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10 Kind of Blue Facts About Miles Davis

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Jazz trumpeter and composer Miles Dewey Davis III was not what you would call a humble man. At the very least, the multi-talented musician made it a little bit easier to describe his career when he himself said that he "changed music five or six times." Davis was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006, 15 years after his passing, for being "one of the key figures in the history of jazz." It was an understatement, since Davis was responsible for popularizing the cool, modal, and fusion forms of jazz, and has influenced musicians in every genre; Davis collaborated with Jimi Hendrix and Prince. Had Hendrix not died, Davis and the guitar legend would have recorded together. Here are some facts about Miles Davis, on what would have been his 90th birthday.

1. HE WAS FIRST TAUGHT THE TRUMPET, TO HIS MOTHER'S DISAPPROVAL.

Elwood Buchanan was one of Miles Davis's father's dental patients—and drinking buddies—and became Davis's trumpet teacher. On Davis' 13th birthday, his father bought him a new trumpet. His mother, Cleota, wanted him to have a violin; it caused a great argument between the couple but, as Davis wrote, "she soon got over it." In high school, Davis began studying with a German trumpeter named Gustav who played first trumpet with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra. Buchanan was still Davis' high school music teacher, and one day in a formative moment of Miles' life, Buchanan stopped the band to admonish young Davis on his use of vibrato, saying he had "enough talent" to use a style all his own.

2. HE PLAYED WITH CHARLIE PARKER, WHO WAS ALSO HIS ROOMMATE.

When the Billy Eckstine band visited St. Louis in 1944, Dizzy Gillespie and Parker were members, and they invited Davis to replace Buddy Anderson as third trumpet (Anderson came down with tuberculosis, went back home to Oklahoma, and became a jazz pianist). After the experience, Davis was determined to move to New York City and get in touch with Parker again. After spending his first month's allowance in one week in New York, Davis went on his search. Despite saxophonist Coleman Hawkins' warnings to steer clear of Parker because of his heroin problem, Davis and "Bird" were roommates for a year.

3. HE ATTENDED JUILLIARD.

"Up at Juilliard," Davis said, "I played in the symphony, two notes, 'bop-bop,' every 90 bars, so I said, 'Let me out of here,' and then I left." In his autobiography, he recalled that along with just being bored with school—Davis was, after all, by this time playing in jazz clubs and with the likes of Charlie Parker every night—he found Juilliard to be "white-oriented" and "racist." One example was when a white female teacher told his class the reason black people played the blues was because they were poor and had to pick cotton. Davis wrote that he raised his hand, stood up, and said, "I'm from East St. Louis and my father is rich, he's a dentist, and I play the blues. My father didn’t never pick no cotton and I didn’t wake up this morning sad and start playing the blues. There's more to it than that." The teacher said nothing more on the subject.

4. HE TURNED DOWN WORKING WITH DUKE ELLINGTON IN ORDER TO FINISH BIRTH OF THE COOL.

Davis credited composer/pianist/bandleader Ellington as the root source for his landmark 1957 album Birth of the Cool, which made it all the more interesting when Davis had to turn him down.

Ellington—whom Davis had never met—sent for the young musician. Hearing that Ellington liked his style was a big deal to the young musician; Davis wrote that it "sent my ego climbing to the sky." When Davis went to meet his hero, Ellington was dressed in shorts with a woman sitting on his lap. Ellington invited him to join his band that fall, but Davis turned him down because he was working on Birth of the Cool. While his excuse was genuine, Davis also didn't want to play the same music night after night, which is something he feared would happen if he accepted Ellington's offer. He never spoke to Ellington again and sometimes wondered what would have happened if he had said "yes."

5. HE KICKED HEROIN COLD TURKEY.

In 1949, Davis became addicted to heroin. He would often say that it was because “I got bored and was around cats that were hung,” but in his autobiography he says that it was because of his depression at the time. He managed to quit in 1954, after growing sick and tired of it. "You know you can get tired of anything," Davis told Rolling Stone in 1969. "You can even get tired of being scared. I laid down and stared at the ceiling for 12 days, and I cursed everybody I didn't like. I was kicking it the hard way. It was like having a bad case of flu, only worse. I threw up everything I tried to eat. My pores opened up and I smelled like chicken soup. Then it was over."

6. HIS VOICE BECAME PERMANENTLY RASPY AFTER NOT FOLLOWING HIS DOCTOR'S ORDERS.

Davis had a throat operation in 1957 to remove nodes from his vocal cords. He was told not to raise his voice for 10 days. Two days after he was told this, he shouted at someone —either a record company owner or a booking agent—who, according to Davis, "tried to convince me to go into a deal I didn't want," permanently damaging his voice and giving it a rasp.

7. AMONG HIS PRE-SHOW RITUALS WERE AVOIDING FOOD (AND SEX).

He said that like fighters Joe Louis and Sugar Ray Robinson, he avoided shaking hands before performances (he supposedly didn’t want the oil from other people’s hands to mess up how his hands felt). Also like a boxer, he tied his shoelaces as tightly as possible, on shoes that were one size too small. Davis also declined food and sex before playing, purposely making himself hungry and unsatisfied.

8. HE HAD ISSUES WITH THELONIOUS MONK.

As Charles Mingus revealed in "An Open Letter to Miles Davis," printed November 30, 1955 in Down Beat magazine, Davis kept railing on Monk to "lay out" during a gig because he got the chords wrong. Later, during a recording session, he "cursed, laid out, argued, and threatened" the pianist/composer, and asked producer Bob Weinstock why he hired Monk, a "non-musician," in the first place.

9. HE DISAPPEARED FOR YEARS.

Davis stopped performing in the spring of 1976, and disappeared from the public eye. He hid away in his Manhattan brownstone until 1981. Fans of his hung out on his New York City block and went through his garbage. Rumors of a series of operations led people to believe he was dying. It turned out that beginning in 1975 he had an artificial hip implant, more throat polyp surgery, a painful leg infection, gallbladder issues, a bleeding ulcer, pneumonia, and chronic insomnia, and was too drugged up to perform.

10. HE HAD A LONG TALK WITH A YOUNG PHILIP SEYMOUR HOFFMAN.

When he was in his early 20s, the late Oscar-winning actor Philip Seymour Hoffman worked was a lifeguard at New York City's Metropolitan Towers, where Davis lived. One day, Davis came to the pool. "I didn't want to make him feel uncomfortable, so I pretended I didn't know him," Hoffman said. "He was wearing a Speedo with sunglasses and he had a towel and he got in the pool with his sunglasses and doggie-paddled about five laps, got out, took his sunglasses off and started talking to me because I don't think that he knew that I knew who he was." Davis then sat with Hoffman and talked for half an hour while looking at the city, talking about buildings he owned, accidents he got into, and girlfriends. "Everything except music," Hoffman said. "At the end of it he said, 'I'm Miles...' and he walked away."

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8 of the Weirdest Gallup Polls
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Born in Jefferson, Iowa on November 18, 1901, George Gallup studied journalism and psychology, focusing on how to measure readers’ interest in newspaper and magazine content. In 1935, he founded the American Institute of Public Opinion to scientifically measure public opinions on topics such as government spending, criminal justice, and presidential candidates. Although he died in 1984, The Gallup Poll continues his legacy of trying to determine and report the will of the people in an unbiased, independent way. To celebrate his day of birth, we compiled a list of some of the weirdest, funniest Gallup polls over the years.

1. THREE IN FOUR AMERICANS BELIEVE IN THE PARANORMAL (2005)

According to this Gallup poll, 75 percent of Americans have at least one paranormal belief. Specifically, 41 percent believe in extrasensory perception (ESP), 37 percent believe in haunted houses, and 21 percent believe in witches. What about channeling spirits, you might ask? Only 9 percent of Americans believe that it’s possible to channel a spirit so that it takes temporary control of one's body. Interestingly, believing in paranormal phenomena was relatively similar across people of different genders, races, ages, and education levels.

2. ONE IN FIVE AMERICANS THINK THE SUN REVOLVES AROUND THE EARTH (1999)

In this poll, Gallup tried to determine the popularity of heliocentric versus geocentric views. While 79 percent of Americans correctly stated that the Earth revolves around the sun, 18 percent think the sun revolves around the Earth. Three percent chose to remain indifferent, saying they had no opinion either way.

3. 22 PERCENT OF AMERICANS ARE HESITANT TO SUPPORT A MORMON (2011)

Gallup first measured anti-Mormon sentiment back in 1967, and it was still an issue in 2011, a year before Mormon Mitt Romney ran for president. Approximately 22 percent of Americans said they would not vote for a Mormon presidential candidate, even if that candidate belonged to their preferred political party. Strangely, Americans’ bias against Mormons has remained stable since the 1960s, despite decreasing bias against African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and women.

4. MISSISSIPPIANS GO TO CHURCH THE MOST; VERMONTERS THE LEAST (2010)

This 2010 poll amusingly confirms the stereotype that southerners are more religious than the rest of the country. Although 42 percent of all Americans attend church regularly (which Gallup defines as weekly or almost weekly), there are large variations based on geography. For example, 63 percent of people in Mississippi attend church regularly, followed by 58 percent in Alabama and 56 percent in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Utah. Rounding out the lowest levels of church attendance, on the other hand, were Vermont, where 23 percent of residents attend church regularly, New Hampshire, at 26 percent, and Maine at 27 percent.

5. ONE IN FOUR AMERICANS DON’T KNOW WHICH COUNTRY AMERICA GAINED INDEPENDENCE FROM (1999)

Although 76 percent of Americans knew that the United States gained independence from Great Britain as a result of the Revolutionary War, 24 percent weren’t so sure. Two percent thought the correct answer was France, 3 percent said a different country (such as Mexico, China, or Russia), and 19 percent had no opinion. Certain groups of people who consider themselves patriotic, including men, older people, and white people (according to Gallup polls), were more likely to know that America gained its independence from Great Britain.

6. ONE THIRD OF AMERICANS BELIEVE IN GHOSTS (2000)

This Halloween-themed Gallup poll asked Americans about their habits and behavior on the last day of October. Predictably, two-thirds of Americans reported that someone in their house planned to give candy to trick-or-treaters and more than three-quarters of parents with kids reported that their kids would wear a costume. More surprisingly, 31 percent of American adults claimed to believe in ghosts, an increase from 1978, when only 11 percent of American adults admitted to a belief in ghosts.

7. 5 PERCENT OF WORKING MILLENNIALS THRIVE IN ALL FIVE ELEMENTS OF WELL-BEING (2016)

This recent Gallup poll is funny in a sad way, as it sheds light on the tragicomic life of a millennial. In this poll, well-being is defined as having purpose, social support, manageable finances, a strong community, and good physical health. Sadly, only 5 percent of working millennials—defined as people born between 1980 and 1996—were thriving in these five indicators of well-being. To counter this lack of well-being, Gallup’s report recommends that managers promote work-life balance and improve their communication with millennial employees.

8. THE WORLD IS BECOMING SLIGHTLY MORE NEGATIVE (2014)

If you seem to feel more stress, sadness, anxiety, and pain than ever before, Gallup has the proof that it’s not all in your head. According to the company’s worldwide negative experience index, negative feelings such as stress, sadness, and anger have increased since 2007. Unsurprisingly, people living in war-torn, dangerous parts of the word—Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Syria, and Sierra Leone—reported the highest levels of negative emotions.

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11 Times Mickey Mouse Was Banned
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Despite being one of the world’s most recognizable and beloved characters, it hasn’t always been smooth sailing for Mickey Mouse, who turns 89 years old today. A number of countries—and even U.S. states—have banned the cartoon rodent at one time or another for reasons both big and small.

1. In 1930, Ohio banned a cartoon called “The Shindig” because Clarabelle Cow was shown reading Three Weeks by Elinor Glyn, the premier romance novelist of the time. Check it out (1:05) and let us know if you’re scandalized:

2. With movies on 10-foot screen being a relatively new thing in Romania in 1935, the government decided to ban Mickey Mouse, concerned that children would be terrified of a monstrous rodent.

3. In 1929, a German censor banned a Mickey Mouse short called “The Barnyard Battle.” The reason? An army of cats wearing pickelhauben, the pointed helmets worn by German military in the 19th and 20th centuries: "The wearing of German military helmets by an army of cats which oppose a militia of mice is offensive to national dignity. Permission to exhibit this production in Germany is refused.”

4. The German dislike for Mickey Mouse continued into the mid-'30s, with one German newspaper wondering why such a small and dirty animal would be idolized by children across the world: "Mickey Mouse is the most miserable ideal ever revealed ... Healthy emotions tell every independent young man and every honorable youth that the dirty and filth-covered vermin, the greatest bacteria carrier in the animal kingdom, cannot be the ideal type of animal.” Mickey was originally banned from Nazi Germany, but eventually the mouse's popularity won out.

5. In 2014, Iran's Organization for Supporting Manufacturers and Consumers announced a ban on school supplies and stationery products featuring “demoralizing images,” including that of Disney characters such as Mickey Mouse, Winnie the Pooh, Sleeping Beauty, and characters from Toy Story.

6. In 1954, East Germany banned Mickey Mouse comics, claiming that Mickey was an “anti-Red rebel.”

7. In 1937, a Mickey Mouse adventure was so similar to real events in Yugoslavia that the comic strip was banned. State police say the comic strip depicted a “Puritan-like revolt” that was a danger to the “Boy King,” Peter II of Yugoslavia, who was just 14 at the time. A journalist who wrote about the ban was consequently escorted out of the country.

8. Though Mussolini banned many cartoons and American influences from Italy in 1938, Mickey Mouse flew under the radar. It’s been said that Mussolini’s children were such Mickey Mouse fans that they were able to convince him to keep the rodent around.

9. Mickey and his friends were banned from the 1988 Seoul Olympics in a roundabout way. As they do with many major sporting events, including the Super Bowl, Disney had contacted American favorites to win in each event to ask them to say the famous “I’m going to Disneyland!” line if they won. When American swimmer Matt Biondi won the 100-meter freestyle, he dutifully complied with the request. After a complaint from the East Germans, the tape was pulled and given to the International Olympic Committee.

10. In 1993, Mickey was banned from a place he shouldn't have been in the first place: Seattle liquor stores. As a wonderful opening sentence from the Associated Press explained, "Mickey Mouse, the Easter Bunny and teddy bears have no business selling booze, the Washington State Liquor Control Board has decided." A handful of stores had painted Mickey and other characters as part of a promotion. A Disney VP said Mickey was "a nondrinker."

11. Let's end with another strike against The Shindig (see #1) and Clarabelle’s bulging udder. Less than a year after the Shindig ban, the Motion Picture Producers and Directors of America announced that they had received a massive number of complaints about the engorged cow udders in various Mickey Mouse cartoons.

From then on, according to a 1931 article in Time magazine, “Cows in Mickey Mouse ... pictures in the future will have small or invisible udders quite unlike the gargantuan organ whose antics of late have shocked some and convulsed others. In a recent picture the udder, besides flying violently to left and right or stretching far out behind when the cow was in motion, heaved with its panting with the cow stood still.”

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