Dane DeHaan in Chronicle / YouTube
Dane DeHaan in Chronicle / YouTube

8 Rejected Ideas for Movie Sequels

Dane DeHaan in Chronicle / YouTube
Dane DeHaan in Chronicle / YouTube

Although some movies are popular enough to get a sequel, what you see on the screen is often not the first suggested story idea. We’ve written before about proposed sequels that (thankfully) never happened. Here are eight more rejected ideas for movie sequels.

1. ROGER RABBIT II: THE TOON PLATOON

Written by screenwriter Nat Mauldin, Roger Rabbit II: The Toon Platoon took place in 1941, six years before the events of the first film. After he learns he was adopted, Roger moves to Hollywood from the Midwest with Richie Davenport, his human best friend, to try to find his real parents. Once in L.A., Roger meets Jessica Krupnick, who would later become his wife. Roger and Richie enlist in the U.S. Army when Jessica gets kidnapped by a Nazi spy. Roger and Richie then go to Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II to save Jessica. After the pair saves the day, they all return to Hollywood where they get a hero’s greeting with a parade. Roger is then reunited with his parents and discovers that his real father is Bugs Bunny.

In the 1990s, the title was changed to Who Discovered Roger Rabbit, but executive producer Steven Spielberg had no interest in returning for the sequel. He felt that it would be in poor taste to satirize and lampoon the Nazis after making Schindler's List. Once the development budget ballooned, then-Disney CEO Michael Eisner canceled the sequel entirely and shifted the studio’s attention to CGI animation after the success of Toy Story and A Bug’s Life. Test footage was commissioned in 1998, but the result was an awkward mix of CGI and live action.

"It was never in the cards, we could never get the planets back into alignment," co-producer Don Hahn said of the would-be sequel. "There was something very special about that time when animation was not as much in the forefront as it is now."

2. JURASSIC PARK IV

Before Jurassic World hit theaters last year, Universal Pictures spent much of the 2000s trying to get Jurassic Park IV off the ground. Screenwriter William Monahan was hired to write a script, while John Sayles was hired for rewrites. Jurassic Park IV would’ve featured dinosaurs escaping Site A for the mainland, while a team of deinonychuses was being trained for a rescue mission and genetically modified dinosaur-human hybrids were being used as mercenaries. Sam Neill and Richard Attenborough were set to reprise their roles as Dr. Alan Grant and John Hammond, respectively. Keira Knightley was also reportedly in talks to take a supporting role.

The sequel was in development for years, but the 2007-2008 Writers Guild of America strike delayed the project further, as producers weren’t happy with draft after draft of screenplays from Mark Protosevich and writing team Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver.

"He felt neither of [the drafts] balanced the science and adventure elements effectively,” special effects wizard Stan Winston told IGN.com of producer Steven Spielberg’s thoughts on the original sequel’s development. “It's a tough compromise to reach, as too much science will make the movie too talky, but too much adventure will make it seem hollow."

In 2013, writer/director Colin Trevorrow was brought on to the project with a new and improved version of the Jurassic Park IV screenplay, which was now titled Jurassic World, set for release during the summer of 2015, and went on to become one of the highest-grossing films of all-time.

3. BATMAN UNCHAINED

Sometimes called Batman Triumphant, Batman Unchained would’ve been the fifth movie in the Batman franchise, and was set for release during the summer of 1999. However, after the very disappointing box office and critical response to Batman & Robin, the sequel was scrapped, and the franchise laid dormant until Christopher Nolan rebooted it with Batman Begins in 2005.

Screenwriter Mark Protosevich (yep, same guy from Jurassic Park IV) was hired to write Batman Unchained, which would have followed The Scarecrow terrorizing Gotham with his fear toxin, while The Joker returned to the franchise, as a fear-induced hallucination. Harley Quinn was written as The Joker’s daughter instead of his lover, as she was set to avenge his death. George Clooney, Chris O'Donnell, and Alicia Silverstone were all ready to return to their roles as Batman, Robin, and Batgirl, respectively, while Nicolas Cage was considered for The Scarecrow. Madonna and Courtney Love were rumored for the role of Harley Quinn.

“I'm getting a call from Joel [Schumacher], whose main comment was that I had written maybe the most expensive movie ever made. Then I remember I never heard from the executive at Warner Bros. I called many times, never got any kind of response," Protosevich told The Hollywood Reporter. "This got into a period of weeks and then a month, and my agent pestering Warners. And the next thing I knew, they were pulling the plug on the whole project. They were going to wait and see what they were going to do with Batman. The Joel Schumacher-driven Batman train was taken off the rails."  

4. INDIANA JONES AND THE MONKEY KING

In 1984, George Lucas wrote an eight-page treatment titled Indiana Jones and the Monkey King. It would’ve been the third installment in the series before Steven Spielberg and Lucas developed Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The film would have opened in Scotland in 1937, with Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) fighting the ghost of Baron Seamus Seagrove III before heading to Africa to search for the Fountain of Youth, which was later changed to the Garden of Immortal Peaches. Indy’s old friend Scraggy Brier, Dr. Clare Clarke (a Katharine Hepburn-type), and a 200-year old pygmy would join him on an adventure in Africa trying to get away from the Nazis. Indiana Jones dies in the story, only to be resurrected by the Monkey King.

Chris Columbus was brought on to write a script, but after four drafts, Spielberg and Lucas ultimately passed on the story because they felt it would be too difficult to film.

"It was upbeat and full of the same nostalgia that we tapped into in Raiders of the Lost Ark, so in that sense Chris was right on the money,” Spielberg recalled. “But I don't think any of us wanted to go to Africa for four months and try to get Indy to ride a rhinoceros in a multi-vehicular chase, which was one of the sequences Chris had written. Once I got into the script, I began to feel very old, too old to direct it.”

5. BEETLEJUICE GOES HAWAIIAN

In 1990, Warner Bros. wanted Tim Burton to direct a Beetlejuice sequel—and to do so as soon as possible. However, Burton wasn’t interested in making sequels at the time, so he pitched an idea that he figured the studio would reject: Beetlejuice Goes Hawaiian saw the Deetz family moving to Hawaii, only to discover the tropical resort they’re developing sits on top of an ancient burial ground of a Hawaiian Kahuna. Once again, they call upon the services of Beetlejuice (Michael Keaton) to scare the spirits and ghosts away, while he also gets a suntan, wins a surfing contest, and tries to marry Lydia Deetz (Winona Ryder) again.

Surprisingly, Warner Bros. loved the idea and Keaton and Ryder were interested, too—as long as Burton was directing. But the filmmaker was busy making Batman Returns. According to screenwriter Jonathan Gems, “Tim thought it would be funny to match the surfing backdrop of a beach movie with some sort of German Expressionism, because they’re totally wrong together.”

6. ALIEN 3

In 1986, after the release of Aliens, Twentieth Century Fox was anxious to turn Alien into a franchise, but quickly ran into story problems while developing the third film over the next six years. A number of writers were brought on to write a screenplay that involved the survivors of the Sulaco either going to the Xenomorph’s home planet or the killer aliens coming to Earth. The movie studio even made a trailer that strongly suggested and teased the latter—even though it never happened in Alien 3.

In 1987, one promising action-heavy idea came from cyberpunk author William Gibson, who wrote a version of Alien 3 where Hicks (Michael Biehn) discovers the Weyland-Yutani Corporation is making an Alien army, while the people of a floating space station fight back against an invasion. The idea was scrapped when Fox wanted more screen time for Sigourney Weaver’s Ripley, who was in a coma throughout a majority of the film. "Sigourney Weaver is the centerpiece of the series," Fox president Joe Roth said. Ripley was "really the only female warrior we have in our movie mythology."

In 1990, New Zealand filmmaker Vincent Ward was hired to direct Alien 3, based on a pitch he came up with on the flight to Los Angeles. He thought of Ripley crash landing on a planet made completely out of wood and discovering a monastery full of all-male monks who see the Alien as a punishment from God. The sequel would’ve been an examination of Ripley’s soul and psyche throughout the series—and a fitting end for the character.

Fox quickly fired Ward and brought on a young David Fincher to make an action-heavy thriller about Ripley crash landing on a prison planet, as a new Xenomorph picks off the prisoners one by one, which made it more similar to the original Alien movie. Alien 3 opened in May 1992 to lukewarm reviews and moderate box office numbers.

7. SUPERMAN LIVES

Before the release of Superman Returns in 2006, there were a number of sequel and reboot ideas surrounding the Man of Steel that were abandoned or canceled—most notably 1996's Superman Lives. Filmmaker Kevin Smith (who was also offered the writing job on Beetlejuice Goes Hawaiian) was commissioned to write a screenplay for producer Jon Peters that featured Superman dressed in all black, fighting a polar bear at the Fortress of Solitude, then fighting a giant spider in the film’s climax. Nicolas Cage was cast as Superman, while Tim Burton was hired to direct. Superman Lives also featured two villains, Brainiac and Lex Luthor, who teamed up to destroy the Man of Steel.

Superman Lives was slated for release during the summer of 1998 for the 60th anniversary of the character’s comic book debut. However, after various rewrites, delays, and dropouts, the superhero movie was canceled (even after Warner Bros. spent more than $30 million over four years of pre-production and planning). The film The Death of "Superman Lives": What Happened? documents almost every aspect of what went wrong and why the film wasn’t made

“The only thing I’ll say about that—because that is such a lightning rod hot topic and if I say anything at all it just seems to snowball—but I will say that I had great belief in that movie and in what Tim Burton’s vision was going to be for that movie,” Cage told Yahoo! Movies. “I would’ve loved to have seen it, but I feel that in many ways, it was sort of a win/win because of the power of the imagination. I think people can actually see the movie in their minds now and imagine it and in many ways that might resonate more deeply than the finished project.”

8. CHRONICLE 2: MARTYR

In 2012, Twentieth Century Fox hired Max Landis to write a follow-up to his surprise hit, Chronicle. He wrote a darker sequel called Chronicle 2: Martyr, which featured a female villain named Miranda, who had the same superpowers as the protagonists from the first film—and was also schizophrenic.

“There’s this really interesting moment where she’s turned into this supervillain, she has a mechanized suit—like a real thing they can build now that would cost $20 million, but if you’re a genius you can do it—and she’s totally insane, living in this house with garbage everywhere, filming herself and talking to the camera on drones like it’s her boyfriend,” Landis told The Daily Beast. “It’s one of my better scripts. It’s very dark. It’s not Chronicle. It has a much happier ending than Chronicle!”

Landis also had another pitch that would bring the original trio from Chronicle back to the sequel via time travel. Andrew (Dane DeHaan), Matt (Alex Russell), and Steve (Michael B. Jordan) discover that they can now manipulate and control time after they go on the run from the government. Andrew and Matt then die in a shootout, as Steve looks into the camera and rewinds time back to the middle of the movie.

“Steve looks at the camera and goes, ‘This didn’t happen this way.’ And just like that, it rewinds to the beginning of the second act of Chronicle 2 and you see them being filmed by these French girls that they were hanging out with, and you see Steve go, ‘We’ve gotta go,’” Landis explained.

However, Fox didn’t like either pitch and removed Landis from the project. The sequel is still in development, with screenwriter Jack Stanley currently writing an all-new script.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Zach Hyman, HBO
10 Bizarre Sesame Street Fan Theories
Zach Hyman, HBO
Zach Hyman, HBO

Sesame Street has been on the air for almost 50 years, but there’s still so much we don’t know about this beloved children’s show. What kind of bird is Big Bird? What’s the deal with Mr. Noodle? And how do you actually get to Sesame Street? Fans have filled in these gaps with frequently amusing—and sometimes bizarre—theories about how the cheerful neighborhood ticks. Read them at your own risk, because they’ll probably ruin the Count for you.

1. THE THEME SONG CONTAINS SECRET INSTRUCTIONS.

According to a Reddit theory, the Sesame Street theme song isn’t just catchy—it’s code. The lyrics spell out how to get to Sesame Street quite literally, giving listeners clues on how to access this fantasy land. It must be a sunny day (as the repeated line goes), you must bring a broom (“sweeping the clouds away”), and you have to give Oscar the Grouch the password (“everything’s a-ok”) to gain entrance. Make sure to memorize all the steps before you attempt.

2. SESAME STREET IS A REHAB CENTER FOR MONSTERS.

Sesame Street is populated with the stuff of nightmares. There’s a gigantic bird, a mean green guy who hides in the trash, and an actual vampire. These things should be scary, and some fans contend that they used to be. But then the creatures moved to Sesame Street, a rehabilitation area for formerly frightening monsters. In this community, monsters can’t roam outside the perimeters (“neighborhood”) as they recover. They must learn to educate children instead of eating them—and find a more harmless snack to fuel their hunger. Hence Cookie Monster’s fixation with baked goods.

3. BIG BIRD IS AN EXTINCT MOA.

Big Bird is a rare breed. He’s eight feet tall and while he can’t really fly, he can rollerskate. So what kind of bird is he? Big Bird’s species has been a matter of contention since Sesame Street began: Big Bird insists he’s a lark, while Oscar thinks he’s more of a homing pigeon. But there’s convincing evidence that Big Bird is an extinct moa. The moa were 10 species of flightless birds who lived in New Zealand. They had long necks and stout torsos, and reached up to 12 feet in height. Scientists claim they died off hundreds of years ago, but could one be living on Sesame Street? It makes sense, especially considering his best friend looks a lot like a woolly mammoth.

4. OSCAR’S TRASH CAN IS A TARDIS.

Oscar’s home doesn’t seem very big. But as The Adventures of Elmo in Grouchland revealed, his trash can holds much more than moldy banana peels. The Grouch has chandeliers and even an interdimensional portal down there! There’s only one logical explanation for this outrageously spacious trash can: It’s a Doctor Who-style TARDIS.

5. IT’S ALL A RIFF ON PLATO.

Dust off your copy of The Republic, because this is about to get philosophical. Plato has a famous allegory about a cave, one that explains enlightenment through actual sunlight. He describes a prisoner who steps out of the cave and into the sun, realizing his entire understanding of the world is wrong. When he returns to the cave to educate his fellow prisoners, they don’t believe him, because the information is too overwhelming and contradictory to what they know. The lesson is that education is a gradual learning process, one where pupils must move through the cave themselves, putting pieces together along the way. And what better guide is there than a merry kids’ show?

According to one Reddit theory, Sesame Street builds on Plato’s teachings by presenting a utopia where all kinds of creatures live together in harmony. There’s no racism or suffocating gender roles, just another sunny (see what they did there?) day in the neighborhood. Sesame Street shows the audience what an enlightened society looks like through simple songs and silly jokes, spoon-feeding Plato’s “cave dwellers” knowledge at an early age.

6. MR. NOODLE IS IN HELL.

Can a grown man really enjoy taking orders from a squeaky red puppet? And why does Mr. Noodle live outside a window in Elmo’s house anyway? According to this hilariously bleak theory, no, Mr. Noodle does not like dancing for Elmo, but he has to, because he’s in hell. Think about it: He’s seemingly trapped in a surreal place where he can’t talk, but he has to do whatever a fuzzy monster named Elmo says. Definitely sounds like hell.

7. ELMO IS ANIMAL’S SON.

Okay, so remember when Animal chases a shrieking woman out of the college auditorium in The Muppets Take Manhattan? (If you don't, see above.) One fan thinks Animal had a fling with this lady, which produced Elmo. While the two might have similar coloring, this theory completely ignores Elmo’s dad Louie, who appears in many Sesame Street episodes. But maybe Animal is a distant cousin.

8. COOKIE MONSTER HAS AN EATING DISORDER.

Cookie Monster loves to cram chocolate chip treats into his mouth. But as eagle-eyed viewers have observed, he doesn’t really eat the cookies so much as chew them into messy crumbs that fly in every direction. This could indicate Cookie Monster has a chewing and spitting eating disorder, meaning he doesn’t actually consume food—he just chews and spits it out. There’s a more detailed (and dark) diagnosis of Cookie Monster’s symptoms here.

9. THE COUNT EATS CHILDREN.

Can a vampire really get his kicks from counting to five? One of the craziest Sesame Street fan theories posits that the Count lures kids to their death with his number games. That’s why the cast of children on Sesame Street changes so frequently—the Count eats them all after teaching them to add. The adult cast, meanwhile, stays pretty much the same, implying the grown-ups are either under a vampiric spell or looking the other way as the Count does his thing.

10. THE COUNT IS ALSO A PIMP.

Alright, this is just a Dave Chappelle joke. But the Count does have a cape.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
17 Things to Know About René Descartes
iStock
iStock

The French polymath René Descartes (1596-1650) lived after the Renaissance, but he personified that age's interest in mathematics, philosophy, art, and the nature of humanity. He made numerous discoveries and argued for ideas that people continue to grapple with. (His dualist distinction between mind and the brain, for example, continues to be debated by psychologists.) Get to know him better!

1. NOBODY CALLED HIM RENÉ.

Descartes went by a nickname and often introduced himself as “Poitevin” and signed letters as “du Perron.” Sometimes, he went so far to call himself the “Lord of Perron.” That’s because he had inherited a farm from his mother’s family in Poitou, in western France.

2. SCHOOL MADE HIM FEEL DUMBER.

From the age of 11 to 18, Descartes attended one of the best schools in Europe, the Jesuit College of Henry IV in La Flèche, France. In his later work Discourse on the Method, Descartes wrote that, upon leaving school, “I found myself involved in so many doubts and errors, that I was convinced I had advanced no farther in all my attempts at learning, than the discovery at every turn of my own ignorance."

3. HIS DAD WANTED HIM TO BE A LAWYER.

Descartes’s family was chock-full of lawyers, and the budding intellectual was expected to join them. He studied law at the University of Poitiers and even came home with a law degree in 1616. But he never entered the practice. In 1618, a 22-year-old Descartes enlisted as a mercenary in the Dutch States Army instead. There, he would study military engineering and become fascinated with math and physics.

4. HE CHANGED CAREER PATHS THANKS TO A SERIES OF DREAMS.

In 1618, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand II, attempted to impose Catholicism on anybody living within his domain. The result of this policy would be the Thirty Years' War. It would also prompt Descartes, a Catholic, to switch allegiances to a Bavarian army fighting for the Catholic side. But on his travels, he stopped in the town of Ulm. There, on the night of November 10, he had three dreams that convinced him to change his life’s path. “Descartes took from them the message that he should set out to reform all knowledge,” philosopher Gary Hatfield writes in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

5. HE COULD BE EASILY DISTRACTED BY BRIGHT AND SHINY OBJECTS.

In 1628, Descartes moved to the Netherlands and spent nine months doggedly working on a theory of metaphysics. Then he got distracted. In 1629, a number of false suns—called parhelia, or “sun dogs”—were seen near Rome. Descartes put his beloved metaphysics treatise on the back burner and devoted his time to explaining the phenomenon. It was a lucky distraction: It led to his work The World, or Treatise on Light.

6. HE LAID THE GROUNDWORK FOR ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ...

In 1637, Descartes published his groundbreaking Discourse on the Method, where he took the revolutionary step of describing lines through mathematical equations. According to Hatfield, “[Descartes] considered his algebraic techniques to provide a powerful alternative to actual compass-and-ruler constructions when the latter became too intricate.” You might have encountered his system in high school algebra: They’re called Cartesian coordinates.

7. ... AND THE REST OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY.

Everybody knows Descartes for his phrase Cogito, ergo sum (which originally appeared in French as "Je pense, donc je suis"), or "I think, therefore I am." The concept appeared in many of his texts. To understand what it means, some context is helpful: At the time, many philosophers claimed that truth was acquired through sense impressions. Descartes disagreed. He argued that our senses are unreliable. An ill person can hallucinate. An amputee can feel phantom limb pain. People are regularly deceived by their own eyes, dreams, and imaginations. Descartes, however, realized that his argument opened a door for "radical doubt": That is, what was stopping people from doubting the existence of, well, everything? The cogito argument is his remedy: Even if you doubt the existence of everything, you cannot doubt the existence of your own mind—because doubting indicates thinking, and thinking indicates existing. Descartes argued that self-evident truths like this—and not the senses—must be the foundation of philosophical investigations.

8. HE'S THE REASON YOUR MATH TEACHER MAKES YOU CHECK YOUR WORK.

Descartes was obsessed with certainty. In his book Rules for the Direction of the Mind, “he sought to generalize the methods of mathematics so as to provide a route to clear knowledge of everything that human beings can know,” Hatfield writes. His advice included this classic chestnut: To solve a big problem, break it up into small, easy-to-understand parts—and check each step often.

9. HE LIKED TO HIDE.

Descartes had a motto, which he took from Ovid: “Who lives well hidden, lives well.” When he moved to the Netherlands, he regularly changed apartments and deliberately kept his address a secret. Some say it's because he simply desired privacy for his philosophical work, or that he was avoiding his disapproving family. In his book titled Descartes, philosopher A. C. Grayling makes another suggestion: "Descartes was a spy."

10. HE WASN'T AFRAID OF CRITICS. IN FACT, HE RE-PUBLISHED THEM.

When Descartes was revising his Meditations on First Philosophy [PDF], he planned to send the manuscript to “the 20 or 30 most learned theologians” for criticism—a sort of proto-peer review. He collected seven objections and published them in the work. (Descartes, of course, had the last word: He responded to each criticism.)

11. HE COULD THROW SHADE WITH THE BEST OF THEM.

In the 1640s, Descartes’s pupil and friend Henricus Regius published a broadsheet that distorted Descartes’s theory of the mind. (Which, put briefly, posits that the material body and immaterial mind are separate and distinct.) The two men had a falling out, and Descartes wrote a rebuttal with a barbed title that refused to even acknowledge Regius’s manifesto by name: It was simply called “Comments on a Certain Broadsheet.”

12. HE NEVER BELIEVED MONKEYS COULD TALK.

There’s a “fun fact” parading around that suggests Descartes believed monkeys and apes could talk. He believed no such thing. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Descartes denied that animals were even conscious, let alone capable of speech. The factoid comes from a misreading of a letter Descartes had written in 1646, in which he attributed the belief to “savages.”

13. HE TOTALLY HAD THE HOTS FOR CROSS-EYED WOMEN.

In a letter to Queen Christina of Sweden, Descartes explained that he had a cross-eyed playmate as a child. “I loved a girl of my own age ... who was slightly cross-eyed; by which means, the impression made in my brain when I looked at her wandering eyes was joined so much to that which also occurred when the passion of love moved me, that for a long time afterward, in seeing cross-eyed women, I felt more inclined to love them than others.”

14. WHEN HE MET BLAISE PASCAL, THEY GOT INTO AN ARGUMENT ... ABOUT VACUUMS.

In 1647, a 51-year-old Descartes visited the 24-year-old prodigy and physicist Blaise Pascal. Their meeting quickly devolved into a heated argument over the concept of a vacuum—that is, the idea that air pressure could ever be reduced to zero. (Descartes said it was impossible; Pascal disagreed.) Later, Descartes wrote a letter that, depending on your translation, said that Pascal had “too much vacuum in his head.”

15. HIS WORK WAS BANNED BY THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.

Back in the late 1630s, the theologian Gisbert Voetius had convinced the academic senate of the University of Utrecht to condemn the philosopher’s work. (Descartes was Catholic, but his suggestion that the universe began as a “chaotic soup of particles in motion,” in Hatfield's words, was contrary to orthodox theology.) In the 1660s, his works were placed on the church’s Index of Prohibited Books.

16. HE REGULARLY SLEPT UNTIL NOON (AND TRYING TO BREAK THE HABIT MIGHT HAVE KILLED HIM).

Descartes was not a morning person. He often snoozed 12 hours a night, from midnight until lunchtime. In fact, he worked in bed. (Sleep, he wisely wrote, was a time of “nourishment for the brain.”) But according to the Journal of Historical Neuroscience, he may have had a sleep disorder that helped end his life. A year before his death, Descartes had moved to Stockholm to take a job tutoring Queen Christina, a devoted early-riser who forced Descartes to change his sleep schedule. Some believe the resulting sleep deprivation weakened his immune system and eventually killed him.

17. HIS SKELETON HAS TRAVELED FAR AND WIDE.

Descartes died in Stockholm in 1650 and was buried outside the city. Sixteen years later, his corpse was exhumed and taken to Paris. During the French Revolution, his bones were moved to an Egyptian sarcophagus at the Museum of French Monuments. Decades later, when plans were made to rebury Descartes in an abbey, officials discovered that most of his bones—including his skull—were missing. Shortly after, a Swedish scientist discovered a newspaper advertisement attempting to sell the polymath’s noggin [PDF]. Today, his head is in a collection at the Musée de l’Homme in Paris.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios