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What's the Difference Between a Broadway and Off-Broadway Show?

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Over the years, there’s been a lot of debate about what should and shouldn’t count as a Broadway play or musical. Still, it’s widely agreed that, in order to qualify, a production needs to run at a Broadway theater.

In general, a Broadway theater is defined as one that’s located in Manhattan and seats at least 500 people. (Actually being located on Broadway is not a requirement.) Those on the island with 100 to 499 seats are regarded as “Off-Broadway” venues. Meanwhile, establishments with 99 seats or fewer are deemed “Off-Off-Broadway.”

If the facility hosts concerts and dance shows more often than it does plays or musicals, it isn’t considered a Broadway theater, regardless of the seating situation. Because of this, Carnegie Hall doesn’t make the cut—even though the main auditorium has way more than 500 seats (2804, to be precise). 

How many Broadway theaters are in Manhattan proper? The industry’s national trade association is known as the Broadway League, and, at present, they only recognize 40 legitimate Broadway theaters—with the majority sitting between West 40th and West 53rd Streets in Midtown Manhattan. By comparison, Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway stages are more widely dispersed throughout New York City.

Every year, the Broadway League joins forces with the American Theatre League to administer one of the Big Apple’s biggest celebrations: The Tony Awards. To be eligible for these prizes, a show must open at a Broadway League-certified Broadway theater at some point in the current season before a designated cut-off date (which for this year was April 28).

Given these rules, the Awards completely ignore Off-Broadway productions. But this doesn’t mean that you should. Some of the most popular shows ever conceived started out at Off-Broadway venues. For example, the original production of Little Shop of Horrors opened in 1982 and ran for five years without ever making it to the Great White Way—although a Broadway revival did pop up in 2003.

For many productions, Off-Broadway is a stepping stone. Just a few months after opening up at smaller theaters, Hair, A Chorus Line, and, more recently, Hamilton all made the jump to a Broadway stage.

That transition isn’t always easy. Often, new sets have to be built and, sometimes, key players have to be re-cast. Furthermore, as producer Gerald Schoenfeld told Playbill in 2008, the Off-Broadway venue where it all began won’t want to be left “high and dry” after the show leaves. “[You’ll] probably have to make arrangements with the originating theater,” he says, “which probably would require a royalty and possible percentage of net profits.”

Broadway productions also come with much higher price tags. When you factor in things like talent fees, rehearsals, and marketing, the average Broadway play costs millions of dollars to produce. An estimate from The New York Times says a Broadway show costs "at least $2.5 million to mount," while larger-scale musicals fall in the $10 million to $15 million range.

Unsurprisingly, it’s become quite difficult to turn a profit on the Great White Way. According to the Broadway League, only one in five Broadway shows breaks even. Furthermore, those lucky few that actually make money have to run for an average of two years before doing so.

As they say, there's no business like show business...

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Big Questions
What's the Difference Between Stuffing and Dressing?
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For carbohydrate consumers, nothing completes a Thanksgiving meal like stuffing—shovelfuls of bread, celery, mushrooms, and other ingredients that complement all of that turkey protein.

Some people don’t say “stuffing,” though. They say “dressing.” In these calamitous times, knowing how to properly refer to the giant glob of insulin-spiking bread seems necessary. So what's the difference?

Let’s dismiss one theory off the bat: Dressing and stuffing do not correlate with how the side dish is prepared. A turkey can be stuffed with dressing, and stuffing can be served in a casserole dish. Whether it’s ever seen the inside of a bird is irrelevant, and anyone who tells you otherwise is wrong and should be met with suspicion, if not outright derision.

The terms are actually separated due to regional dialects. “Dressing” seems to be the favored descriptor for southern states like Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Georgia, while “stuffing” is preferred by Maine, New York, and other northern areas. (Some parts of Pennsylvania call it "filling," which is a bit too on the nose, but to each their own.)

If “stuffing” stemmed from the common practice of filling a turkey with carbs, why the division? According to The Huffington Post, it may have been because Southerners considered the word “stuffing” impolite, so never embraced it.

While you should experience no material difference in asking for stuffing or dressing, when visiting relatives it might be helpful to keep to their regionally-preferred word to avoid confusion. Enjoy stuffing yourselves.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
Why Do the Lions and Cowboys Always Play on Thanksgiving?
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Because it's tradition! But how did this tradition begin?

Every year since 1934, the Detroit Lions have taken the field for a Thanksgiving game, no matter how bad their record has been. It all goes back to when the Lions were still a fairly young franchise. The team started in 1929 in Portsmouth, Ohio, as the Spartans. Portsmouth, while surely a lovely town, wasn't quite big enough to support a pro team in the young NFL. Detroit radio station owner George A. Richards bought the Spartans and moved the team to Detroit in 1934.

Although Richards's new squad was a solid team, they were playing second fiddle in Detroit to the Hank Greenberg-led Tigers, who had gone 101-53 to win the 1934 American League Pennant. In the early weeks of the 1934 season, the biggest crowd the Lions could draw for a game was a relatively paltry 15,000. Desperate for a marketing trick to get Detroit excited about its fledgling football franchise, Richards hit on the idea of playing a game on Thanksgiving. Since Richards's WJR was one of the bigger radio stations in the country, he had considerable clout with his network and convinced NBC to broadcast a Thanksgiving game on 94 stations nationwide.

The move worked brilliantly. The undefeated Chicago Bears rolled into town as defending NFL champions, and since the Lions had only one loss, the winner of the first Thanksgiving game would take the NFL's Western Division. The Lions not only sold out their 26,000-seat stadium, they also had to turn fans away at the gate. Even though the juggernaut Bears won that game, the tradition took hold, and the Lions have been playing on Thanksgiving ever since.

This year, the Lions host the Minnesota Vikings.

HOW 'BOUT THEM COWBOYS?


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The Cowboys, too, jumped on the opportunity to play on Thanksgiving as an extra little bump for their popularity. When the chance to take the field on Thanksgiving arose in 1966, it might not have been a huge benefit for the Cowboys. Sure, the Lions had filled their stadium for their Thanksgiving games, but that was no assurance that Texans would warm to holiday football so quickly.

Cowboys general manager Tex Schramm, though, was something of a marketing genius; among his other achievements was the creation of the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders.

Schramm saw the Thanksgiving Day game as a great way to get the team some national publicity even as it struggled under young head coach Tom Landry. Schramm signed the Cowboys up for the game even though the NFL was worried that the fans might just not show up—the league guaranteed the team a certain gate revenue in case nobody bought tickets. But the fans showed up in droves, and the team broke its attendance record as 80,259 crammed into the Cotton Bowl. The Cowboys beat the Cleveland Browns 26-14 that day, and a second Thanksgiving pigskin tradition caught hold. Since 1966, the Cowboys have missed having Thanksgiving games only twice.

Dallas will take on the Los Angeles Chargers on Thursday.

WHAT'S WITH THE NIGHT GAME?


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In 2006, because 6-plus hours of holiday football was not sufficient, the NFL added a third game to the Thanksgiving lineup. This game is not assigned to a specific franchise—this year, the Washington Redskins will welcome the New York Giants.

Re-running this 2008 article a few days before the games is our Thanksgiving tradition.

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