© Wildlife Conservation Society
© Wildlife Conservation Society

See Vintage Pictures of the Opening of the Bronx Zoo's African Plains Exhibit

© Wildlife Conservation Society
© Wildlife Conservation Society

Nearly 75 years ago, on May 1, 1941, the Bronx Zoo opened its iconic African Plains Exhibit. The display set new standards for zoo habitats and was a huge success, drawing about 85,000 visitors in a single day even in its early days. In honor of the exhibit's anniversary, the Bronx Zoo recently released images of the opening.

The area—which showcases animals like zebras, elands, lions, warthogs, and several species of birds, among others—was built using money from an anonymous funder (who was later revealed to be department store owner Marshall Field). The whole thing cost about $110,000 and took around 18 months to complete, from planning to completion. Many of the featured species can still be seen there today.

Take a look at some of those pictures below, as well as an old video of some lions getting up close and personal with a CBS reporter (who, yes, is hiding in a box).

Before the '40s, zoos had different standard practices than they do today. Large animals like lions and bears were often housed in small cages with metal bars, completely ignoring how they would live in their natural habitats. When the Bronx Zoo opened their African Plains Exhibit, the organizers aimed to change the way animals were displayed. The design was created by the late Fairfield Osborn, the then-president of the New York Zoological Society (now Wildlife Conservation Society), who wanted to show visitors the importance of protecting both the wildlife and the places they called home.

The Plains exhibit was the first in the Bronx Zoo to organize the animals by geography instead of taxonomy. Predators and prey lived in a shared space, separated by hidden moats instead of iron bars. The naturalistic exhibit aimed to imitate the real plains of Africa from where the animals originated. According to a press release, the Bronx Zoo continues to use this design in their new exhibits, "focusing on the ecological relationships among animals and their natural environments."

All images © Wildlife Conservation Society

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Whale Sharks Can Live for More Than a Century, Study Finds
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Some whale sharks alive today have been swimming around since the Gilded Age. The animals—the largest fish in the ocean—can live as long as 130 years, according to a new study in the journal Marine and Freshwater Research. To give you an idea of how long that is, in 1888, Grover Cleveland was finishing up his first presidential term, Thomas Edison had just started selling his first light bulbs, and the U.S. only had 38 states.

To determine whale sharks' longevity, researchers from the Nova Southeastern University in Florida and the Maldives Whale Shark Research Program tracked male sharks around South Ari Atoll in the Maldives over the course of 10 years, calculating their sizes as they came back to the area over and over again. The scientists identified sharks that returned to the atoll every few years by their distinctive spot patterns, estimating their body lengths with lasers, tape, and visually to try to get the most accurate idea of their sizes.

Using these measurements and data on whale shark growth patterns, the researchers were able to determine that male whale sharks tend to reach maturity around 25 years old and live until they’re about 130 years old. During those decades, they reach an average length of 61.7 feet—about as long as a bowling lane.

While whale sharks are known as gentle giants, they’re difficult to study, and scientists still don’t know a ton about them. They’re considered endangered, making any information we can gather about them important. And this is the first time scientists have been able to accurately measure live, swimming whale sharks.

“Up to now, such aging and growth research has required obtaining vertebrae from dead whale sharks and counting growth rings, analogous to counting tree rings, to determine age,” first author Cameron Perry said in a press statement. ”Our work shows that we can obtain age and growth information without relying on dead sharks captured in fisheries. That is a big deal.”

Though whale sharks appear to be quite long-lived, their lifespan is short compared to the Greenland shark's—in 2016, researchers reported they may live for 400 years. 

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Animal Welfare Groups Are Building a Database of Every Cat in Washington, D.C.
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There are a lot of cats in Washington, D.C. They live in parks, backyards, side streets, and people's homes. Exactly how many there are is the question a new conservation project wants to answer. DC Cat Count, a collaboration between Humane Rescue Alliance, the Humane Society, PetSmart Charities, and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, aims to tally every cat in the city—even house pets, The New York Times reports.

Cities tend to support thriving feral cat populations, and that's a problem for animal conservationists. If a feline is born and grows up without human contact, it will never be a suitable house cat. The only options animal control officials have are to euthanize strays or trap and sterilize them, and release them back where they were found. If neither action is taken, it's the smaller animals that belong in the wild who suffer. Cats are invasive predators, and each year they kill billions of birds in the U.S. alone.

Before animal welfare experts and wildlife scientists can tackle this problem, they need to understand how big it is. Over the next three years, DC Cat Count will use various methods to track D.C.'s cats and build a feline database for the city. Sixty outdoor camera traps will capture images of passing cats, relying on infrared technology to sense them most of the time.

Citizens are being asked to help as well. An app is currently being developed that will allow users to snap photos of any cats they see, including their own pets. The team also plans to study the different ways these cats interact with their environments, like how much time pets spend indoors versus outdoors, for example. The initiative has a $1.5 million budget to spend on collecting data.

By the end of the project, the team hopes to have the tools both conservationists and animal welfare groups need to better control the local cat population.

Lisa LaFontaine, president and CEO of the Humane Rescue Alliance, said in a statement, “The reality is that those in the fields of welfare, ecology, conservation, and sheltering have a common long-term goal of fewer free-roaming cats on the landscape. This joint effort will provide scientific management programs to help achieve that goal, locally and nationally."

[h/t The New York Times]

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