15 Facts About Rembrandt for His Birthday

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Although he’s most famous for his 1642 painting The Night Watch, Rembrandt created hundreds of paintings, drawings, and etchings in his life. Working during the 17th century Dutch Golden Age, he painted portraits and landscapes and explored themes from the Bible and classical antiquity. In honor of the artist’s birthday (he was born on July 15, 1606), read on for 15 facts about Rembrandt.

1. REMBRANDT WASN’T HIS LAST NAME—OR HIS BIRTH NAME.

His full name—Rembrant Harmenszoon van Rijn—requires a bit of parsing. Harmenszoon means that his father’s name was Harmen, and van Rijn refers to where his family lived, near the Rhine River. So his full name means Rembrant, son of Harmen, from the Rhine. For reasons that are unclear, he added the silent “d” to his signature, changing it from Rembrant to Rembrandt, in 1633.

2. HE SIGNED EARLY ART WITH HIS LATIN MONOGRAM.

Educated at The Latin School in Holland, Rembrandt studied religion, mythology, and ancient Roman works, speaking in Latin with his fellow students. His Latin name, Rembrandus Hermanni Leydensis, referred to his birthplace of Leiden, Holland—Rembrant, son of Harmen, of Leiden. Early in his career, Rembrandt signed his artwork with his Latin monogram “RHL.” Soon after, he began signing his name "RHL-van Rijn," then he briefly switched to "Rembrant," and finally, his most remembered moniker: "Rembrandt."

3. HE MARRIED HIS ART DEALER’S COUSIN.

Saskia, as painted by Rembrandt. Wikimedia Commons.

Rembrandt’s art dealer was Hendrik van Uylenburgh, a man who helped Rembrandt get commissions from wealthy art patrons. Rembrandt lived in Uylenburgh’s house in Amsterdam and painted portraits of the society people that Uylenburgh brought him. In 1634, Rembrandt married Uylenburgh’s cousin (although some sources say she was his niece), Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a wealthy family, and with her fortune and Rembrandt's increasing salary, they were able to move to a trendy, affluent neighborhood in Amsterdam.

4. HE OUTLIVED FOUR OF HIS FIVE CHILDREN.

Titus, as painted by Rembrandt. Wikimedia Commons

Rembrandt dealt with much loss throughout his life. He and Saskia had four children: Rumbartus, Cornelia, another Cornelia, and Titus, born in 1641, who was the only child to survive infancy. Saskia died nine months after Titus's birth, likely of tuberculosis. Twelve years later, Rembrandt had a daughter, also named Cornelia, with his housekeeper and lover, Hendrickje Stoffels. Stoffels died, likely of the plague, in 1663, and a few years later, Titus died at age 26 in 1668. Rembrandt died the following year and was buried in an unmarked grave.

5. A LOT OF MYTH SURROUNDS HIS LIFE…

Because scholars don’t have a ton of primary or contemporaneous sources, myth plays a big role in many of his biographies. Inaccurate information is often repeated as fact, and books and films, such as the British movie Rembrandt (1936), have propagated misconceptions about the artist such as that he was low-born and uneducated (neither of which is true—he was the ninth child of a well-off miller and a baker's daughter, and was educated straight through university). Although multiple biographies state that he was born into poverty, was illiterate, stingy, a slob, and worked for Sweden’s court, art scholars have proven these assertions false.

6. …AS WELL AS HIS MOST FAMOUS PAINTING, THE NIGHT WATCH.

Another oft-repeated legend is that his patrons hated his work on The Night Watch (which, despite another myth surrounding the painting, actually takes place during the day) so much that the painting brought about his downfall. Art historian Walter Liedtke of the Metropolitan Museum of Art refuted this claim, pointing out that Rembrandt got commissions from Amsterdam’s government and other important customers after The Night Watch was unveiled in 1642. Rather than being a failure that led to Rembrandt’s bankruptcy, his most famous painting was popular even in its own time.

7. HE ACHIEVED GREAT WEALTH AND SUCCESS…

Although Rembrandt’s wife Saskia came from a wealthy family, he earned plenty of money in his own right for his art. Starting in the 1630s, Rembrandt set up a studio and, when he wasn’t busy working on portraits for wealthy clients, he taught students. In 1639, he paid 13,000 guilders (an enormous sum) for an upscale town house, which serves as The Rembrandt House Museum today.

8. …BUT LOST IT ALL.

Rembrandt's "Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar" (1659). Wikimedia Commons

By the late 1640s, Rembrandt’s overspending caught up with him. He was earning less money because he was getting fewer commissions to paint portraits, he lost money on bad investments, and some of his paintings had been damaged or lost at sea. He couldn’t pay his mortgage, and in 1656, he declared insolvency. He moved his family (Titus, Hendrickje Stoffels, and their daughter Cornelia) to a smaller home in Amsterdam, sold his printing press, and auctioned off his massive art collection. By this time, Stoffels stepped in and began managing his affairs. She opened a small art shop to sell his paintings, and through her oversight, Rembrandt was able to concentrate on his artistic output once again.

9. HE REPORTEDLY PAINTED HIS DEAD PET MONKEY.

Arnold Houbraken (1660 to 1719) was a Dutch painter who wrote biographies about artists, including Rembrandt. According to Houbraken, Rembrandt was halfway through painting a portrait of a family when his pet monkey, Puck, died. For some reason, the artist decided to paint the dead animal into the portrait, alongside his depiction of the family. The family didn’t like it, and they allegedly told him to either remove or paint over the monkey. Rembrandt stubbornly refused and lost the commission. While no painting has yet been discovered to definitively have the monkey, modern Rembrandt scholars think it sounds like something he would do.

10. WE’RE NOT CERTAIN IF SOME OF HIS PAINTINGS WERE REALLY HIS.

Since the late 1960s, as part of the Rembrandt Research Project, scholars have examined the artist’s works to determine whether certain paintings were actually his. Some art historians claim that Rembrandt created thousands of drawings, paintings, and etchings, but others argue that many of his works were actually done by his students and assistants (and should be attributed to the School of Rembrandt). Because he didn’t sign all his drawings, scholars disagree about the authenticity of certain works, such as A Weeping Woman. In 2015, a team of art historians and restorers determined that Saul and David was indeed Rembrandt’s work, not that of his students.

11. HE NEVER LEFT THE NETHERLANDS.

Although some art historians inaccurately claimed that he lived in Italy, England, and Sweden, Rembrandt most likely lived his entire life in the Netherlands. Historians attribute Rembrandt’s strong use of chiaroscuro—the contrast between light and dark—to his teacher’s Italian influences. As a young man in Amsterdam, Rembrandt studied with Dutch painter Pieter Lastman, who had been to Italy. Lastman taught him techniques from Italian artists such as Caravaggio.

12. IF YOU LOOK CLOSELY, YOU MIGHT RANDOMLY SPOT HIM.

Rembrandt created more than 90 self-portraits, but he also liked to insert himself into his other paintings. He paints his face as a spectator in the crowd in several pieces of art, such as The Stoning of Saint Stephen (his first known painting), Raising of the Cross, and possibly even The Night Watch.

13. HE MAY HAVE BEEN STEREOBLIND (UNABLE TO SEE FULLY 3D).

In 2004, a neurobiologist at Harvard Medical School posited that Rembrandt was stereoblind: his eyes were unaligned, so he was unable to see in 3D. Published in The New England Journal of Medicine, the article argues that the artist’s oil paintings and etching self-portraits show that he had unilateral strabismus, meaning that his eyes were not properly aligned with each other. If Rembrandt was indeed stereoblind, his lack of depth perception would mean that he saw everything flattened, which could slightly help him recreate objects and people in 2D paintings and drawings.

14. A NEW REMBRANDT PAINTING DEBUTED IN 2016.

ROBIN VAN LONKHUIJSEN // AFP // Getty Images

Thanks to the wonders of machine-learning algorithms and 3D printing, a group of data scientists and engineers from Microsoft working with a Dutch advertising agency created a new Rembrandt painting, called The Next Rembrandt. Using specific data points such as color, geometry, paint, and the face shape and direction of the people in his paintings, the team 3D-printed a new Rembrandt to give the painting texture … and it looks pretty authentic!

15. YOU CAN VISIT WHERE HE LIVED AND WORKED IN AMSTERDAM.

Rembrandt’s town house in Amsterdam, where he lived and worked for nearly 20 years, is now a museum called The Rembrandt House Museum. Built in 1606, the property houses collections of Rembrandt’s etchings, exhibits by artists whom he has inspired, and 17th century furniture. The museum also hosts etching workshops and paint preparation demonstrations.

Celebrating Amanda Crowe, Famed Native American Woodcarver

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

Amanda Crowe created remarkable works of art with just a mallet and chisel, transforming blocks of wood into bears, raccoons, deer, moose, and owls. The late Eastern Band Cherokee Indian woodcarver, who died in 2004, is being celebrated in today’s Google Doodle.

A video featuring images of some of Crowe’s works was released in recognition of Native American Heritage Month. The musical accompaniment was composed by her nephew, William “Bill” H. Crowe, Jr., and the video highlights some of Crowe’s best-known quotes.

“I carve because I love to do it,” Crowe once said. “The movement of the grains—they almost seem alive under your hands—and the beautiful tones and textures all add life to the figures you whittle.”

Crowe was born in the Qualla Boundary, North Carolina on July 16, 1928, and her uncle started teaching her how to carve wood when she was just four years old. She later commented that she was “barely old enough to handle a knife” when she first started learning, but she clearly had a knack for working with her hands.

After honing her craft throughout her childhood and teen years, she was offered a scholarship to the Art Institute of Chicago. There, she studied various media—including plaster, stone, and metal—but she always gravitated toward wood. Crowe went on to earn a master’s degree and spent some time in Mexico studying with Spanish sculptor José de Creeft.

When she finally returned home to the Qualla Boundary, she spent the next 40 years teaching art at Cherokee High School. According to Google, she is often credited with helping to restore interest in Cherokee carving—an ancestral tradition and a unique art form. Her carvings have carried her legacy around the world, having been displayed at museums in the U.S., England, Germany, and beyond.

35 Happy Little Facts About Bob Ross

Whether or not you’re artistically inclined, there’s a good chance that you—like millions of other people around the world—have been captivated by Bob Ross’s instructional landscape paintings and soothing voice. On what would have been Ross’s 76th birthday, we’re sharing 35 facts about the happy little legend.

1. HE KEPT AN ALLIGATOR IN THE BATHTUB AS A KID.

A lifelong animal lover, Ross was always rescuing wounded animals and nursing them back to health. As a kid growing up in Florida, this meant one rather strange addition to the family: an alligator, which he attempted to nurse back to health in the Ross family bathtub. Even in his adult life, Ross was always playing host to orphaned and injured animals, including an epileptic squirrel that lived in his empty Jacuzzi.

2. HE WAS AN AIR FORCE MASTER SERGEANT.

Ross’s quiet voice and gentle demeanor were two of his most iconic traits, which makes the fact that he spent 20 years in the United States Air Force and retired with the rank of master sergeant all the more surprising. Basically, he was the guy who told everyone else what to do.

3. HE USED TO BE QUITE THE YELLER.

Before he lent his dulcet voice to The Joy of Painting, Ross spent a lot of time yelling. "I was the guy who makes you scrub the latrine, the guy who makes you make your bed, the guy who screams at you for being late to work,” Ross once said. “The job requires you to be a mean, tough person. And I was fed up with it. I promised myself that if I ever got away from it, it wasn't going to be that way anymore."

4. BEFORE HE PAINTED HAPPY LITTLE TREES, HE PAINTED PANS.

While stationed in Alaska during his stint in the Air Force, Ross indulged his creative side by painting his now-iconic landscapes onto golden pans, which he sold for $25 apiece. Today, they can fetch as much as $7500 on eBay.

5. HE WAS INSPIRED BY BILL ALEXANDER.

From 1974 to 1982, German painter Bill Alexander hosted an art instruction show on PBS, The Magic of Oil Painting, where he shared his “wet-on-wet” oil painting technique. Ross discovered the series while working as a bartender, and became an immediate fan of the artist. He ended up studying under Alexander, who became his mentor. In fact, Ross dedicated the first episode of his own PBS show, The Joy of Painting, to Alexander. “Years ago, Bill taught me this fantastic technique,” Ross told viewers. “And I feel as though he gave me a precious gift, and I'd like to share that gift with you.”

6. WHEN ALEXANDER RETIRED, HE APPOINTED ROSS AS HIS SUCCESSOR.

In the early 1980s, as Alexander was preparing to retire, he asked Ross to take over teaching his painting classes. Ross agreed, and set out to tour the country on his own in a motor home, traveling and teaching people Alexander’s “wet-on-wet” technique. He told his wife Jane that he’d try it out for one year, and if he didn’t make enough money, he would return to Alaska.

7. HIS SIGNATURE PERM WAS AN ECONOMICAL CHOICE.

It was during Ross’s time on the road that he adopted his iconic hairstyle. Since teaching painting wasn’t an extremely lucrative profession, Ross learned to stretch every penny. One way he did this was to save money on haircuts by getting his locks permed.

8. ROSS HATED THAT HAIRDO.

Though Ross reportedly hated the permed hair, he was a businessman first, which is why he kept it. “When we got a line of paints and brushes, we put his picture on,” Bob Ross Company co-founder Annette Kowalski told Mental Floss. “The logo is a picture of Bob with that hair, so he could never get it cut. He wasn’t always happy about that.” 

(You can see what he looked like without his trademark perm here.)

9. HE WAS “DISCOVERED” BY ONE OF HIS STUDENTS.

Though it was Alexander who got Ross started on his career path as an artist, it was Kowalski—one of Ross’s students—who put him on the pop culture map. Kowalski, who is often credited as the woman who "discovered" Ross, took a five-day instructional course with Ross in 1982, and quickly became enamored with his calming voice and positive messages.

In addition to newfound painting skills, Kowalski left the class with a new client: she became Ross’s manager, helping him broker the deal for The Joy of Painting television show with PBS, and later, a line of Bob Ross art supplies.

10. HE WORKED FOR FREE.

The Joy of Painting ran new seasons on PBS from 1983 to 1994, so even at public broadcasting rates the show must have made Ross quite a bit of loot, right? Not quite. Ross actually did the series for free; his income came from Bob Ross Inc.

Ross's company sold art supplies and how-to videotapes, taught classes, and even had a troupe of traveling art instructors who roamed the world teaching painting. It's tough to think of a better advertisement for these products than Ross's show.

11. HE COULD FILM AN ENTIRE SEASON IN ABOUT TWO DAYS.

How did Ross find the time to tape all of those shows for free? He could record a season almost as fast as he could paint. Ross could bang out an entire 13-episode season of The Joy of Painting in just over two days, which freed him up to get back to teaching lessons, which is where he made his real money.

12. THE JOY OF PAINTING WAS A WORLDWIDE HIT.

In addition to being carried by approximately 95 percent of all public television stations across America, reaching viewers in more than 93.5 million homes, The Joy of Painting was a hit outside of the U.S. as well. The show was broadcast in dozens of foreign countries, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, South Korea, and Turkey.

13. HE WAS PARTICULARLY BIG IN JAPAN.

The Joy of Painting was a big hit in Japan, where it aired twice a day. (His voice, however, was dubbed.) On a visit to the country, Ross was reportedly mobbed by fans.

14. ROSS LIKENED HIS POPULARITY TO A DRUG ADDICTION.

"We're like drug dealers,” Ross once said of the popularity of his painting technique. “Come into town and get everybody absolutely addicted to painting. It doesn't take much to get you addicted.”

15. VIEWERS LOVED HIM. FELLOW ARTISTS? NOT AS MUCH.

Though he was undoubtedly a pop culture phenomenon, the art world didn’t exactly embrace Ross. “People definitely know who he is," Kevin Lavin, a “struggling” painter, told The New York Times in 1991. "In his own way, he is as famous as Warhol.”

"It is formulaic and thoughtless,” sculptor Keith Frank said of Ross’s work in the same article. “Art as therapy."

“I am horrified by art instruction on television," added Abstract Expressionist Richard Pousette-Dart, who passed away the following year. "It's terrible—bad, bad, bad. They are just commercial exploiters, non-artists teaching other non-artists."

16. SOME ART SUPPLY STORES KEPT ROSS’S PRODUCTS AT A DISTANCE.

The New York Times paid a visit to Pearl Paint Company, an art supply store in New York City, where an employee pointed to the “happy little corner" where they kept Ross’s products. "We hide them," he admitted, "so as not to offend."

17. ALEXANDER WASN’T THRILLED WITH ROSS’S SUCCESS.

Bill Alexander was one of the artists who wasn’t thrilled with Ross’s success, even though he had been his protégé. “He betrayed me," Alexander told The New York Times. "I invented 'wet on wet.' I trained him and he is copying me—what bothers me is not just that he betrayed me, but that he thinks he can do it better."

18. HIS HAPPY LITTLE COMMENTS WEREN’T AD LIBBED.

Though part of Ross’s appeal was his conversational tone, none of this talk of happy accidents or other happy little things was ad libbed. “He told me he would lay in bed at night and plan every word,” Kowalski once said. “He knew exactly what he was doing.”

19. HE WAS MISSING PART OF HIS LEFT INDEX FINGER.

Though you’d never know it from his painting technique, not all of Ross’s digits were intact. He lost part of his left index finger when he was a kid in a woodworking accident while working with his dad, who was a carpenter.

20. HE RARELY PAINTED PEOPLE.

While trees and wildlife often helped bring Ross’s paintings to life, he rarely painted people. In fact, he liked to keep his work as people-free as possible.

“I will tell you Bob’s biggest secret,” Kowalski told FiveThirtyEight. “If you notice, his cabins never had chimneys on them. That’s because chimneys represented people, and he didn’t want any sign of a person in his paintings.”

21. HE KEPT A TINY SQUIRREL IN HIS POCKET.

The Joy of Painting regularly featured a rotating cast of happy little animals, with a tiny squirrel named Peapod probably getting the bulk of airtime. According to Ross, Peapod liked to sit in his pocket.

22. NOT MANY PEOPLE ACTUALLY PAINTED ALONG WITH HIM.

Though The Joy of Painting was a beloved series, people didn’t seem to be watching it to learn how to be the next Picasso. It was once estimated that only 10 percent of viewers were actually painting along with Ross.

23. HE REALLY DID LOVE TREES.

In 2014, FiveThirtyEight did a statistical breakdown of Ross’s work on The Joy of Painting and found that 91 percent of them included at least one tree—by far the most popular element. (And if he painted one tree, there was a 93 percent chance he’d paint a second one—though he referred to any additional trees as “friends” on the show.)

24. HIS SON, STEVE, PREFERRED LAKES.

On a few occasions, Ross’s son Steve subbed for his dad as a guest host. That same data set discovered that Steve liked happy little lakes: 91 percent of Steve’s paintings featured one (as opposed to Bob’s 34 percent).

25. HE MADE THREE COPIES OF EACH PAINTING YOU SEE IN THE JOY OF PAINTING.

Ross shot 403 episodes of The Joy of Painting and made three near-exact copies of each painting per episode. The first copy always hid off screen, and Ross referred to it while the cameras rolled (none of his on-air paintings were spontaneous). Ross painted a third copy when filming finished. This time, an assistant would stand behind him and snap photos of each brushstroke; these pictures went into his how-to books.

26. HE DIDN’T GET A WHOLE LOT OF INTERVIEW REQUESTS.

For all his worldwide popularity, there aren’t a lot of interviews with Ross. It has nothing to do with the artist being publicity-shy—it’s just that people rarely asked. “I never turn down requests for interviews,” he once said. “I’m just rarely asked.”

27. HE WAS AN MTV PITCHMAN.

For all his hokey-ness, Ross was cool enough to be asked to be a pitchman for MTV—which he deemed “The land of happy little trees.”

28. NINTENDO HAD PLANNED A SERIES OF BOB ROSS VIDEO GAMES.

Though some thought it was an April Fools’ joke, Nintendo had plans to create a series of video games based on The Joy of Painting. Unfortunately, the project ran into production problems pretty early on, so we’ll never know what might have been.

29. THE JOY OF PAINTING IS GREAT FOR INSOMNIA.

In 2001, Bob Ross Inc. media director Joan Kowalski told The New York Times how people almost seemed embarrassed to admit that Ross’s voice was the perfect solution to insomnia. “It's funny to talk to these people,'' she said. ''Because they think they're the only ones who watch to take a nap. Bob knew about this. People would come up to him and say, 'I don't want to hurt your feelings, but you've been putting me to sleep for 10 years.' He'd love it.''

Even today, Ross has become an ASMR star: On the ASMR thread on Reddit, “Bob Ross” is listed as a common trigger. A video of Ross painting a mountain has a staggering 7.65 million views, with others regularly surpassing 2 or 3 million views. Of course, not all of those are ASMR viewers, but a mounting online presence suggests they certainly deserve some of the credit.

30. HE DIDN'T SELL HIS PAINTINGS.

In a 1991 interview with The New York Times, Ross claimed he'd made over 30,000 paintings since he was an 18-year-old stationed in Alaska with the Air Force. Yet he was not one to hawk his own work. So what happened to them? When Ross died of lymphoma in 1995, most of his paintings either ended up in the hands of charity or PBS.

“One of the questions that I hear over and over and over is, ‘What do we do with all these paintings we do on television?’ Most of these paintings are donated to PBS stations across the country,” he said. “They auction them off, and they make a happy buck with ‘em. So if you’d like to have one, get in touch with your PBS station, cause … we give them to stations all over the country to help them out with their fundraisers.”

31. ROSS’S VAN WAS ONCE BURGLED OF 13 PAINTINGS.

The fact that Ross didn’t try and turn a profit from his own work doesn’t mean that you can’t find one for sale. At one point, more than a dozen of his paintings hit the black market when someone stole 13 reference paintings from Ross’s van during the show's second season.

32. HE HOPED TO DEVELOP A CHILDREN’S SHOW ABOUT WILDLIFE.

In the early 1990s, Ross was looking to branch out from art and had an idea for a kids’ show called Bob’s World, where he planned to go out into nature and teach kids about wildlife.

33. IF YOU HAPPEN TO FIND YOURSELF IN FLORIDA, YOU CAN CHECK OUT SOME OF HIS ORIGINAL WORKS.

The Bob Ross Art Workshop in New Smyrna Beach, Florida is a must-visit destination for Ross die-hards: In addition to offering art classes in Ross’s method, you’ll find a collection of the artist’s original paintings.

34. YOU CAN VIEW MORE THAN 400 OF HIS WORKS IN ONE PLACE.

Two Inch Brush—named after Ross's brush of choice for the wet-on-wet technique—is an unofficial database that organizes all 403 paintings from The Joy of Painting by season and episode.

35. HE IS A FUNKO TOY.


Funko

In August 2017, Funko released a vinyl figurine of the iconic artist/television personality. It depicts Ross dressed in his trademark jeans and button-down shirt, holding a painter’s palette. Sadly, it doesn’t come with any miniature paintings of "happy little trees."

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