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Prison Pet Partnership via Facebook
Prison Pet Partnership via Facebook

8 Prison Animal Programs

Prison Pet Partnership via Facebook
Prison Pet Partnership via Facebook

Prisons across the United States and elsewhere have instituted programs that pair inmates with animals in need. The benefits to the inmates are many: They can cuddle with the animals, learn new skills, practice compassion and consideration, and some even earn money or other privileges for their work. In turn, the animals benefit from the one-on-one attention. Here are a few of the many such programs offered by correctional institutions.

1. THE PRISON PET PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM

One of the oldest prison pet programs in the U.S. is the Prison Pet Partnership Program at Washington State Corrections Center for Women. Launched in 1981, it is a collaboration between the prison, Washington State University, Tacoma Community College, and Dominican nun Sister Pauline. Prison inmates are trained to raise puppies, socialize them, and train them for service to disabled people. The dogs come from animal shelters. Those that don’t quite make the grade to work as a service dog are trained in obedience and offered to the public for adoption. The program also serves as vocational training for inmates, who can earn certification in pet training and grooming. Early on, the program slashed the recidivism rate among inmates who participated for at least two years. Now in its 35th year, the program also offers boarding and grooming services to the public.

2. KSR CAMP K-9

Starting in 2009, the Luther Luckett Correctional Complex in LaGrange, Kentucky, ran Camp Canine, which soon moved to the larger Kentucky State Reformatory. Dogs from animal shelters are sent to the camp to be trained by correctional center inmates. Eighteen inmates live with the dogs in a special wing of the prison, and rotate dogs so that each trainer works with all the dogs in the program. Professional trainers oversee the program and teach the inmate trainers. The goal is to turn hard-to-adopt dogs into well-trained and socialized pets, adoptable through the Humane Society of Oldham County. Another goal is to give inmates a chance to build relationships with the dogs, and to gain new skills they can use after they leave the prison.

3. LARCH CAT ADOPTION PROGRAM

 
A volunteer organization called Cuddly Catz began a program at Larch Corrections Center in Yacolt, Washington, in 2011 to rehabilitate cats at the prison. Cats that were considered un-adoptable because of behavior issues were diverted to Larch instead of being euthanized. They came from neglectful or abusive situations, and needed to learn how to live with humans. Inmates who qualified for the program kept a cat with them at all times in the minimum-security Silver Star unit, and had litter boxes and scratching posts in their rooms. They spent one-on-one time with the cats, helping them to overcome their fear of people. Occasionally, inmates were charged with caring for newborn kittens that needed feeding around the clock. The inmates benefited, too, by taking on a sense of responsibility for the cats. They also got the chance to be gentle. Eventually, the cats were deemed ready for permanent adoption.

In the five years since the program began, Cuddly Catz has dissolved, and is now known as the Larch Cat Adoption Program, working through the West Columbia Gorge Humane Society. However, they've recently begun a dog program at the Larch Corrections Center, too. In fact, all Washington state prisons run some kind of animal training or adoption program.

4. WILD HORSE INMATE PROGRAM (WHIP)

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The federal Bureau of Land Management oversees America’s wild horses. The population of wild horses has risen since they were put under the government's protection, so in order to stabilize the numbers, horses are being adopted out. But it takes some time to convert a wild mustang into a pet. The BLM is working with the Arizona Department of Corrections and Colorado Correctional Industries in a program called WHIP—the Wild Horse Inmate Program. The program is supervised by professional horse trainers, who teach inmates the art of gentling and training horses. Horses are available for adoption after they’ve completed the program. You can see them in Canon City, Colorado, and in Florence, Arizona.

5. DAWGS IN PRISON

DAWGS in Prison Program via Facebook

DAWGS in Prison, a program at the Gulf Correctional Institution in Wewahitchka, Florida, takes in unwanted and often abused dogs. (DAWGS is an acronym for Developing Adoptable dogs With Good Sociability.) Inmates socialize them and train the dogs in basic obedience, so they’ll be able to fit into new families when they are adopted. Inmates who participate in the program learn skills as trainers and handlers, and live with the dogs in a special work camp. A class of dogs graduated just recently, as the program celebrates its seventh anniversary. See some of the adoption stories on Facebook.

6. THE CANINE PERFORMANCE SCIENCES PROGRAM

 
The Canine Performance Sciences Program at Auburn University’s College of Veterinary Medicine breeds and trains dogs, mostly Labrador retrievers, to detect the smells of bombs, viruses, poisons, and other dangerous materials. The yearlong program turns playful puppies into highly disciplined service dogs ready to perform. Puppies that show promise are selected for the training program, and are sent to one of five prisons in Florida and Georgia for basic training and socialization. They spend up to six months learning obedience, loyalty, and basic tracking skills. Meanwhile, the inmate trainers can earn continuing education credit through Auburn. After six months, the dogs are returned to Auburn for advanced scent training, which leads to jobs as canine security experts. Some dogs are also involved in research, such as the few that were specifically trained to sit still in an MRI machine so that researchers can study their brains while they are stimulated by scent, and the humans are given a certificate that they can use to hopefully get a job with dogs after getting released.

7. NEW ENGLAND WILDLIFE PROGRAM

Inmates at the Norfolk County Jail in Dedham, Massachusetts, have an opportunity to work with raccoons, foxes, birds, and other animals in need at the New England Wildlife Center in Weymouth. The program was launched in 2014 by Sheriff Michael Bellotti to help inmates learn “respect and discipline” as they help care for the sick and injured animals. They also learn compassion and skills that will help them when they are released.  

8. PUPPIES BEHIND BARS

Puppies Behind Bars via Facebook

The nationwide program Puppies Behind Bars works with several correctional facilities to train dogs from an early age in one of two careers. Some dogs are raised and trained to be service dogs for wounded veterans, while others are trained to detect explosives. Inmates in the program receive extensive training and ongoing supervision. The dogs are first taught to get along with humans, then go through basic obedience training, which leads to more specialized training. The program began in 1997 at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility for Women in New York, where inmates socialized puppies that later went on to become guide dogs for the blind. After 9/11, the explosive ordnance training program was added. In 2006, dogs began to be trained as service dogs for the many wounded veterans coming home from Iraq and Afghanistan. When a veteran is matched with a service dog, the veteran comes into the prison for a 16-day training course in using the service dog. Both the inmates and the veterans benefit from working together with the dogs. Puppies Behind Bars is now operating in six prisons.

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Ted Cranford
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science
Scientists Use a CT Scanner to Give Whales a Hearing Test
Ted Cranford
Ted Cranford

It's hard to study how whales hear. You can't just give the largest animals in the world a standard hearing test. But it's important to know, because noise pollution is a huge problem underwater. Loud sounds generated by human activity like shipping and drilling now permeate the ocean, subjecting animals like whales and dolphins to an unnatural din that interferes with their ability to sense and communicate.

New research presented at the 2018 Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego, California suggests that the answer lies in a CT scanner designed to image rockets. Scientists in San Diego recently used a CT scanner to scan an entire minke whale, allowing them to model how it and other whales hear.

Many whales rely on their hearing more than any other sense. Whales use sonar to detect the environment around them. Sound travels fast underwater and can carry across long distances, and it allows whales to sense both predators and potential prey over the vast territories these animals inhabit. It’s key to communicating with other whales, too.

A CT scan of two halves of a dead whale
Ted Cranford, San Diego State University

Human technology, meanwhile, has made the ocean a noisy place. The propellers and engines of commercial ships create chronic, low-frequency noise that’s within the hearing range of many marine species, including baleen whales like the minke. The oil and gas industry is a major contributor, not only because of offshore drilling, but due to seismic testing for potential drilling sites, which involves blasting air at the ocean floor and measuring the (loud) sound that comes back. Military sonar operations can also have a profound impact; so much so that several years ago, environmental groups filed lawsuits against the U.S. Navy over its sonar testing off the coasts of California and Hawaii. (The environmentalists won, but the new rules may not be much better.)

Using the CT scans and computer modeling, San Diego State University biologist Ted Cranford predicted the ranges of audible sounds for the fin whale and the minke. To do so, he and his team scanned the body of an 11-foot-long minke whale calf (euthanized after being stranded on a Maryland beach in 2012 and preserved) with a CT scanner built to detect flaws in solid-fuel rocket engines. Cranford and his colleague Peter Krysl had previously used the same technique to scan the heads of a Cuvier’s beaked whale and a sperm whale to generate computer simulations of their auditory systems [PDF].

To save time scanning the minke calf, Cranford and the team ended up cutting the whale in half and scanning both parts. Then they digitally reconstructed it for the purposes of the model.

The scans, which assessed tissue density and elasticity, helped them visualize how sound waves vibrate through the skull and soft tissue of a whale’s head. According to models created with that data, minke whales’ hearing is sensitive to a larger range of sound frequencies than previously thought. The whales are sensitive to higher frequencies beyond those of each other’s vocalizations, leading the researchers to believe that they may be trying to hear the higher-frequency sounds of orcas, one of their main predators. (Toothed whales and dolphins communicate at higher frequencies than baleen whales do.)

Knowing the exact frequencies whales can hear is an important part of figuring out just how much human-created noise pollution affects them. By some estimates, according to Cranford, the low-frequency noise underwater created by human activity has doubled every 10 years for the past half-century. "Understanding how various marine vertebrates receive and process low-frequency sound is crucial for assessing the potential impacts" of that noise, he said in a press statement.

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Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Humans Might Have Practiced Brain Surgery on Cows 5000 Years Ago
Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi
Scientific Reports, Fernando Ramirez Rozzi

In the 1970s, archaeologists discovered a site in France containing hundreds of cow skeletons dating back 5000 to 5400 years. The sheer number wasn't surprising—human agriculture in that part of the world was booming by 3000 BCE. What perplexed scientists was something uncovered there a few decades later: a cow skull bearing a thoughtfully drilled hole. Now, a team of researchers has released evidence that suggests the hole is an early example of animal brain surgery.

Fernando Ramírez Rozzi, a paleontologist with the French National Center for Scientific Research, and Alain Froment, an anthropologist at the Museum of Mankind in Paris, published their findings in the journal Nature Scientific Reports. After comparing the opening to the holes chiseled into the skulls of humans from the same era, they found the bones bore some striking similarities. They didn't show any signs of fracturing from blunt force trauma; rather, the hole in the cow skull, like those in the human skulls, seemed to have been carved out carefully using a tool made for exactly that purpose. That suggests that the hole is evidence of the earliest known veterinary surgery performed by humans.

Trepanation, or the practice of boring holes into human skulls, is one of the oldest forms of surgery. Experts are still unsure why ancient humans did this, but the level of care that went into the procedures suggests that the surgery was likely used to treat sick patients while they were still alive. Why a person would perform this same surgery on a cow, however, is harder to explain.

The authors present a few theories, the first being that these ancient brain surgeons were treating a sick cow the same way they might treat a sick human. If a cow was suffering from a neural disease like epilepsy, perhaps they though that cutting a hole in its head would relieve whatever was agitating the brain. The cow would have needed to be pretty special to warrant such an effort when there were hundreds of healthy cows living on the same plot of land, as evidenced by the skeletons it was found with.

Another possible explanation was that whoever operated on the cow did so as practice to prepare them for drilling into the heads of live humans one day. "Cranial surgery requires great manual dexterity and a complete knowledge of the anatomy of the brain and vessel distribution," the authors write in the study. "It is possible that the mastery of techniques in cranial surgery shown in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods was acquired through experimentation on animals."

Either way, the bovine patient didn't live to see the results of the procedure: The bone around the hole hadn't healed at all, which suggests the cow either died during surgery or wasn't alive to begin with.

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