Toxic Moths Use Sonar Signals to Tell Bats to Stay Away

Being poisonous can only protect you if potential predators know you’re poisonous. Many plants and animals have evolved protective coloration that bellows it in big, bad-tasting letters: “EAT ME AND DIE.” This is a great strategy, but it’s not always enough; after all, some predators hunt in the dark. Some poisonous prey animals have gotten creative. Biologists say at least two species of tiger moths use sonar to broadcast that warning message—and it works. The research was published in the journal PLOS One.

For the last 65 million years, tiger moths have been embroiled in an evolutionary arms race with the bats that eat them. To keep the bats from biting, the moths have adapted to eat poisonous plants and absorb their toxins. Many, like the Cisthene martini specimen shown above, have developed bright, stop sign-style coloration. They’ve also grown little noise-making blisters called tymbals on their bodies. These tymbals make clicking noises that, when deployed correctly, can actually jam bats’ sonar and make the moths harder to find.

Previous studies have also shown that poisonous tiger moths emit a type of click that sounds like an “I TASTE TERRIBLE” message, but they hadn’t determined whether these messages actually work, or how they evolved.

Wake Forest University biologist Bill Conner contributed to much of that earlier research. In the current study, he and graduate student Nick Dowdy aimed to test the efficacy of the moths’ defensive messages. They set up a kind of moth/bat combat arena in the field, in Cochise County, Arizona. They collected two species of tiger moths: Pygarctia roseicapitis and Cisthene martini. The researchers divided the moths into three groups. One group, the control group, was left alone. Moths in the experimental group had their tymbals removed, while those in the sham control group underwent a similar surgery, but their tymbals were left intact. This allowed the researchers to check if the behavior of the moths with no tymbals was being affected by the trauma of surgery.

The researchers set up audio recorders and infrared video cameras, then released the moths one at a time and waited for the bats—all wild—to arrive. Observers near the arena watched the action to see if and when the bats flew close enough to the moths to hear their clicks. After all the moths had run the wild bat gauntlet, Conner and Dowdy analyzed the footage. Back in the lab, they played bat noises for captive moths and recorded and analyzed the moths’ clicking responses.

There was no doubt about it: The moth clicks were definitely telling the bats to back off, and the bats were listening. But Dowdy and Conner noticed differences in the two moth species’ behavior. When P. roseicapitis moths were under attack, they broadcast the I-taste-bad message, but they also used evasive flight maneuvers like diving to physically get out of the bats’ way.C. martini moths were much more chill, relying exclusively on the protective power of their clicks.

This “nonchalance continuum,” as Dowdy calls it, suggests that some tiger moth species are more acoustic-centric than others. As evasive maneuvers take a lot of energy, clicking might represent moths’ most efficient, most recently evolved weapon in the arms race.

"This means that in evolutionary history, these moths first evolved these sounds for use in warning bats of their toxicity, and then sometime later, these sounds grew in complexity in certain species to perform a sonar-jamming function," Dowdy said.

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5 Fascinating Facts About Koko the Gorilla
ZUMA Press, Inc., Alamy
ZUMA Press, Inc., Alamy

After 46 years of learning, making new friends, and challenging ideas about language, Koko the gorilla died in her sleep at her home at the Gorilla Foundation in Woodside, California on June 21, 2018. Koko first gained recognition in the late 1970s for her ability to use sign language, but it was her friendly personality that made her a beloved icon. Here are five facts you should know about the history-making ape.


Francine "Penny" Patterson, then a graduate student at Stanford University, was looking for an animal subject for her inter-species animal communication experiment in the early 1970s when she found a baby gorilla at the San Francisco Zoo. Originally named Hanabiko (Japanese for "fireworks child," a reference to her Fourth of July birthdate), Koko took to signing quickly. Some of the first words Koko learned in "Gorilla Sign Language," Patterson's modified version of American Sign Language, were "food," "drink," and "more." She followed a similar trajectory as a human toddler, learning the bulk of her words between ages 2.5 and 4.5. Eventually Koko would come to know over 1000 signs and understand about 2000 words spoken to her in English. Though she never got a grasp on grammar or syntax, she was able to express complex ideas, like sadness when watching a sad movie and her desire to have a baby.


Not only did Koko use language to communicate—she also used it in a way that was once only thought possible in humans. Her caretakers have reported her signing about objects that weren't in the room, recalling memories, and even commenting on language itself. Her vocabulary was on par with that of a 3-year-old child.


Koko was the most famous great ape who knew sign language, but she wasn't alone. Michael, a male gorilla who lived with Koko at the Gorilla Foundation from 1976 until his death in 2000, learned over 500 signs with help from Koko and Patterson. He was even able to express the memory of his mother being killed by poachers when he was a baby. Other non-human primates have also shown they're capable of learning sign language, like Washoe the chimpanzee and Chantek the orangutan.


Koko received many visitors during her lifetime, including some celebrities. When Robin Williams came to her home in Woodside, California in 2001, the two bonded right away, with Williams tickling the gorilla and Koko trying on his glasses. But perhaps her most famous celebrity encounter came when Mr. Rogers paid her a visit in 1999. She immediately recognized him as the star of one of her favorite shows, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, and greeted him by helping him take off his shoes like he did at the start of every episode.


Koko was never able to have offspring of her own, but she did adopt several cats. After asking for a kitten, she was allowed to pick one from a litter for her birthday in 1985. She named the gray-and-white cat "All Ball" and handled it gently as if it were her real baby, even trying to nurse it. She had recently received two new kittens for her 44th birthday named Ms. Gray and Ms. Black.

Why Do Dogs Crouch Forward When They’re Playing?

Whether they're tilting their heads or exposing their bellies for rubs, dogs are experts at looking adorable. But these behaviors do more than elicit squeals from delighted humans; in many cases, they serve important evolutionary functions. A prime example is the "play bow": If you've ever seen a dog crouch forward with its elbows on the ground and its rear end in the air, wagging tail and all, then you know what it is. The position is the ultimate sign of playfulness, which is important for a species that often uses playtime as practice for attacking prey.

The play bow first evolved in canids as a form of communication. When a dog sees another dog it wants to play with, it extends its front paws forward and lifts up its behind as a visual invitation to engage in a friendly play session. Dogs will "bow" in the middle of playtime to show that they're having fun and wish to continue, or when a session has paused to signal they want to pick it back up. Play bows can also be a sort of apology: When the roughhousing gets too rough, a bow says, “I’m sorry I hurt you. Can we keep playing?”

Play between canines often mimics aggression, and starting off in a submissive position is a way for all participating parties to make sure they’re on the same page. It’s easy to see why such a cue would be useful; the more puzzling matter for researchers is why the ancestors of modern dogs evolved to play in the first place. One theory is that play is crucial to the social, cognitive, and physical development of puppies [PDF]. It’s an opportunity for them to interact with their own kind and learn important behaviors, like how to moderate the strength of their bites. Play also requires the animals to react quickly to new circumstances and assess complex actions from other dogs.

Shiba inus playing outside.
Taro the Shiba Inu, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Another evolutionary explanation is that playtime prepares puppies for the hunting they do later as adults. Watch two puppies play and you’ll see them stalking, biting, and pouncing on one another—all behaviors canines exhibit in the wild when taking down prey.

Of course, it’s also possible that dogs simply play because it’s fun. This is a strong case for why pet dogs continue to play into adulthood. “Devoting a lot of time to play may be less advantageous for a wild species who spends much of its time hunting or foraging for food, searching for mates, or avoiding predators,” Dr. Emma Grigg, an animal behaviorist and co-author of The Science Behind a Happy Dog, tells Mental Floss. “Many domestic dogs are provisioned by humans, and so have more time and energy to devote to play as adults.”

Because play is a lifelong activity for domestic dogs, owners of dogs of all ages have likely seen the play bow in person. Wild canids, like wolves, foxes, and coyotes, tend to reserve this behavior for members of their own species, but pet dogs often break out the bow for their humans—or anyone else who looks like they might be up for a play session. Grigg says, “One of my dogs regularly play bows to her favorite of our cats.”


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