Harlequeen via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0
Harlequeen via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

15 Historical Theories on How to Be Lucky

Harlequeen via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0
Harlequeen via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

Superstition is a fascinating thing. It tends to arise in times of turmoil or uncertainty, and it gives us a way to feel like we're in control of a situation. But it can also be a great window into the way people think. Here are 15 surprising historical good-luck theories from around the world.


If you want to guarantee yourself a good year, you’ll need to do as Colombian people do and put on a pair of yellow underpants, inside out, on December 31. At midnight, reverse your undies and sail smoothly on into a new year full of luck, love, and prosperity. A similar tradition exists in Spain, with one key difference: lucky underpants are red, not yellow.



The first few years of life have historically been pretty risky, and babies really were lucky if they survived. This precarious time spawned all kinds of baby-protecting superstitions, many of which seem kind of counter-intuitive. In China, for example, it’s best to shower a beloved baby with verbal abuse, calling it names like “dog fart” and “stinky pig.” This performance tells any hovering malevolent spirits that the baby isn’t wanted, which might make them lose interest.


Many male mammals have a bone called a baculum in their penis. For reasons we have yet to understand, these penis bones have become popular lucky charms in the southern United States. People keep them in their pockets, wear them around their necks, and even incorporate them into bridal bouquets.


Jon Sullivan via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

During the super-perilous 16th century, expectant fathers would make a special “groaning cheese,” named for their partners’ labor pains. Once the child was born, a father’s job was to cut the cheese (pretty sure we’ve found the source of dad jokes!) from the center outward and distribute pieces to everyone in the house. The circular rind was saved for the baptism, at which time the baby would be passed through the hoop as additional insurance against bad luck.


It’s common knowledge that bad luck is contagious. But if you’re near someone who’s been jinxed or cursed, what can you do? If you’re an Argentinean or Uruguayan man, you grab your genitals, specifically the left testicle. No testicles? Don’t feel left out: touching your left boob should have the same protective effect.


Man vyi via Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The story of Jesus’s resurrection at Easter gave rise (heyooo) to all kinds of death- and decay-defying superstitions. For example: an old British legend said that hot cross buns baked on Good Friday would never go bad, and that keeping those buns around until next Easter would ensure a year of good fortune.


Back to Russia, where it’s very bad luck to encounter a woman carrying empty buckets, or empty anything, for that matter. To prevent the spread of bad luck, Russian street cleaners are careful to leave at least one mop or broom in their carts at all times.


ruurmo via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

Here’s a weird one. There were two major racecar accidents in 1937, neither of which involved peanuts. Yet a NASCAR superstition claims that peanut shells were found in both wrecks, and that the mere presence of peanuts in the shell is enough to doom a driver to crash.


It may ruin your suit or stain your shoes, but being pooped on by a bird is a very good omen according to Russian superstition.


Jacinta Lluch via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

To ensure a good year, people in Spain eat 12 grapes at midnight, racing to swallow each one before the next chime of the clock. If they can force down the entire dozen uvas de la suerte (lucky grapes), they can expect fortune in the coming months. If they can’t, they may need a hospital trip. To make this physical challenge easier, Spanish companies have started selling individual cans of 12 grapes with easy-to-swallow thin skins.


Going to a job interview or on a long journey? In Serbia, if your friends really care about you, they’ll spill water as you pass. The water is said to represent fluidity and smooth travels.


Veganbaking.net via WikimediaCommons // CC BY-SA 2.0

American sport fishers believe that having bananas on board can keep fish from biting, or even cause a boat to break down in the middle of the ocean. Captain Rick Etzel told The New York Times that the superstition may not be real, “…but some people take the banana thing very seriously. A few years back, a guy on one of my charters showed up wearing a Banana Republic T-shirt. Another guy in the group went up to him with a knife and slashed the logo."


kallerna via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

In Thailand, the palad khik, or “deputy penis,” can bring all kinds of good luck and protection. These amulets, inspired by the sacred phallus of the Hindu god Shiva, are often blessed by monks and may be inscribed with prayers or adorned with lucky animals. It’s said that they can keep away disease, muggers, and water ghosts, and even give gamblers an edge.


The British, and, later, British emigrants to Australia, would hide children’s clothes, shoes, and other small personal possessions in the walls of houses in order to fend off evil spirits. The idea was that the children’s youth and innocence would protect the house.


Harald Hoyer via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

Having bug-eating spiders in your house is good news anyway, but in the Netherlands it’s considered especially auspicious to see a spider in the morning. In the afternoon … less so. So plan your spider hunts accordingly.

If You’ve Ever Seen a Ghost, Science May Explain Why

Despite all the reports of ghost sightings (28 percent of Americans report having ghostly encounters), there’s zero evidence to support the presence of supernatural beings among us. Science may not prove the existence of ghosts, but it can help explain why people think they see ghosts in the first place.

In this video from Vox, paranormal investigator Joe Nickell identifies some of the phenomena believers may mistake for paranormal activity. One possible explanation is infrasound, or the sound waves that fall beneath levels of human perception. Though we can’t hear these noises firsthand, our bodies sense them in other ways. This can cause chills, feelings of unease and depression, and even hallucinations.

Other contributors may include sleep paralysis (when you wake up while your body is immobile and experience waking nightmares) and grief. There are also a few less common possibilities that aren’t covered in the video below: Mold poisoning, for instance, can lead to irrational fear and dementia. Suddenly, a visit from a poltergeist doesn’t sound so scary.

[h/t Vox]

Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Charles Dickens, Part-Time Mesmerist
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Madame Augusta de la Rue dreaded the end of each day. After settling into bed, her anxiety kept her alert with visions of a figure that followed her into her dreams. When it wasn’t insomnia, she dealt with headaches, a nervous tic, convulsions, and a “burning and raging” mind that was impossible to quiet. Her symptoms became so severe that in 1844 she sought a trendy and controversial treatment known as mesmerism. Her mesmerist: the famous author Charles Dickens.

When Dickens encountered mesmerism in the 1830s, the practice was well-established in the medical community. The German doctor Franz Anton Mesmer had introduced it in the 1770s as a means of manipulating something he called animal magnetism—the magnetic fluid Mesmer believed flowed through the bodies of all living things. According to his theory, the state of this liquid energy was closely tied to one’s health: An uninterrupted flow led to wellness, while blockages caused problems ranging from vomiting to hysteria. Fortunately, Mesmer claimed, these conditions could be cured with a magnet and a steady hand.

By guiding magnets along his patients’ bodies, Mesmer thought he could redistribute the fluid, although he eventually ditched the magnets in favor of his bare hands after discovering they worked just as well. Soon, anyone who shared Mesmer’s supposed magnetic gifts could practice mesmerism by laying or passing their hands over the afflicted. (On top of adding animal magnetism to the lexicon, Mesmer is said to have given us the flirtatious phrase making a pass.) Although responses to mesmeric sessions varied, some claimed it gave them full relief of various physical ailments.

Mesmer died in 1815, a couple decades before the start of the Victorian era. With that period came a nationwide obsession with the metaphysical that renewed public interest in mesmerism not just as a medical treatment, but as a form of entertainment. Practitioners would mesmerize patients into trances and parade them around parties. But some were more than performance artists—John Elliotson, one of the most prolific figures in the field, was a well-respected surgeon famous for popularizing the stethoscope. He was also good friends with Charles Dickens.

Dickens first witnessed mesmerism up close at a demonstration Elliotson gave at London’s University College Hospital in 1838. The writer was intrigued, and implored Elliotson to show him more. Not everyone had a knack for mesmerism, but Dickens was a natural. He wrote years later, “I have the perfect conviction that I could magnetize a Frying-Pan.”

Around the same time he took on Dickens as his pupil, Elliotson watched his career implode. The medical community was then embroiled in a fierce debate over whether or not mesmerism was a legitimate science. One of its staunchest opponents was Thomas Wakley, editor of the British medical journal The Lancet. Wakley affirmed his suspicions after conducting a trial in which the O’Key sisters, two of Elliotson’s more colorful patients, failed to respond to certain "mesmerized" metals yet produced fits in response to materials they were only told were mesmerized. The results of the trial seemed to prove that mesmerism was fake, and Elliotson resigned from his job at University College Hospital shortly after that.

Throughout the controversy, Dickens remained a loyal friend—he even asked Elliotson to be the godfather of his second child. He also continued pursuing his new hobby. In 1842, while in Pittsburgh with his wife Catherine as part of the research for his travelogue American Notes for General Circulation, he first put his mesmerism skills to the test, with Catherine agreeing to be his guinea pig. After several minutes of waving his hands over her head just like Elliotson had taught him, she devolved into hysterics and promptly fell asleep. Dickens took her dramatic response as a sign of his power, and he considered the trial a great success.

From then on, he practiced his talent on whoever was game. His sister-in-law Georgina Hogarth reacted much like Catherine, slipping into a hysterical episode almost immediately. John Leech, who did the original illustrations for A Christmas Carol, came to Dickens for treatment after injuring his head while swimming. Leech felt much better following their session and Dickens took credit for his recovery. The actor Charles Macready, however, was the rare person who didn’t buy the shtick. After Dickens tried to mesmerize him, Macready described the experience as “very unpleasant,” saying “it could not effect me.”

Dickens’s dabblings with mesmerism culminated with a visit to Italy beginning in 1844. He was once again traveling in the name of research, this time for his nonfiction book Pictures From Italy. While staying in Genoa, he became good friends with the Swiss banker Emile de la Rue. He also became close with the banker's English-born wife, Madame Augusta de la Rue—the woman destined to become his most challenging patient. Madame de la Rue suffered from a host of ailments that stemmed from her anxiety, and after hearing about her issues, Dickens offered to help the only way he knew how.

Their first session, which took place in December 1844, may have discouraged a less-experienced mesmerist. Instead of easing her discomfort, his gestures made her more agitated. Madame de la Rue succumbed to a massive anxiety attack, and Dickens took her sensitivity to the treatment as a good sign. They both agreed to see each other again, and soon the meetings became part of their routines.

Madame de la Rue’s response to the therapy grew more promising with each encounter. Her face, once tense with muscle spasms, started to soften. The volume of her thoughts dropped a few notches and she was able to fall asleep much faster. Satisfied with his success treating her physical suffering, Dickens delved deeper into her psyche. He asked her to describe her thoughts and dreams, hoping to get to the root of her illness. The most persistent vision she shared was one of a “phantom” that dogged her whether she was asleep or awake. Dickens described the power it held over her in a letter to her husband:

“That figure is so closely connected with the secret distresses of her very soul—and the impression made upon it is so entwined with her confidence and trust in me, and her knowledge of the power of the Magnetism—that it must not make head again. From what I know from her, I know there is more danger and delay in one appearance of that figure than in a dozen fits of the severest bodily pain. Believe nothing she says of her capacity of endurance, if the reappearance of that figure should become frequent. Consult that mainly, and before all other signs.”

Decades before Sigmund Freud adopted hypnosis as a psychotherapy tool, Dickens was using mesmerism to trace his patient’s visible symptoms to her subconscious mind.

Catherine Dickens didn’t share her husband's excitement for the situation. She had always been jealous of the women her husband mesmerized, and she felt especially threatened by his relationship with Madame de La Rue. And if she thought she’d have her husband’s full attention when they left Genoa to see the rest of Italy in the spring of 1845, she was mistaken. Letters from de La Rue updating Mr. Dickens on her status followed him around the country. Even though they couldn’t be in the same room, the pair continued their appointments remotely by attempting to connect through telepathy for one hour starting at 11 a.m. each day.

Though her condition had vastly improved since their first meeting, the Madame hoped to see Dickens one last time when he finally returned to Genoa in May 1845. Unfortunately a stomach bug prevented the pair from reuniting. He wrote to her in a letter:

"You must not think I am sending you an excuse in lieu of myself. I am in a hideous digestive state, cross, uncomfortable, bilious, blah and limp. A mutton chop and a long walk, and nobody to be contradictory to, are the remedies I have prescribed myself.”

After he resettled in England, Dickens’s passion for mesmerism cooled. He indulged in other mystical hobbies, however: In 1849, he performed stage magic under the pseudonym The Unparalleled Necromancer, Rhia Rhama Rhoos; in 1852, he wrote a spontaneous combustion scene into his realistic fiction book Bleak House, a decision he defended with conviction after it angered scientists. Like many fads to emerge from the Victorian era, those areas of interest have since largely faded from fashion. Mesmerism, on the other hand, laid the foundation for modern hypnosis—but today the treatment is administered by mental health professionals, not young novelists on vacation.


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