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13 Judicious Facts About Night Court

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In the mid-1980s, Night Court was part of NBC’s illustrious Thursday comedy block, which also included Cheers and, for a time, Family Ties. Ratings lagged in the first couple of seasons, then it became a top 10 show … until NBC started shuffling it around to new nights.

The workplace sitcom followed a group of misfits working at a Manhattan night court: Judge Harry T. Stone (Harry Anderson), a judge/magician who presided over the court; Christine Sullivan (Markie Post), a public defender and do-gooder (a few other women played a similar role before Post committed to Sullivan during the third season); womanizer/prosecutor Dan Fielding (John Larroquette); the sarcastic bailiff Roz Russell (Marsha Warfield); Mac Robinson, a moral court clerk (Charles Robinson); and Bull (Richard Moll), a bald, slightly dim bailiff.

Barney Miller alumnus Reinhold Weege created the show, which aired for nine seasons, from January 4, 1984 to May 31, 1992. Unlike a lot of sitcoms, the characters didn’t change much, and the show didn’t push heavy-handed issues onto its audience. It was simply a show filled with idiosyncratic characters and big laughs. Here are 13 gavel-pounding facts about the award-winning sitcom.

1. CRAZY NEW YORK JUDGES INSPIRED THE SHOW.

Reinhold Weege sat on the bench with New York City night court judges and developed a story around them. “I was moved by the craziness of New York Manhattan night court,” he said in E!’s 2002 documentary TV Tales: Night Court. “There were stories in the newspaper at the time of judges with serious emotional problems who the state had a hard time getting rid of. I thought, gosh, it would be terrific if we could get a judge through the system who was a little off center, a little wacky.” On the show, Judge Stone’s a bit wacky, and is also the youngest judge in state history.

2. SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE PLAYED A PART IN HARRY ANDERSON’S CASTING.

In real life, Harry Anderson is a magician, and at the time of the show’s casting, he had a stint on SNL (he’d also been on Cheers). One of Night Court’s producers, Jeff Melman, and his wife were watching Anderson stick a needle through his arm on SNL and thought he’d be good for the part. “The name Harry and the fact that he did magic was a coincidence,” Weege said on TV Tales. “Harry said he was the guy, and I’ll be damned, he turned out to be the guy.”

3. DAN FIELDING STARTED OUT AS A CONSERVATIVE CHARACTER.

In the first couple of seasons, Dan Fielding’s not an arrogant womanizer like he is in later seasons. “If you look at the early episodes, my character was this sort of tight-lipped, vested, pipe-smoking, conservative fellow,” Larroquette told The A.V. Club, “and of course I was putting garden hoses down my pants by the end of the series. I think what happens on a television series like that is that the creator of the show gets used to the characters and the actors playing them. They learn to write toward their strengths, which a good writer does. And Reinhold [Weege] saw that I was this maverick, crazy—that sounds self-inflating, but I have a rather acerbic sense of humor. Reinhold starting writing toward that and creating the character that everybody knows.”

4. THE SHOW PURPOSEFULLY DIDN’T TACKLE HEAVY ISSUES.

Despite the judicial nature of the show, the point of Night Court was to make people laugh. “The show may not be in any way intellectual and we don’t make any pretense of dealing with issues that are impossible to address or solve in the sitcom format,” said Larroquette. “But if you just want to forget it all for a minute and laugh at pies in the face and pants around the ankles, that’s what we do very well.”

“We were so politically incorrect we would have had a cigarette sponsor if we came back next year,” executive producer Stu Kreisman told the Los Angeles Times.

5. A LOW-BUDGET SCI-FI MOVIE WAS THE REASONING BEHIND BULL’S BALD HEAD.

In 1983, Richard Moll starred in an obscure B-movie called Metalstorm: The Destruction of Jared-Syn. For the film, he had to shave his head. Around that time, Moll got called in to audition for Night Court. Weege said on E!’s TV Tales: Night Court that the 6’8” bald actor wasn’t what he’d envisioned for the character, but he liked Moll’s acting. “I remember saying to Richard, ‘I want you to keep that hair balding.’” Moll responded with, “Are you kidding? I’ll shave my legs for the part.”

6. MARSHA WARFIELD BROKE THE BAILIFF CURSE.

For the first two seasons (36 episodes), Selma Diamond played Bailiff Selma Hacker. In 1985, at the age of 64, Diamond died of lung cancer. Florence Halop replaced Diamond and played Bailiff Florence Kleiner for 22 episodes, but she passed away in 1986 at age 63, also from lung cancer. Actress Marsha Warfield was in her early 30s when she was cast as Roz Russell, the next bailiff. “There’s no way to say this without sounding callous, but if the two women before me had been 33-year-old black women, I would have been really nervous about taking the part,” Warfield told People.

7. MICHAEL RICHARDS APPEARED NAKED ON NIGHT COURT.

In a second season episode titled “Take My Wife, Please,” a pre-Seinfeld Michael Richards played Eugene Sleighbough, a man who thought he was invisible. He stood before the court, accused of robbing an apartment because he thought nobody could see him when, in fact, hundreds of people did. “They probably have some kind of heat sensing device,” Sleighbough offered. “Yes, it’s called sunlight,” Fielding retorted. At the end of the episode, Sleighbough returned to court, but this time in his birthday suit, as he thought his invisibility hadn’t worked because he'd been wearing clothes.

8. AFTER WINNING FOUR EMMYS IN A ROW, LARROQUETTE TOOK HIMSELF OUT OF CONTENTION.

Larroquette’s hilarious portrayal of Fielding resulted in the actor winning four straight Emmys, from 1985 to 1988. But after the fourth win, Larroquette asked the Television Academy not to consider him for more awards as Fielding. “It was a combination of two things,” Larroquette told The A.V. Club on why he removed himself. “Quite frankly and honestly, I didn’t think that the work that I had done was as good as it was, only partially because Reinhold had left by then, and new producers had come in. And more selfishly, quite honestly, I knew that the character had made a really deep impression on the American public, and on studios and producers and directors and writers, but it was going to end someday. I wanted to fade into the background with this guy a little bit, so that there would be a possibility of eventually doing something else.” He also felt he’d been typecast. “Every role was some sleazy lawyer or some sleazy this or some sleazy that. It was sort of selfishly motivated. I loved the show, but it was time to move on.”

9. THE ACTORS AND PRODUCERS WERE “SCREWED CREATIVELY” FOLLOWING A LAST-MINUTE RENEWAL. 

Weege bowed out of running the show full-time at the end of the sixth season and tapped two former Night Court writers, Stuart Kreisman and Chris Cluess, to take creative control of the show. Later, NBC told them that season eight would be Night Court’s last, so they could end it any way they wanted—including writing a storyline where Christine and Judge Stone finally hook up.

“We felt like we were all done with it, and really how much more could we do?” Post said on TV Tales. “It looked like we were wrapping up, and sure enough before we ended the show, they came through with, like, jumbo buckets of money for the cast.”

NBC renewed the show for a ninth and final season, which involved untying stories. “When we found out we were going to go for another year, we were screwed creatively,” Kreisman told the Los Angeles Times in 1992. “And it took us the first two or three episodes of this year to undo all the stuff we set up last year.”

10. WARNER BROS. WOULDN’T ALLOW FOR A PROPER SENDOFF.

NBC officially canceled the show during the ninth season, but Warner Bros., who distributed the show, was in the process of trying to sell Night Court for first-run syndication. Because there was a possibility that the show might come back on another network, the final episode was cobbled together.

“The only thing I’m angry about is that Warner Bros. wouldn’t allow us to definitively end the show,” Larroquette told the Los Angeles Times. “Because at the last minute, NBC was thinking about renewing the show. Then Warner was trying to sell it elsewhere. So they didn’t want a definitive ending. That sort of tied our hands. It was a drag. We weren’t allowed to turn to the audience, give a salute and say thanks.”

“After nine years, a memo was handed out—Friday—that we got just before the [final] taping saying, ‘Please have your dressing rooms empty by Monday,’” Anderson said on TV Tales. “That was how the show was canceled. And I thought, that’s not very classy.”

“I remember being circled around by a bunch of security guards,” Moll recalled. “They just told me to get off the lot.”

11. A FEW MASH-UPS AND PARODIES OF THE THEME SONG EXIST.

The instrumental Night Court theme song features a throbbing bass and a sax solo, and some people thought it worked well with other material. Musician Ramsey Ess mashed-up Beyoncé’s “Single Ladies” with the Night Court theme song to form “Single Night Court Ladies.” A 2007 Family Guy episode called “Bill & Peter’s Bogus Journey” sees Bill Clinton playing the theme song on his sax; a YouTuber parodied Netflix’s Daredevil opening credits using Night Court’s theme.

12. BRENT SPINER’S BOB WHEELER WAS BASED ON A CHARACTER HE INVENTED NAMED ELMO.

Before he played Lt. Commander Data on Star Trek: The Next Generation, Brent Spiner appeared on six episodes of Night Court, from 1985 to 1987, as a Yugoslavian hillbilly named Bob Wheeler. Bob and his wife, June, constantly got into trouble, performing criminal acts like “the illegal detonation of poultry.”

“I’m from Texas, and it was a character I’d been doing when I was a kid, just for fun,” Spiner told The A.V. Club. “Me and my friends would go into a Denny’s or something, and I would be that guy and order … [Bob Wheeler drawl] ‘A patty melt. Yeah. With extra cheese.’ So I would do that character, and I never dreamed when I was a kid that I’d walk into a casting session and they’d hand me a script and I’d read it and go, ‘Oh my God, this is Elmo! I can just go in there and do Elmo!’ And I did, and they let me do it.”

Spiner thinks the producers wanted him to come back for more episodes, but he ended up doing Star Trek instead. “Rick Berman, who produced Star Trek, was a big Night Court fan,” Spiner said. “So he knew who I was as soon as I walked in.”

13. 30 ROCK THOUGHT CHRISTINE AND HARRY SHOULD’VE ENDED UP TOGETHER.

The series finale entailed Dan realizing that Christine was the love of his life instead of Christine and Harry finally admitting their feelings for each other. Sixteen years after Night Court signed off, 30 Rock created what should’ve happened in Night Court’s finale, in the episode entitled “The One With The Cast of Night Court.” Post, Robinson, and Anderson made appearances as their famed characters, but apparently Larroquette wasn’t asked to be on the show.

“From what I hear, when the idea came up, it was automatically dismissed, like, ‘Larroquette won’t do this, so don’t even call him,’” he told Backstage. “I was doing Boston Legal at the time, so it would have been difficult. And looking at the story they built, if my character was there, it would have been a whole different thing.”

In the episode, Kenneth is disappointed about the ending of Night Court, and he also doesn’t want to wear his new page uniform. Tracy Jordan gets Post and Anderson to come to 30 Rock and stage a Christine/Judge Stone wedding. “And the new ending is Harry and I get together but we have a big fight in the middle of rehearsals and it shatters Kenneth’s dreams,” Post told Patch.com. “Absurd, but they built the entire set exactly so when Harry and I went on, it was weird. We were right back in mode. That was fun."

All images courtesy Night Court TV Show/Facebook

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10 Scientific Benefits of Being a Dog Owner
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The bickering between cat people and dog people is ongoing and vicious, but in the end, we're all better off for loving a pet. But if anyone tries to poo-poo your pooch, know that there are some scientific reasons that they're man's best friend.

1. YOU GET SICK LESS OFTEN.

Dog snuggling on a bed with its person.
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If cleaning commercials are to be believed, humanity is in the midst of a war against germs—and we shouldn't stop until every single one is dead. In reality, the amount of disinfecting we do is making us sicker; since our bodies are exposed to a less diverse mix of germs, our entire microbiome is messed up. Fortunately, dogs are covered in germs! Having a dog in the house means more diverse bacteria enters the home and gets inside the occupants (one study found "dog-related biodiversity" is especially high on pillowcases). In turn, people with dogs seem to get ill less frequently and less severely than people—especially children—with cats or no pets.

2. YOU'RE MORE RESISTANT TO ALLERGIES.

Child and mother playing with a dog on a bed.
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While dog dander can be a trigger for people with allergies, growing up in a house with a dog makes children less likely to develop allergies over the course of their lives. And the benefits can start during gestation; a 2017 study published in the journal Microbiome found that a bacterial exchange happened between women who lived with pets (largely dogs) during pregnancy and their children, regardless of type of birth or whether the child was breastfed, and even if the pet was not in the home after the birth of the child. Those children tested had two bacteria, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira, that reduce the risk of common allergies, asthma, and obesity, and they were less likely to develop eczema.

3. YOU'LL HAVE BETTER HEART HEALTH.

Woman doing yoga with her dog.
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Everything about owning a dog seems to lend itself to better heart health. Just the act of petting a dog lowers heart rate and blood pressure. A 2017 Chinese study found a link between dog ownership and reduced risk of coronary artery disease, while other studies show pet owners have slightly lower cholesterol and are more likely to survive a heart attack.

4. YOU GET MORE EXERCISE.

Person running in field with a dog.
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While other pets have positive effects on your health as well, dogs have the added benefit of needing to be walked and played with numerous times a day. This means that many dog owners are getting 30 minutes of exercise a day, lowering their risk of cardiovascular disease.

5. YOU'LL BE HAPPIER.

Woman cuddling her dog.
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Dog owners are less likely to suffer from depression than non-pet owners. Even for those people who are clinically depressed, having a pet to take care of can help them out of a depressive episode. Since taking care of a dog requires a routine and forces you to stay at least a little active, dog owners are more likely to interact with others and have an increased sense of well-being while tending to their pet. The interaction with and love received from a dog can also help people stay positive. Even the mere act of looking at your pet increases the amount of oxytocin, the "feel good" chemical, in the brain.

6. YOU HAVE A MORE ACTIVE SOCIAL LIFE.

Large bulldog licking a laughing man.
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Not only does dog ownership indirectly tell others that you're trustworthy, your trusty companion can help facilitate friendships and social networks. A 2015 study published in PLOS One found that dogs can be both the catalyst for sparking new relationships and also the means for keeping social networks thriving. One study even showed that those with dogs also had closer and more supportive relationships with the people in their lives.

7. YOUR DOG MIGHT BE A CANCER DETECTOR.

Man high-fiving his dog.
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Your dog could save your life one day: It seems that our canine friends have the ability to smell cancer in the human body. Stories abound of owners whose dogs kept sniffing or licking a mole or lump on their body so they got it checked out, discovering it was cancerous. The anecdotal evidence has been backed up by scientific studies, and some dogs are now trained to detect cancer.

8. YOU'LL BE LESS STRESSED AT WORK.

Woman working on a computer while petting a dog.
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The benefits of bringing a dog to work are so increasingly obvious that more companies are catching on. Studies show that people who interact with a pet while working have lower stress levels throughout the day, while people who do not bring a pet see their stress levels increase over time. Dogs in the office also lead to people taking more breaks, to play with or walk the dog, which makes them more energized when they return to work. This, in turn, has been shown to lead to much greater productivity and job satisfaction.

9. YOU CAN FIND OUT MORE ABOUT YOUR PERSONALITY.

Man running in surf with dog.
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The kind of dog you have says a lot about your personality. A study in England found a very clear correlation between people's personalities and what type of dogs they owned; for example, people who owned toy dogs tended to be more intelligent, while owners of utility dogs like Dalmatians and bulldogs were the most conscientious. Other studies have found that dog owners in general are more outgoing and friendly than cat owners.

10. YOUR KIDS WILL BE MORE EMPATHETIC.

A young boy having fun with his dog.
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Though one 2003 study found that there was no link between pet ownership and empathy in a group of children, a 2017 study of 1000 7- to 12-year-olds found that pet attachment of any kind encouraged compassion and positive attitudes toward animals, which promoted better well-being for both the child and the pet. Children with dogs scored the highest for pet attachment, and the study notes that "dogs may help children to regulate their emotions because they can trigger and respond to a child's attachment related behavior." And, of course, only one pet will happily play fetch with a toddler.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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16 Prehistoric Creatures You’ll See In Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
Chris Pratt meets the vicious T. rex in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)
Chris Pratt meets the vicious T. rex in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)
Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

The sequel to 2015’s Jurassic World ups the ante with a huge roster of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles. While some are familiar favorites (see: T. rex), others have never been seen in a major motion picture before. Pull off your nostalgia goggles and let’s take a look at what modern science has to say about the long-gone animals of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.

1. TYRANNOSAURUS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum Length: 40 feet

Name Means: “Tyrant lizard”

Apparently, the most popular dinosaur of all time wasn’t above cannibalism: Multiple Tyrannosaurus rex bones have bite marks on them that match the teeth of other tyrannosaurid species. Debate has arisen over the issue of T. rex plumage. University of Alberta paleontologist Scott Persons recently compared tiny skin impressions left behind by Tyrannosaurus and its close cousins Gorgosaurus, Daspletosaurus, and Tarbosaurus. These reveal that the dinos had pebbly scales, but the samples contain no evidence of feathers. Keep in mind though that the skin impressions only represent small patches of the dinosaurs’ tails, necks, abdomens, and pelvises—so Tyrannosaurus might’ve had feathers elsewhere on its body. For the record, Persons thinks the giant carnivore would still look “pretty cool and plenty scary” with a little fuzz. “[Nobody] ever complained that tigers weren’t scary, and they’re fluffy,” he said.

2. APATOSAURUS

Artistic interpretation of an individual of A. louisae arching its neck down to drink
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Lived: 155 to 150 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore.

Maximum length: 80 feet

Name means: “Deceptive lizard”

In 1879, an unidentified sauropod (a long-necked dinosaur) was found in Wyoming. At first, this creature was given the name Brontosaurus excelsus but in 1903, paleontologist Elmer Riggs rechristened it as Apatosaurus excelsus (the Apatosaurus had been described before the Brontosaurus, so the name had precedence). A few scientists now think the Brontosaurus and Apatosarus actually are distinct and the much better-known name ought to be reinstated for that particular group, but others disagree. Regardless, Apatosaurus was pretty awesome. Some of its bones were pneumatic and the body contained a number of air sacs. Such traits would’ve made the big plant-eater very lightweight for an animal of its size. Apatosaurus may have also been able to break the sound barrier by cracking its sinuous tail like a bullwhip.

3. TRICERATOPS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 29 feet

Name means: “Three-horned face”

Give credit where it’s due: Look at the baby Triceratops in Fallen Kingdom and you may notice that the horns above its eyes curve backward ever so slightly. This is scientifically accurate. The brow horns of Triceratops newborns were tiny bumps which bent backward during the adolescent years. Then they changed course and bowed forward while the animals matured. Puncture wounds and lesions on the skulls of adult Triceratops tell us these animals locked horns in head-to-head combat. Triceratops was constantly replacing its teeth, which were arranged in tight clusters and most likely used to shear through fibrous vegetation.

4. SINOCERATOPS

Lived: 75 to 66 million years ago in China

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 19 feet

Name means: “Chinese horned face”

A newcomer to the Jurassic Park films, Sinoceratops first came to light during a 2008 fossil-hunting excursion into China’s Shandong Province. It belongs to the same family as Triceratops and was the first member of this group to be found in Chinese rock. Small, forward-bending horns lined the top of its frill, which was proportionally smaller than that of Triceratops. A single cone-shaped horn sat over the nostrils.

5. ALLOSAURUS

Lived: 155.7 to 150 million years ago in North America and Portugal and possibly elsewhere

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 28 (or possibly 35) feet

Name means: “Different lizard”

In one of the trailers for Fallen Kingdom, a running Allosaurus falls flat on its face. The dinosaur was no stranger to injury in real life. Cracked ribs, broken arms, and badly-infected toes are just a few of the medical maladies that Allosaurus skeletons have been preserved with. Selected as Utah’s official state fossil in 1988, Allosaurus is one of the most commonly found predatory dinos in the American west. Strong neck muscles may have allowed the carnivore to disembowel prey by pulling its head backward in a falcon-esque tugging motion. And here’s something we’d really like to see on the silver screen: According to a 2015 study, Allosaurus could possibly open its jaws at a nightmarish 92-degree angle.

6. MOSASAURUS

Lived: 70 to 66 million years ago in Europe and North America

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 56 feet

Name means: “Lizard of the Meuse River” (It was first discovered along this European river in 1764.)

Mosasaurus wasn’t a dinosaur; it’s more closely related to snakes and monitor lizards than it is to any of the other creatures you’ll read about here. Both Jurassic World flicks show the marine reptile leaping high out of the water to snag unwary prey. According to mosasaur expert Michael J. Everhart though, these animals didn’t have the tail strength or speed to pull off such an athletic feat. Mosasaurus is the most famous member (and the namesake genus) of the mosasaur superfamily. Late in the age of dinosaurs, these were some of the ocean’s major predators. They probably swam like gigantic crocodiles, keeping their flippers pressed against the body. Fossil evidence tells us that mosasaurs gave birth to live young at sea and at least some of them had vertically-fluked tails.

7. PTERANODON

Lived: 88 to 80.5 million years ago in central North America

Diet: Carnivore (probable fishing specialist)

Maximum wingspan: 20 feet (or possibly 24 feet)

Name means: “Toothless wing”

Here’s another non-dinosaur for you. Good old Pteranodon was a kind of North American pterosaur. What’s that, you ask? Pterosaurs were flying reptiles that patrolled the skies from 228 to 66 million years ago. Long before birds or bats took to the air, pterosaurs became the first vertebrate animals to ever achieve powered flight. The good people of Kansas designated Pteranodon itself as one of their official state fossils in 2014. Back in this animal’s heyday, there was a vast inland sea which covered most of the Great Plains, splitting North America in two. Pteranodon may have behaved like a modern albatross, using its narrow wings to soar for vast distances on air currents above the ocean waves. The creatures were apparently keen on seafood: Pteranodon skeletons are sometimes found with masses of fish bones in their throats and stomachs. We may never know how they captured prey, but one idea can be dismissed outright: Not a single known pterosaur had opposable toes, so Pteranodon couldn’t have grabbed things with its feet like the genetically-engineered flyers in Jurassic World do.

8. CARNOTAURUS

Bryce Dallas Howard and Justice Smith are trapped by the Carnotaurus in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 72 to 69 million years ago in Argentina

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 25 feet

Name means: “Meat-eating bull"

Carnotaurus didn’t show up in the first four Jurassic Park movies, but Michael Crichton wrote the horned creature into his 1995 novel The Lost World. The book depicts Carnotaurus as a nocturnal hunter that can change colors like an overgrown cuttlefish. There’s no reason to put any stock in this idea, but the real Carnotaurus was not without its quirky attributes—including its forelimbs. While T. rex gets a lot of flack for its meager arms, those of Carnotaurus are proportionately smaller, and the Argentine dino didn’t even have any wrist bones. On the flip side, Carnotaurus’s strong legs and powerful tail would’ve made it a gifted sprinter. Skin impressions reveal that its back, neck, and tail were studded with bony knobs, much like the ones Carnotaurus shows off in Fallen Kingdom.

9. GALLIMIMUS

Lived: 70 million years ago in Mongolia

Diet: Probable omnivore

Maximum length: 20 feet

Name means: “Chicken mimic”

Gallimimus belongs to an ostrich-like family of dinosaurs known as the ornithomimids. Though it lacks plumage in the Jurassic movies, real ornithomimids were covered in fuzzy down as youngsters and the adults grew long feathers on their arms. Gallimimus and its brethren couldn’t fly, but their showy, wing-like forelimbs could’ve been used to help them attract mates. Ornithomimids compensated for their lack of teeth by swallowing rocks, which ground up food in the stomach. Exactly what they ate is unclear, though most paleontologists think the ostrich mimics were either omnivorous or herbivorous.

10. BRACHIOSAURUS

Lived: 155 to 140 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 72 feet

Name means: “Arm lizard”

Even though it’s poorly represented in the fossil record, Brachiosaurus is well-known to the general public. This is largely due to its breakout role in the first Jurassic Park movie. The Brachiosaurus in that classic film hold their elongated necks in an almost vertical position, and this depiction might not be too far off. A 2010 biomechanical analysis argued that browsing on treetops would’ve been a more energy-efficient option for Brachiosaurus-like sauropods than holding their necks horizontally and eating ground-level plants. It’s interesting to think about the behemoth’s cardiovascular system: In order to pump blood up that lengthy neck and into the head, Brachiosaurus may have required a gigantic heart weighing in the neighborhood of 880 pounds.

11. ANKYLOSAURUS

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 21 feet

Name means: “Curved lizard”

We know this formidable animal had a backside covered in bony plates; yet because no one’s ever found a complete Ankylosaurus skeleton, scientists disagree about how the armor was arranged. The 19-inch-wide club on its tail was probably a weapon. Using CT scans and anatomical measurements, a Canadian research team estimated that a large Ankylosaurus club could strike its target with enough force to break bones. Evolution made some of the tail vertebrae in these dinosaurs stiff and inflexible so they could support their heavy clubs. A hammer needs its handle after all.

12. STYGIMOLOCH

Lived: 68 to 66 million years ago in North America

Diet: Probable herbivore

Maximum length: 10 feet

Name means: “Styx devil”

It’s kind of ironic that Stygimoloch is mentioned by name in Fallen Kingdom’s promo videos. Paleontologist John R. “Jack” Horner has worked as a consultant for all five Jurassic Park films. He thinks that Stygimoloch is nothing more than the juvenile version of the thick-headed dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus, which lived at the same time and place. (You may remember the latter’s cameo in 1997's The Lost World: Jurassic Park.) This would render the name Stygimoloch invalid. Horner’s argument is supported by the trademark feature of both dinos: the iconic domes on the top of their craniums. Stygimoloch’s skull bones were not fully fused together, suggesting the animal had a lot of growing to do. CT scans have also shown that Stygimoloch’s dome was significantly thinner than that of Pachycephalosaurus. Perhaps these dinos used their special skulls to flank each other—or maybe the thick noggins were designed for heavy-duty headbutts. For his part, Horner has proposed that these were used for identification.

13. STEGOSAURUS

Mounted skeleton of Stegosaurus stenops in right lateral view at the Natural History Museum, London.
Susannah Maidment et al. & Natural History Museum, London, CC BY 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

Lived: 155 to 150 million years ago in North America and Portugal

Diet: Herbivore

Maximum length: 23 feet

Name means: “Roof lizard”

Nobody knows what to make of the bony plates on Stegosaurus’s back. If self-defense was their purpose, why do they project upward from the spine, leaving the flanks of this vegetarian wide open? And why do the plates of other spiky-tailed dinosaurs in its family have radically different shapes? One hypothesis is that these bizarre accessories were used to attract mates—much like the peacock’s gaudy tail feathers. Maybe they also helped the small-headed herbivores recognize other members of their own kind from afar. The quartet of spikes on Stegosaurus’s tail were almost certainly used to ward off attackers. Live Stegosaurus got plenty of mileage out of these weapons: One survey, which compared 51 individual spikes, reported that just under 10 percent had been broken and re-healed at the tip.

14. COMPSOGNATHUS

Lived: 150 million years ago in Germany and France

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: Four feet

Name means: “Elegant jaw”

Only two skeletons of this dinosaur have ever been discovered, both of which were found with the remains of tiny lizards tucked inside their rib cages. That’s a pretty far cry from the scene in The Lost World: Jurassic Park where a swarm of “Compies” gobble up the man who’s been tormenting them with a cattle prod. But we digress. Named in 1859, Compsognathus used to be the smallest type of non-avian dinosaur known to science. It no longer retains this title, as the creature would’ve dwarfed some more recently-discovered dinos like the 15-inch Mongolian Parvicursor.

15. BARYONYX

Bryce Dallas Howard and Justice Smith encounter the Baryonyx in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 130-125 million years ago in England, Spain, and Portugal

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 25 feet

Name means: “Heavy claw”

Sail-backed Spinosaurus was the main villain in 2001's Jurassic Park III—a casting choice that irked plenty of fans. Baryonyx was a close relative of this beast who now joins Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom’s Mesozoic ensemble. Preserved stomach contents have shown that Baryonyx ate fish as well as the herbivorous dinosaur Iguanodon. On each hand, Baryonyx had a 12-inch hooked claw that served an unknown purpose. (Artists like to imagine it as a fishing tool.) The animal’s conical teeth look well-equipped for grabbing hold of slippery prey. Despite the narrowness of its snout, Baryonyx’s jaws were able to withstand a great deal of bending and torsion.

16. VELOCIRAPTOR

Chris Pratt with a baby Velociraptor in 'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' (2018)
Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Lived: 85 to 70 million years ago in Mongolia and China

Diet: Carnivore

Maximum length: 7 feet

Name means: “Swift thief”

Velociraptor stood less than two feet tall at the hip and weighed around 55 pounds. Michael Crichton’s description of the animal was inspired by its bigger cousin, Deinonychus. Even that dinosaur was smaller than the man-sized predators of Jurassic Park, though. Both Velociraptor and Deinonychus were dromaeosaurs: bird-like carnivores with bony rods in their tails and sickle-shaped toe claws. (When we say “bird-like,” we mean it: Dromaeosaurs are thought to be some of our feathered friends’ closest relatives. Many had plumage; Velociraptor itself came with sizable feathers on each arm.)

The notion that they hunted in packs can be traced back to the maverick paleontologist John Ostrom of Yale. During the 1960s, he worked at a Montana dig site where four Deinonychus were found around the body of a larger herbivore named Tenontosaurus. Ostrom’s belief that dromaeosaurs hunted in organized groups gained traction with scientists and novelists alike. A newer interpretation of the data is that the dinos lived alone and at most occasionally came together to mob vulnerable plant-eaters.

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