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8 Refreshing Facts About the San Antonio River Walk

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Built along the San Antonio River, the River Walk in Texas’ second-largest city has been called the “American Venice.” Lined with bars, restaurants, biking trails, and museums, the Walk has become one of the most popular tourist spots in the state and is one of America’s largest urban ecosystems.


San Antonio was discovered by Spanish explorers and missionaries in the late 17th century and named in honor of Saint Anthony of Padua. The Spanish first settled in 1718 along the river, which had accommodated generations of indigenous Payaya who referred to the body of water as the yanaguana, or "refreshing waters."

By the early 20th century the city’s population had grown to over 160,000, and worries over potential flooding were realized during a 1921 hurricane that pummeled the area with high winds and nearly 14 inches of rain, causing the river to crest and flooding 1000 acres of land. There was millions of dollars in damage and over 50 people perished, and although there had been debate for years on what to do with the riverfront, this flood finally prompted the city to enact flood control measures and clean up the river, and led to the first iteration of a river-adjacent pedestrian walkway.


The San Antonio Conservation Society was formed in 1924 and sought measures to control flooding and save iconic buildings, but a proposal to drain the river, direct it underground, and build city streets atop a storm sewer was opposed. A local architect, Robert H.H. Hugman, designed a new flood control plan and a walkway called the Shops of Aragon and Romula that was reminiscent of Old Spain.


Although a bypass channel was completed in 1929 at the beginning of the project, the October 29 stock market crash forced developers to halt any further work. Nine years later, the Works Progress Administration revived the plan with $325,000 in funding. Hugman was hired, and the River Beautification Project began construction in early 1939. Hugman was let go the following year, and although the project was officially completed on March 14, 1941, the full extent of Hugman’s vision wasn’t implemented due to the outbreak of the second World War.


Years of lackluster development along the river led to the creation in the late 1950s and early '60s of the Tourist Attraction Committee, River Walk District, and the River Walk Advisory Commission. In 1961, the California-based Marco Engineering Firm, led by developer C.V. Wood, Jr., completed a report funded by the San Antonio Chamber of Commerce to look into the commercial prospects of the retail space along the river. Wood, who helped create Disneyland and other theme parks throughout America, suggested a Mexican colonial theme for the development, along with a merchants’ association and multiple festivals to be held in the area.


On the 250th anniversary of San Antonio’s founding, the 1968 World’s Fair, called HemisFair, was held in the city from April through October. In preparation, a ¼-mile addition of the River Walk had been completed, which extended the walk to the convention center via a lagoon. In 2009, a new section of the River Walk called the Museum Reach was completed, adding 1.3 miles of trails and walkways.

To the south, the Mission Reach Ecosystem Restoration and Recreation Project was finalized in 2011 and added eight additional miles. Multiple entities chipped in $384.1 million for the San Antonio River Improvements Project, lengthening the River Walk to 15.5 miles.


Although yearly maintenance has been eschewed for partial cleanups, in January swaths of the San Antonio River downtown were emptied to clean the lock and dam near Brooklyn Street and remove debris from the river. In addition, sediment was removed from the river to improve the water quality; in 2010 and ’11 nearly 9 tons of sediment were stripped from the river. The process of draining and refilling the river, which can be as shallow as two to three feet downtown, takes about six days. The next full draining is scheduled for 2020.


Not ones to let an opportunity for a party pass them by, citizens of San Antonio relished the annual draining of the river by throwing a Mud Festival. The events included a Mud Pie Ball, Mud Parade, and Mud Coronation, complete with a Mud King and Queen. Although thousands of visitors descended to the river for the January parties, the newly clean river has seemingly put a stop to the Mud Festival for now.


The planting of a cypress tree along the river 100 years ago created a small promontory that has become known as Wedding Island. Located in front of Hotel Contessa, the site of the tree is allegedly where Father Damian Massanet conducted a Catholic Mass in 1691, and local artist Rolando Briseño was commissioned in 1991 to create a sculpture that honored the original Mass. The city charges $200 for a 30-minute ceremony, and there are about 225 weddings held on the site every year.

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Christopher Furlong/Getty Images
German Nonprofit Gives $1.1 Million to Restore World’s First Iron Bridge in England
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Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

The UK’s Iron Bridge is more than just a pretty landmark. Built in 1779, it was the world’s first metal bridge, a major milestone in engineering history. Like many aging pieces of infrastructure, though, it’s in dire need of repair—and the funds to shore it up are coming from an unexpected place. According to The Times, a German foundation has pledged to pay for the conservation project as a way to improve relations between England and Germany in the wake of Brexit.

Based in Hamburg, the Hermann Reemtsma Foundation normally funds cultural projects in Germany, but decided to work with the UK’s charitable trust English Heritage to save the Industrial Revolution landmark as a way to reinforce the cultural bond between the two countries. The foundation has pledged more than $1.16 million to the bridge's renovation effort, which will cost an estimated $4.7 million in total. Now, the UK charity only has to raise another $32,800 to fully fund the work.

The Iron Bridge was cast and built by Abraham Darby III, whose grandfather became the first mass-producer of cast iron in the UK in the early 1700s, kickstarting England's Industrial Revolution. It was the world’s first cast iron, single-span arch bridge, weighing more than 400 tons. In 1934, it was declared a historic monument and closed to traffic, and the Ironbridge Gorge was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986.

“The Iron Bridge is one of the most important—if not the most important—bridges ever built,” English Heritage CEO Kate Mavor told the press.

The techniques used to erect the Iron Bridge were later adopted throughout Europe, including in Germany, leading the Hermann Reemtsma Foundation to call it “a potent reminder of our continent's common cultural roots and values.”

The already-underway repair project includes replacing elements of the bridge, cleaning and repairing others, and painting the entire structure. Since it sits above a fast-flowing river where erecting scaffolding is difficult, the project is especially complex. It’s scheduled to be completed in 2018.

[h/t The Times]

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Honda Debuts a Rain-Proof Disaster Robot That Can Climb Ladders
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A new Honda robot could signal the future of disaster response technology. According to IEEE Spectrum, the Japanese company recently debuted a prototype for a cutting-edge disaster-response robot agile enough to climb ladders, ascend stairs, maneuver over pipes, and move through narrow spaces, among other capabilities.

Honda unveiled the prototype for the E2-DR at September’s IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems in Vancouver. The slow-moving humanoid robot looks like a beginning skater stepping onto the ice for the first time, stepping cautiously up stairs and through small spaces, but the fact that it can navigate these kinds of obstacles is a feat. Scaling ladders and walking up and down stairs are usually no easy tasks for robots, and both are among the challenges featured in the annual DARPA Robotics Challenge obstacle course—which is infamous for making very, very expensive robots fall all over the place.

Designed to inspect, maintain, and provide disaster response in places like factories and power plants, the E2-DR is 5.5 feet tall, weighs around 187 pounds, and can run for about 90 minutes at a time. Crucially, it’s less than 10 inches thick back-to-front, allowing it to squeeze through small corridors laterally.

The robot can reverse its knees to allow it to keep them from bumping against stairs as it walks, and its hands can grip ladders and rails. It can also open doors and climb on all fours. It’s equipped with rangefinders, cameras, and 3D sensors so that it can be piloted remotely.

Because it’s designed to work in disaster zones (like within the Fukushima power plant) the robot has to be able to withstand water, debris, dust, and extreme temperatures. It’s already been able to climb up and down a ladder in the face of 1 inch-per-hour rain, according to Honda.

IEEE Spectrum notes that we haven’t seen it fall, and falling down is, despite how silly it looks in testing, an important thing to test before sending robots into the field. In unpredictable settings and rough terrain, it’s likely that a robot is going to misstep and fall down at some point, and it needs to be able to not just withstand the fall, but get itself back up.

The E2-DR is just a prototype, and Honda will continue to work on it for the foreseeable future. For now, though, it’s made an impressive start.

[h/t IEEE Spectrum]


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