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15 Questions About Donating Blood, Answered

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You’ve rolled up your sleeve, faced a fear of needles, and risked passing out mid-donation. Congrats, you’re one of the roughly 6.8 million people who donate blood each year! But even if you’ve shimmied onto that cot and happily accepted your post-blood draw cookie, you still may have questions about the process. We've answered some of the big ones.

1. WHERE DOES THE DONATED BLOOD GO?

When you needle up for the American Red Cross, they collect roughly one pint of blood and several test tubes—all of which are stored in iced coolers until they can be transported to an official Red Cross center. From there, the samples are spun in centrifuges to separate the red cells, platelets, and plasma and the tubes are sent out for testing at one of three national labs.

Samples that come back disease-free are then stored at the center—red cells last in a 6 ºC refrigerator for up to 42 days; platelets remain at room temperature in agitators up to five days (and are frozen for up to a year)—until they are shipped to a hospital for use.

2. WHAT DO THEY TEST FOR?

Your vials undergo a dozen tests designed to both establish blood type and to weed out donations laced with infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis. If your sample tests positive for something, your donation will be trashed, but on the upside they’ll reach out and let you know about your diagnosis and offer up counseling with a trained professional.

3. WHAT EXACTLY ARE PLATELETS, ANYWAY?

The tiny, disc-shaped particles inside your blood help it to clot. They’re needed for patients with diseases (such as aplastic anemia and leukemia) that hamper the body’s ability to clot and patients who are undergoing major surgeries. Platelets are separated from your red blood cells after you donate and can only be stored up to five days. Thus, maintaining a large enough supply can be an issue.

4. HOW MUCH BLOOD IS NEEDED TO SAVE A LIFE?

It depends on the situation. According to the American Red Cross, the average red blood cell transfusion is roughly 3 pints, but a single car accident victim could need up to 100 pints.

5. ARE CERTAIN BLOOD TYPES MORE VALUABLE THAN OTHERS?

Yes. O positive is the most common blood type in America—belonging to about 39 percent of the population—and thus, the most likely to be needed for a transfusion. (Type A positive ranks second at 31 percent of the population.) O negative blood types—that’s about 9 percent of people—are considered the universal donor because their blood can be given to anyone. The least common blood type? AB negative—belonging to just 1 percent of people.

6. HOW MANY PEOPLE DONATE EACH YEAR?

Not enough. The American Red Cross estimates that 38 percent of the United States population is eligible to donate blood at any given moment—but less than 10 percent of those people do. Each year, roughly 6.8 million donors give 13.6 million units of blood. That may sound like a lot, but approximately 36,000 units are needed across the U.S. each day and because of the short shelf-life, it’s difficult to build up an inventory of blood if a lot is needed quickly.

7. WHO ISN'T ELIGIBLE TO DONATE?

Some states allow 16-year-olds to donate with parental consent, but most require blood givers to be at least 17. You also have to weigh a minimum of 110 pounds and be in good general health. (If you have a cold, flu or fever, you will be turned away.) Being a world traveler could also be an issue. Those who have recently visited countries where diseases such as malaria or the Zika virus are common are required to wait a set amount of time before offering up a vein. Piercings and tattoos can also temporarily prevent you from donating depending on how long ago you acquired them.

8. IS THERE ANY WAY TO SPEED UP THE PROCESS?

While the Red Cross estimates donating blood can take more than an hour—from the time you fill out your paperwork until you accept the post-donation cookie—you can cut out some time with RapidPass. Users complete forms online, then print them off and bring them to the donation site. For a true walk-in, walk-out experience you can also schedule an appointment. Once you’re all set up, the actual blood draw only takes about 10 minutes.

9. HOW DOES MY BODY REPLACE THE BLOOD LOST?

The average adult has between 10 and 12 pints of blood in their body. Since your bone marrow churns out a constant supply of red cells, plasma, and platelets, the plasma you give is replaced within the first 24 hours.

10. WAIT, THEN WHY DO I HAVE TO WAIT 56 DAYS BETWEEN DONATIONS?

While the plasma is replenished quickly, it can take four to six weeks for your body to manufacture the red blood cells that are lost. If you’re only donating platelets, which your body replaces within a day, you can give again after a week. However, you’re restricted to only 24 total platelet donations a year.

11. DO I NEED TO DO ANYTHING SPECIAL AFTER DONATING?

The American Red Cross suggests replacing the lost iron with foods such as spinach, beans, and red meat as well as drinking an extra 4 to 8 ounces of non-alcoholic liquid. They also advise against doing heavy lifting and recommend keeping your bandage on for at least five hours. (Bonus: that makes it easier to brag to your friends about your largesse!)

12. WHY DO THEY ASK FOR MY ETHNICITY?

According to the New York Blood Center, knowing your race makes it easier to match your blood with a needy recipient. “Blood types and antigens are inherited, just like eye and hair color,” reads an entry on their website. “Searching for very precise transfusion matches can be like looking for a needle in a haystack, so it makes sense to begin with donors of the same ethnic or racial background as the transfusion recipient.”

13. CAN YOU REALLY MAKE MONEY DONATING BLOOD?

You can score between $25 and $50 for donating plasma at one of the 530 licensed and IQPP certified plasma collection centers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. The process is similar to donating blood, except that once the whole blood is drawn, the plasma is separated out and the rest of the blood is returned to your body. (The whole procedure takes between 90 minutes and two hours.) However, this plasma usually doesn’t go straight to disease-stricken donees. Instead, it’s given to pharmaceutical companies who use it to create medicine for a range of conditions.

14. CAN I DONATE BLOOD TO MYSELF?

Yes, but it takes some legwork. You can do what’s called an autologous donation—where you donate blood to be used on yourself during a surgery or planned medical procedure—but you’ll need a prescription from your doctor.

15. IS THERE ANY SUBSTITUTE FOR BLOOD?

Not yet. However the American Red Cross says they are diligent about tracking research that might help identify an alternative. “The Red Cross actively follows blood substitute research,” reads a note on their site, “and works closely with other organizations that develop new transfusion alternatives.”

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Sorry, Kids: Soda is Now Banned From Children's Menus in Baltimore
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The war on sugary drinks continues. Following several cities that have passed laws allowing them to collect substantial sales tax on sodas and other sweetened beverages, Baltimore is taking things a step further. A new ordinance that went into effect Wednesday will prohibit restaurants from offering soda on their kids’ menus.

Leana Wen, the city’s health commissioner, told the Associated Press that the ordinance was enacted to “help families make the healthy choice the easy choice.” Instead of soda, eateries will be expected to offer milk, water, and 100 percent fruit juices.

If you’re wondering what will stop children from sipping soda ordered by an adult escort, the answer is—nothing. Business owners will not be expected to swat Pepsi out of a child’s hand. The effort is intended to get both parents and children thinking about healthier alternatives to sodas, which children consume with regularity. A 2017 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study found that 30 percent of kids aged 2 to 19 consumed two or more servings a day, which can contribute to type 2 diabetes, obesity, cavities, and other adverse effects.

Businesses in violation of this kid-targeted soda prohibition will be fined $100. Baltimore joins seven cities in California and Lafayette, Colorado, which have similar laws on the books.

[h/t The Baltimore Sun]

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7 Reasons Why You Should Let Your Kid Get Bored This Summer
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No matter how excited kids are for summer break, after a few weeks without school, they can start to feel a little bored. But as a parent, you shouldn't drive yourself crazy scheduling playdates, lessons, and other organized activities for your restless progeny. Instead, turn off the iPad, put down the camp brochure, and let them sit around the house moaning “I'm bored”—it can be good for them.

1. BOREDOM PROMOTES CREATIVITY ...

Research suggests the experience of boredom can lead to greater creativity because it allows minds to wander. In one 2014 study, researchers asked a group of participants to undertake boring activities like copying down telephone numbers from a directory. Then, they were tested for creativity—they had to come up with as many uses for a pair of foam cups as they could think of. The participants who had endured the boring tasks ended up thinking up more uses for the cups than those who hadn't. Boredom, the researchers wrote, "can sometimes be a force for good."

This isn't an entirely new idea. Another study conducted in Canada in the 1980s provides further evidence that boredom isn't always a bad thing: It found that kids who lived in towns with no televisions scored higher on imagination-related tests than kids who had TVs. Imagine what disconnecting from all of the screens available now could do for a kid's creativity.

2. ... AND MAKES THEM MORE INDEPENDENT.

Boredom can force kids to generate their own ideas about what they'd like to do—and what's feasible—then direct their own activities independently. "If parents spend all their time filling up their child's spare time, then the child's never going to learn to do this for themselves," Lyn Fry, a child psychologist, told Quartz in 2016. "Being bored is a way to make children self-reliant."

3. BOREDOM FOSTERS PROBLEM SOLVING.

In The Boredom Solution: Understanding and Dealing with Boredom, teacher and author Linda Deal advises that it's important to let kids learn to deal with their boredom themselves because it helps them learn to make decisions about how to use their free time. They need to learn to "see the problem of boredom as one within their control," she writes, which can help them come up with constructive ways to solve it rather than simply getting hopeless or angry about it, as kids sometimes do in situations they don't have control over. Kids learn that boredom isn't an insurmountable obstacle.

4. IT MOTIVATES THEM TO SEEK NEW EXPERIENCES.

In a 2012 study published in Perspectives on Psychological Science, researchers sought to define what, exactly, boredom is. "At the heart of it is our desire to engage with the world or some other mental activity, and that takes attention," co-author Mark Fenske, an associate professor at the University of Guelph, explained at the time. "When we cannot do this—that seems to be what leads to frustration and the aversive state we call 'boredom.'" When kids (and adults) are bored, especially with activities that were once engaging, they're motivated to try new things.

5. BOREDOM CAN HELP THEM MAKE FRIENDS ...

According to a pair of psychologists from Texas A&M University, boredom might have a social role. They argue that it "expresses to others that a person is seeking change and stimulation, potentially prompting others to respond by assisting in this pursuit." Being bored can push kids to go out and be more social, and have fun through activities. When there's not much to do, hanging out with the new kid down the block (or even your little brother) suddenly seems a lot more appealing.

6. ... AND FIGURE OUT THEIR INTERESTS.

Both at school and at home, kids are often required to participate in a range of activities. Having the time and space to do nothing can help kids figure out what they actually like to do. "Children need to sit in their own boredom for the world to become quiet enough that they can hear themselves," psychologist Vanessa Lapointe writes at the Huffington Post. This downtime allows kids to direct their own activities without adult input. Pressed to come up with their own entertainment, they might discover a love of writing plays, baking cookies, biking, crafting, or perfecting their jump shot.

7. IT CAN HELP THEM FIND MEANING IN THEIR LIVES.

According to one 2011 study, boredom forced people to reflect on meaning in their lives, prompting them to seek out meaningful activities like donating blood. While the study only examined adults, who may be more inclined to search for purpose, boredom can nonetheless push kids to undertake activities they might otherwise find unappealing—whether that means helping out with the dishes or agreeing to go volunteer for the day—or could even inspire them to make the world a better place.

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