Battle Between Clovis and the Visigoths // National Library of the Netherlands, Public Domain
Battle Between Clovis and the Visigoths // National Library of the Netherlands, Public Domain

11 Rome-Sacking Facts About the Original Goths

Battle Between Clovis and the Visigoths // National Library of the Netherlands, Public Domain
Battle Between Clovis and the Visigoths // National Library of the Netherlands, Public Domain

May 22 is World Goth Day, an occasion minted in 2009 when BBC 6 dedicated the day to goth rock. It has since become a happening in clubs across Europe, the Americas, Australia, and South Africa. To celebrate, we’ve compiled 11 facts about the original Goths—and we don’t mean Bauhaus.

Here are some things you may not know about the Germanic people best known for sacking Rome in 410 CE. Though deemed “savages” and “barbarians” by the Romans, they were actually complex, intelligent, and misunderstood people. The Goths by Peter Heather and The History of the Goths by Herwig Wolfram both served as invaluable sources for the facts listed below.


Only one source regarding the Goths’ origins survives: Getica, a history written by Jordanes, a 6th century Roman historian of Gothic descent. According to Jordanes, “from this island of Scandza, as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago.” Most scholars have accepted Scandza as Scandinavia. Jordanes describes the Goths expelling and subduing a series of peoples along the southern coast of the Baltic Sea to create their domain there, outside the Roman Empire. Twentieth century archaeological evidence suggests such a migration in the first three centuries.


Goths’ reputation as barbarians comes from Roman sources, which viewed them (at various times) as pests, threats, and second-class subjects of the Empire. In truth, during the time they were settled between the Baltic and Black Seas, the Goths were largely peaceful hunters and farmers, skilled in horsemanship, archery, and falconry. They traded extensively with neighbors, both stationary and nomadic, and Gothic furs were much in demand. “They had generated a reasonably sophisticated agricultural culture with quite complicated political structures,” according to Heather.


Another misconception is that the Goths were pagans. In the 4th century, the bishop of Constantinople sent a missionary named Ulfilas to convert the Goths. Though Christianity was not universal, he brought many to the faith and created an entire Gothic alphabet so as to translate the Bible. (It's worth noting that Ulfilas practiced and converted the Goths to Arian Christianity, a form deemed heretical by the Catholic Church.)


Until the late 4th century, the Goths had no king. Instead, their political system was a network of clan chieftains who selected a central leader in times of danger or to represent them in diplomacy (usually with the Roman Empire). At times like these, “the king did not differ from other Goths in his habits, at sports or play [and] he did not set himself apart in dress or appearance,” wrote Wolfram.


In about 370 CE, the Huns invaded the domain of the Goths, massacring and pillaging villages. This uprooted their society and permanently divided the Goths into two groups. The Ostrogoths (low Latin for “the eastern Goths”) stayed east of Dniester River and were largely subdued by the Huns and made vassals in what was essentially a cross-continental protection racket. The Visigoths (“the good Goths” or “the noble Goths”) established a domain extending from the Dniester to the Danube River and spent the next several decades as frenemies of the Romans.

However, it’s possible that the split between the two branches is much older. Jordanes mentions that the Goths traveled in three boats, which may represent that there were distinct branches before leaving Scandza. On the third boat were the Gepidae, one of the most mysterious of the Germanic tribes. Their name means "the late ones" because their boat arrived last.)


A contingent of Visigoths led by King Fritigern petitioned Emperor Valens, who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire, for protection as they tried to escape both the Huns and an ongoing conflict with another Visigoth ruler. In 376 CE, Valens agreed, in exchange for their mass conversion to Christianity (which was largely trivial after Ulfilas’s efforts) and conscription into the Roman Army. Fritigern led about 80,000 people across the Danube River, the traditional boundary of Goth land. Their plight wasn’t much better under Roman rule. Corrupt Roman governors hijacked grain shipments meant for the Gothic refugees. At the lowest point, Goths were selling their children into slavery. Romans offered the meat of one dog carcass for one child.


The hungry, downcast Visigoths soon rebelled against their Roman overlords and destroyed much of an area called Thrace. Valens led an army to repel Fritigern’s, and at the city of Adrianople, the Goths slaughtered between 10,000 and 20,000 Roman soldiers, including Valens himself. The battle had repercussions that changed Europe. The defeat of such a nation, including the killing of an emperor at the hands of a “barbarian” force, was humiliating and perhaps the start of the fall of the long-eroding Roman Empire.

Valens’s successor, Theodosius I, had little choice but to make peace with the Visigoths. A 382 CE treaty deemed them an autonomous group within the Roman Empire, with a right to lands between the Danube River and Balkan Mountains. (It denied them connubium, the right to marry Roman citizens.) However, facing an unending series of foreign enemies and internal usurpers, Theodosius couldn’t resist stipulating that Goths fight in Rome’s army—a caveat that proved to be Rome’s undoing.


For the most part, the Visigoths were used as cannon fodder (in the figurative sense) by the Roman army, placed on the deadly front lines so that the sons of Rome would be safely tucked behind. This stoked Goth resentment of the Romans and prevented consolidation of the two groups.

At the end of the 4th century, a military leader named Alaric rose up among the Visigoths. He had fought in the Roman army and seemed to be angling for a lucrative generalship. Perhaps a denial of a promotion played a role in his later actions, but, in any case, Alaric organized the Visigoths. Throughout his 15 years of leadership, they rebelled against the Romans several times, sacking cities across the Empire. Provincial leaders often gave into Alaric’s demands of land, money, and titles, indicating he had control of their soldiers. Central Roman leaders abused and slaughtered Goth citizens and slaves in retaliation, but this only brought Alaric more followers.


In 408 CE, with the Roman army distracted in campaigns against the Franks and Vandals, Alaric finally marched to Rome, the heart of the empire, with little resistance (although Rome hadn’t been the capital since the 3rd century CE, moving first to Milan and then in 402 to Ravenna). He assimilated former slaves and members of other outsider tribes on his way and began the first siege of Rome.

The first siege was successful, earning Alaric and his army several tons of gold and silver, thousands of tunics and hides, and 3000 pounds of pepper. Two more sieges would follow: one in 409 CE that led to a puppet Emperor being placed on the throne, and the 410 CE siege which famously led to the sacking of Rome.

It was first time in 800 years “the Eternal City” fell to outside attackers, though the siege was mild by 5th century standards, and there was no wholesale slaughter of citizens. The Visigoths burned buildings, desecrated statues, stole possessions, and rounded up captives to be ransomed or sold as slaves. The Goths stole books, even though few were literate, because books represented wealth to Romans. His point made and his pockets filled, Alaric moved on to the tip of Italy, hoping to invade a piece of Africa and sustain his people there, but he died along the way.


In the face of the Roman Empire’s collapse, Theoderic the Great built the Ostrogoth Kingdom, which stretched across Italy. He then sought to reunite his tribe with the Visigoths, taking on a position as regent of the Kingdom of Toulouse, the Visigoth power center in what is now France, established after they left Rome.


The Visigoths pushed into the Iberian Peninsula where they set up a capital under the name of Toledo. Because they had interacted with the Romans so extensively, much of the attire, language, architecture, and legal codes of this kingdom showed Roman influence at a time when the Empire’s culture was deteriorating. The Visigoths eventually converted to Catholicism and merged, culturally and militarily, with the peninsula’s native population, creating the coalition that birthed Spain.

Travel Salem via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
A.C. Gilbert, the Toymaker Who (Actually) Saved Christmas 
Travel Salem via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
Travel Salem via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

Alfred Carlton Gilbert was told he had 15 minutes to convince the United States government not to cancel Christmas.

For hours, he paced the outer hall, awaiting his turn before the Council of National Defense. With him were the tools of his trade: toy submarines, air rifles, and colorful picture books. As government personnel walked by, Gilbert, bashful about his cache of kid things, tried hiding them behind a leather satchel.

Finally, his name was called. It was 1918, the U.S. was embroiled in World War I, and the Council had made an open issue about their deliberation over whether to halt all production of toys indefinitely, turning factories into ammunition centers and even discouraging giving or receiving gifts that holiday season. Instead of toys, they argued, citizens should be spending money on war bonds. Playthings had become inconsequential.

Frantic toymakers persuaded Gilbert, founder of the A.C. Gilbert Company and creator of the popular Erector construction sets, to speak on their behalf. Toys in hand, he faced his own personal firing squad of military generals, policy advisors, and the Secretary of War.

Gilbert held up an air rifle and began to talk. What he’d say next would determine the fate of the entire toy industry.

Even if he had never had to testify on behalf of Christmas toys, A.C. Gilbert would still be remembered for living a remarkable life. Born in Oregon in 1884, Gilbert excelled at athletics, once holding the world record for consecutive chin-ups (39) and earning an Olympic gold medal in the pole vault during the 1908 Games. In 1909, he graduated from Yale School of Medicine with designs on remaining in sports as a health advisor.

But medicine wasn’t where Gilbert found his passion. A lifelong performer of magic, he set his sights on opening a business selling illusionist kits. The Mysto Manufacturing Company didn’t last long, but it proved to Gilbert that he had what it took to own and operate a small shingle. In 1916, three years after introducing the Erector sets, he renamed Mysto the A.C. Gilbert Company.

Erector was a big hit in the burgeoning American toy market, which had typically been fueled by imported toys from Germany. Kids could take the steel beams and make scaffolding, bridges, and other small-development projects. With the toy flying off shelves, Gilbert’s factory in New Haven, Connecticut grew so prosperous that he could afford to offer his employees benefits that were uncommon at the time, like maternity leave and partial medical insurance.

Gilbert’s reputation for being fair and level-headed led the growing toy industry to elect him their president for the newly created Toy Manufacturers of America, an assignment he readily accepted. But almost immediately, his position became something other than ceremonial: His peers began to grow concerned about the country’s involvement in the war and the growing belief that toys were a dispensable effort.

President Woodrow Wilson had appointed a Council of National Defense to debate these kinds of matters. The men were so preoccupied with the consequences of the U.S. marching into a European conflict that something as trivial as a pull-string toy or chemistry set seemed almost insulting to contemplate. Several toy companies agreed to convert to munitions factories, as did Gilbert. But when the Council began discussing a blanket prohibition on toymaking and even gift-giving, Gilbert was given an opportunity to defend his industry.

Before Gilbert was allowed into the Council’s chambers, a Naval guard inspected each toy for any sign of sabotage. Satisfied, he allowed Gilbert in. Among the officials sitting opposite him were Secretary of War Newton Baker and Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels.

“The greatest influences in the life of a boy are his toys,” Gilbert said. “Yet through the toys American manufacturers are turning out, he gets both fun and an education. The American boy is a genuine boy and wants genuine toys."

He drew an air rifle, showing the committee members how a child wielding less-than-lethal weapons could make for a better marksman when he was old enough to become a soldier. He insisted construction toys—like the A.C. Gilbert Erector Set—fostered creative thinking. He told the men that toys provided a valuable escape from the horror stories coming out of combat.

Armed with play objects, a boy’s life could be directed toward “construction, not destruction,” Gilbert said.

Gilbert then laid out his toys for the board to examine. Secretary Daniels grew absorbed with a toy submarine, marveling at the detail and asking Gilbert if it could be bought anywhere in the country. Other officials examined children’s books; one began pushing a train around the table.

The word didn’t come immediately, but the expressions on the faces of the officials told the story: Gilbert had won them over. There would be no toy or gift embargo that year.

Naturally, Gilbert still devoted his work floors to the production efforts for both the first and second world wars. By the 1950s, the A.C. Gilbert Company was dominating the toy business with products that demanded kids be engaged and attentive. Notoriously, he issued a U-238 Atomic Energy Lab, which came complete with four types of uranium ore. “Completely safe and harmless!” the box promised. A Geiger counter was included. At $50 each, Gilbert lost money on it, though his decision to produce it would earn him a certain infamy in toy circles.

“It was not suitable for the same age groups as our simpler chemistry and microscope sets, for instance,” he once said, “and you could not manufacture such a thing as a beginner’s atomic energy lab.”

Gilbert’s company reached an astounding $20 million in sales in 1953. By the mid-1960s, just a few years after Gilbert's death in 1961, it was gone, driven out of business by the apathy of new investors. No one, it seemed, had quite the same passion for play as Gilbert, who had spent over half a century providing fun and educational fare that kids were ecstatic to see under their trees.

When news of the Council’s 1918 decision reached the media, The Boston Globe's front page copy summed up Gilbert’s contribution perfectly: “The Man Who Saved Christmas.”

The Queen of Code: Remembering Grace Hopper
By Lynn Gilbert, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

Grace Hopper was a computing pioneer. She coined the term "computer bug" after finding a moth stuck inside Harvard's Mark II computer in 1947 (which in turn led to the term "debug," meaning solving problems in computer code). She did the foundational work that led to the COBOL programming language, used in mission-critical computing systems for decades (including today). She worked in World War II using very early computers to help end the war. When she retired from the U.S. Navy at age 79, she was the oldest active-duty commissioned officer in the service. Hopper, who was born on this day in 1906, is a hero of computing and a brilliant role model, but not many people know her story.

In this short documentary from FiveThirtyEight, directed by Gillian Jacobs, we learned about Grace Hopper from several biographers, archival photographs, and footage of her speaking in her later years. If you've never heard of Grace Hopper, or you're even vaguely interested in the history of computing or women in computing, this is a must-watch:


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