instead. For several of her early novels, Duncan also went by the name Lois Kerry.

4. HER FATHER, JOSEPH JANNEY STEINMETZ, WAS A FAMOUS PHOTOGRAPHER.

oaktree_b, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Both of her parents were well-known within the industry, but Joseph Janney Steinmetz was published in Life, The Saturday Evening Post, Time, and Town & Country. One of Steinmetz’s most famous pieces is the photo of clown Emmett Kelly (above), who intended to use it for his Christmas card.

5. DUNCAN WAS A COVER GIRL.

Growing up, Duncan was her father’s subject on a regular basis—including when he shot the cover of Collier’s magazine in 1949 (above). You can view more of his photos of her at the State Archives of Florida.

6. SHE ONCE WON A TRAINED PORPOISE.

Duncan later became a single mother after she and her first husband divorced in the early 1960s, so she was always looking to earn a little extra income on top of her ad agency job. She often spent her lunch hour scouring magazines for writing and photography contests or working on her submissions. One of her first big wins was an entry in a contest that requested fun snapshots taken on a Florida vacation. The prize? A live porpoise, direct from Marineland. (PETA didn’t exist at the time.) Luckily, Lois was able to decline the “pet” and take a cash prize of $1000 instead.

7. "CONFESSION STORIES” WERE HER BREAD AND BUTTER FOR A FEW YEARS.

After winning a couple of those magazine contests, Duncan decided to focus on writing for magazines full-time. She found success in what she called “confession stories”—tales of woe, published anonymously, that magazines ran as fact, even though Duncan submitted them as fiction—with titles like “I Carry a Dreadful Disease” and “Two Men Claim Me as Their Wife.” Her most popular story was “I Wanted to Have an Affair with a Teen-Age Boy.” Duncan wrote one a week, earning $200 per story.

8. HER DAUGHTER WAS MURDERED IN 1989.

On July 16, 1989, 18-year-old Kaitlyn Arquette was driving in her car in Albuquerque, New Mexico, when she was shot twice in the head—the victim of a drive-by shooting. She died the next day without waking up. After an investigation, police concluded that the incident was essentially a case of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Though three men were charged in the case, those charges were eventually dropped due to lack of evidence.

Duncan, however, was not ready to give up. She had been investigating on her own and discovered that her daughter’s boyfriend had been involved in an insurance scam. She believed that Kait had uncovered it and that the shooting was perpetrated by someone—not her boyfriend, but one of his associates—who didn’t want her to blow the whistle. Police stopped investigating, however, and the crime has never been solved. In 1992, Duncan wrote a book about it called Who Killed My Daughter?

Bizarrely, Duncan had recently written a novel called Don’t Look Behind You, in which the protagonist was based on Kait; many of the elements of the plot also showed up in Kait’s murder case. Later, when Lois and her husband hired a medium and a sketch artist to create a picture of Kait’s killer, the resulting drawing looked like the hit man on the cover of the British edition of Don’t Look Behind You.

9. SHE WASN’T TOO HAPPY ABOUT THE MOVIE I KNOW WHAT YOU DID LAST SUMMER.

Eight years after the death of her daughter, Duncan’s book I Know What You Did Last Summer was made into a horror movie starring Sarah Michelle Gellar and Freddie Prinze Jr.—and it was dramatically different than the words Duncan had put on paper. Her suspense novel had been transformed into a blood-and-gore-filled flick. "They made it into a slasher film. And I don't think murder is funny," she told People magazine. In fact, after Kait’s death, Duncan quit writing stories that put young women in peril. “I went weak after Kait’s murder,” Lois told Buzzfeed. “How could I even think about creating a novel with a young woman in a life-threatening situation?”

10. CELL PHONES WERE HER NEMESIS.

In 2010, Duncan worked with publisher Little, Brown to update 10 of her books. Though the plots held up surprisingly well for being at least four decades old, she had at least one hang-up: cell phones. “A strong element of many of my plots is having the protagonist be in a dangerous situation and not being able to reach the outside world. But cell phones let teens be in touch, so I had to keep finding ways of disposing of those awful instruments," she told Publisher's Weekly. "I had one fall into a river and another fall into a toilet, and another with batteries that needed recharging. It was tricky coming up with 10 different ways to get rid of a cell phone.”

Other updates included adding modern-day lingo, having characters use Google for research, and “changing their clothes so they were no longer wearing polyester pantsuits.”

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10 Things You Might Not Know About Little Women
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Louisa May Alcott's Little Women is one of the world's most beloved novels, and now—nearly 150 years after its original publication—it's capturing yet another generation of readers, thanks in part to Masterpiece's new small-screen adaptation. Whether it's been days or years since you've last read it, here are 10 things you might not know about Alcott's classic tale of family and friendship.

1. LOUISA MAY ALCOTT DIDN'T WANT TO WRITE LITTLE WOMEN.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

Louisa May Alcott was writing both literature and pulp fiction (sample title: Pauline's Passion and Punishment) when Thomas Niles, the editor at Roberts Brothers Publishing, approached her about writing a book for girls. Alcott said she would try, but she wasn’t all that interested, later calling such books “moral pap for the young.”

When it became clear Alcott was stalling, Niles offered a publishing contract to her father, Bronson Alcott. Although Bronson was a well-known thinker who was friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, his work never achieved much acclaim. When it became clear that Bronson would have an opportunity to publish a new book if Louisa started her girls' story, she caved in to the pressure.

2. LITTLE WOMEN TOOK JUST 10 WEEKS TO WRITE.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

Alcott began writing the book in May 1868. She worked on it day and night, becoming so consumed with it that she sometimes forgot to eat or sleep. On July 15, she sent all 402 pages to her editor. In September, a mere four months after starting the book, Little Women was published. It became an instant best seller and turned Alcott into a rich and famous woman.

3. THE BOOK AS WE KNOW IT WAS ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN TWO PARTS.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

The first half was published in 1868 as Little Women: Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy. The Story Of Their Lives. A Girl’s Book. It ended with John Brooke proposing marriage to Meg. In 1869, Alcott published Good Wives, the second half of the book. It, too, only took a few months to write.

4. MEG, BETH, AND AMY WERE BASED ON ALCOTT'S SISTERS.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

Meg was based on Louisa’s sister Anna, who fell in love with her husband John Bridge Pratt while performing opposite him in a play. The description of Meg’s wedding in the novel is supposedly based on Anna’s actual wedding.

Beth was based on Lizzie, who died from scarlet fever at age 23. Like Beth, Lizzie caught the illness from a poor family her mother was helping.

Amy was based on May (Amy is an anagram of May), an artist who lived in Europe. In fact, May—who died in childbirth at age 39—was the first woman to exhibit paintings in the Paris Salon.

Jo, of course, is based on Alcott herself.

5. LIKE THE MARCH FAMILY, THE ALCOTTS KNEW POVERTY.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

Bronson Alcott’s philosophical ideals made it difficult for him to find employment—for example, as a socialist, he wouldn't work for wages—so the family survived on handouts from friends and neighbors. At times during Louisa’s childhood, there was nothing to eat but bread, water, and the occasional apple.

When she got older, Alcott worked as a paid companion and governess, like Jo does in the novel, and sold “sensation” stories to help pay the bills. She also took on menial jobs, working as a seamstress, a laundress, and a servant. Even as a child, Alcott wanted to help her family escape poverty, something Little Women made possible.

6. ALCOTT REFUSED TO HAVE JO MARRY LAURIE.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

Alcott, who never married herself, wanted Jo to remain unmarried, too. But while she was working on the second half of Little Women, fans were clamoring for Jo to marry the boy next door, Laurie. “Girls write to ask who the little women marry, as if that was the only aim and end of a woman’s life," Alcott wrote in her journal. "I won’t marry Jo to Laurie to please anyone.”

As a compromise—or to spite her fans—Alcott married Jo to the decidedly unromantic Professor Bhaer. Laurie ends up with Amy.

7. THERE ARE LOTS OF THEORIES ABOUT WHO LAURIE WAS BASED ON.


Frank T. Merrill, Public Domain, Courtesy of The Project Gutenberg

People have theorized Laurie was inspired by everyone from Thoreau to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s son Julian, but this doesn’t seem to be the case. In 1865, while in Europe, Alcott met a Polish musician named Ladislas Wisniewski, whom Alcott nicknamed Laddie. The flirtation between Laddie and Alcott culminated in them spending two weeks together in Paris, alone. According to biographer Harriet Reisen, Alcott later modeled Laurie after Laddie.

How far did the Alcott/Laddie affair go? It’s hard to say, as Alcott later crossed out the section of her diary referring to the romance. In the margin, she wrote, “couldn’t be.”

8. YOU CAN STILL VISIT ORCHARD HOUSE, WHERE ALCOTT WROTE LITTLE WOMEN.

Orchard House in Concord, Massachusetts was the Alcott family home. In 1868, Louisa reluctantly left her Boston apartment to write Little Women there. Today, you can tour this house and see May’s drawings on the walls, as well as the small writing desk that Bronson built for Louisa to use.

9. LITTLE WOMEN HAS BEEN ADAPTED A NUMBER OF TIMES.

In addition to a 1958 TV series, multiple Broadway plays, a musical, a ballet, and an opera, Little Women has been made into more than a half-dozen movies. The most famous are the 1933 version starring Katharine Hepburn, the 1949 version starring June Allyson (with Elizabeth Taylor as Amy), and the 1994 version starring Winona Ryder. Later this year, Clare Niederpruem's modern retelling of the story is scheduled to arrive in movie theaters. It's also been adapted for the small screen a number of times, most recently for PBS's Masterpiece, by Call the Midwife creator Heidi Thomas.

10. IN 1980, A JAPANESE ANIME VERSION OF LITTLE WOMEN WAS RELEASED.

In 1987, Japan made an anime version of Little Women that ran for 48 half-hour episodes. Watch the first two episodes above.

Additional Resources:
Louisa May Alcott: A Personal Biography; Louisa May Alcott: The Woman Behind Little Women; Louisa May Alcott's Journals; Little Women; Alcott Film; C-Span; LouisaMayAlcott.org.

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6 X-Rated Library Collections
The reading room of the British Library, circa 1840
The reading room of the British Library, circa 1840
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

During the 19th century, some librarians became preoccupied with the morality (or lack thereof) of some of their titles. As a result, a number of libraries created special collections for "obscene" works, to ensure that only readers with a valid academic purpose might access them. Below are six examples, adapted from Claire Cock-Starkey’s new book A Library Miscellany.

1. THE "PRIVATE CASE" // THE BRITISH LIBRARY

At the British Library (or British Museum Library, as it was called then), it was John Winter Jones, Keeper of Printed Books from 1856, who was responsible for the creation of the “Private Case.” Titles that were deemed subversive, heretical, libelous, obscene, or that contained state secrets were kept out of the general catalog, stored in separate shelving, and marked with the shelfmark category “PC” (for private case). By far the majority of books in the private case were pornographic or erotic texts; it's rumored that by the mid-1960s the case contained over 5000 such texts, including George Witt’s collection of books on phallicism and Charles Reginald Dawes’s collection of French erotica from 1880–1930.

What was unusual about the Private Case was that it was so secretive: None of the books were recorded in any catalog, as if the collection didn’t exist. But starting in 1983, all books once in the Private Case have been listed in the catalog, and many have been returned to the main collection—although librarians may still check that a reader has academic reasons for consulting some of the more scandalous titles.

2. L’ENFER // BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE

General stacks of the Bibliotheque nationale de France
FRANCOIS GUILLOT/AFP/Getty Images

L’Enfer, which translates as “the hell,” was created in 1830 to house the French national library’s large collection of erotica and other books that were considered “contrary to good morals.” Many of the works were obtained by the library through confiscation, but fortunately the librarians had the foresight to preserve these scandalous texts. The collection—which still exists—has been largely kept private and was only fully cataloged in 1913, when about 855 titles were recorded.

Modern pornographic magazines and erotic fiction do not get cast into L’Enfer: It is only for rare works or works of cultural significance, such as a handwritten copy of the Marquis de Sade’s Les Infortunes de la Vertu (1787) and The Story of O by Pauline Réage (1954). In 2007, the library put on a public exhibition of some of the more fascinating (and titillating) texts in L’Enfer, finally granting the public a glimpse of this hidden collection.

3. TRIPLE-STAR COLLECTION // NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

The New York Public Library Main Reading Room
Drew Angerer/Getty Images

At the New York Public Library, some obscene works were once hand-marked with "***", which indicated that readers who wanted to consult those volumes had to be supervised. (Librarians regularly collected erotica, including from nearby Times Square, as part of their "mandate to collect life as it was lived," according to The New York Times.This system began in the mid-20th century and caused certain titles to be locked in caged shelves; it also meant that the items could only be consulted in a small restricted part of the reading rooms after special permission was granted.

4. PHI COLLECTION // OXFORD'S BODLEIAN LIBRARY

Radcliffe Camera building, part of the Bodleian Library
Oli Scarff/Getty Images

The restricted collection at the Bodleian Library was created by E. W. B. Nicholson, who was head librarian from 1886–1913. No one is quite sure why it was named after the Greek letter phi, but some have suggested it was because it sounds like “fie!” which you might exclaim when asked to retrieve a book from this collection. Or, perhaps it stems from the first letter “phi” of the Greek “phaula” or “phaulos,” meaning worthless, wicked, or base. The collection included pornography alongside works of sexual pathology, and students needed to ask a tutor to confirm their academic need for a book before the librarians would let them consult any texts with a phi shelfmark. Today, many of the books have been reclassified into the general collection, but the phi shelfmark still persists.

5. "XR" COLLECTION // HARVARD’S WIDENER LIBRARY

 Widener Memorial Library at Harvard University
Darren McCollester/Newsmakers

The Widener Library still holds its restricted collection behind a locked copper door in the basement of the library—not because they still want to hide it, but simply because (it's said) no one has the time to redistribute the collection back into main circulation. The collection was thought to have been set up in the 1950s, after a sociology professor complained that many texts he needed for his class were missing or defaced (the Playboy centerfold was apparently always going astray), and thus the restricted collection was created to protect and preserve rather than to censor. The collection was only added to for a 30-year period and is now closed; however, its classification reveals something of the social attitudes of the times towards titles such as The Passions and Lechery of Catherine the Great (1971) and D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928). The X part of the shelfmark does not stand for X-rated but indicates that the books are unusual; the R part stands for “restricted.”

6. THE ARC // CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

Trinity College Library, Cambridge University
Central Press/Getty Images

As library collections are frequently made up of a series of smaller collections donated to the institution, they may often acquire titles that the library may otherwise have not chosen to collect—such as some of the more risqué works. Cambridge University Library felt it had a duty to students to protect them from some of the more offensive books in their collection, and for this reason the Arc (short for arcana—meaning secrets or mysteries) classification was created. As with other restricted collections, Cambridge’s Arc provides a fascinating insight into changing moral attitudes. Some of the highlights included what is considered by some historians as the first gay novel, L’Alcibiade fanciullo a scola (Alcibiades the Schoolboy), published in 1652; a 1922 copy of Ulysses by James Joyce (notable because at that time the book was being burned by UK Customs Officers); and a misprinted copy of the Cambridge Bible.

BONUS: "INFERNO" // THE VATICAN LIBRARY

The Sistine Hall, once part of the Vatican Library
Michal Osmenda, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

There has always been a rumor that the Vatican Library holds the largest collection of pornographic material in the world, in a collection supposedly known as the “Inferno,” but in fact this honor goes to the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research in Bloomington, Indiana. It is thought that the Vatican Library’s collection was created from the thousands of erotic works that have been confiscated by the Vatican over the years. However, no evidence for the collection has been found, and the (admittedly incredibly secretive) Vatican librarians deny its very existence.

This article is an expanded version of an entry in Claire Cock-Starkey’s A Library Miscellany, published by Bodleian Library Publishing.

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