Why Do Toll-Free Numbers Start With 800?

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Businesses want your call, and a good way for them to get it is to make that call free. Back in the days of slow-returning rotary phones, long before the advent of “touch-tone,” engineers at Bell Labs were thinking hard about future call convenience. The system they devised—which includes 800 numbers—still stands today in this digital age of Skype, VoIP, and cell phones.

"COLLECT" AND "ZENITH" CALLING

Before toll-free numbers, the only way to call free of charge was to call collect. This reversed the charges so that the receiving party paid for the call, not the person placing it. Prior to toll-free numbers, some companies allowed collect calls from customers, but it was a cumbersome way to attract business because the call had to go through the operator.

In the 1950s, a “Zenith number” published and advertised by some companies got you straight through to the operator, who would then look up a big paper directory and place the equivalent of a collect call manually to the receiving number at the relevant area code. This was toll-free for the customer, but certainly far from hassle-free.

NORTH AMERICAN NUMBERING PLAN (NANP)

Developed by Bell and AT&T in the 1940s, the NANP divided North America into 86 numbering areas defined by three-digit codes, beginning with area code 201 (New Jersey) and ending with area code 916 (far-northern California). They cleverly arranged the NANP so that the largest population areas were the quickest to dial on a rotary phone. Utah was assigned 801, but none of the regular area codes ended in a 0, as the astute Bell engineers had kept those ranges aside for special purposes.

Later, these reserved “non-geographic number” ranges—including the magic 800—would come into their own. Why 800, specifically? Probably because the number 8 corresponded with the letter T, for “Toll-free,” on a standard phone dial.

INWATS AND AUTOMATED COLLECT CALLING

In the early 1960s, Ken Looloian, AT&T’s head of planning, had a clever idea to cut costs by using electronic switching. In 1967, AT&T rolled out its long-distance “Inward Wide Area Telephone Service” (InWATS) nationwide. With InWATS, businesses and organizations could “subscribe” (for an expensive, fixed-rate line fee) and receive a number from the toll-free range.

Because of the high cost—ensured by AT&T’s initial monopoly on the service—only large call volume outfits, such as Sheraton and National Data Corp., went for it at first. And it was still a primitive setup by today’s standards. Toll-free numbers were tied to specific geographic areas, forcing serious “subscribers” to pay for up to 20 numbers if they wanted to cover the entire U.S.

Nevertheless, the InWATS service meant that customers could at last direct-dial companies via 800 numbers. Thanks to the automated switching equipment, what was effectively a collect call paid for by the subscriber no longer required operator assistance. This was great news for customers, but probably not so peachy for those polite, trusty, jack-plugging operators.

ENTER THE OTHER MR. 800

The costly, clumsy system was slow to catch on until, in the mid-'70s, AT&T engineer Roy Weber made a big breakthrough in toll-free calling technology. Though computer-controlled digital switching was still in its infancy, Weber’s bold concept (which his supervisor thought was a “dumb idea”) was to point non-geographic numbers at database files. In this way, a number could act as an index code to pull up a specific file, which could then instruct the switchgear to route the call correctly to anywhere. (Unfortunately for Mr. Weber’s pocketbook, AT&T Bell Labs took on the patent rights to all their employees’ inventions there.)

THE 800 AND VANITY NUMBER BOOM

In the early 1980s, using Weber’s insight, AT&T centralized its databases. This was the spark that lit the 800 boom, as it meant that companies could now have a single, nationwide 800 number instead of multiple, state-specific ones. The 800 number became a mark of prestige for companies, and competitive pressures ensured that the service flourished.

It wasn’t long before subscribers got imaginative with their toll-free numbers, choosing catchy “phoneword” combinations, like 800-FLOWERS or 800-COOKIES. These “vanity number” combinations were easier for customers to remember than were long strings of digits. And thanks to touch-tone phones, they were now quick to dial, no matter where they would have landed on the dial of an old rotary phone.

In 1993, 800 numbers became truly portable, no longer tied to a particular carrier. This gave subscribers a much greater choice of memorable and vanity numbers. Due to huge demand, new U.S. toll-free prefixes now include 888, 877, 866, 855 and 844, as well as the original 800.

A WORLD OF 800

Gradually, countries the world over adopted the convention of using an 800 prefix to designate toll-free numbers. An early pioneer of reverse-charge calling and automatic switching, the UK used 0800 for its “Linkline” (later, “freephone”) service which began in 1985 through British Telecom.

In order to free up the greatly prized 0800, BT transferred it across from its previous incarnation as the area code for the remote village of Tongue in the far north of Scotland. Kind of appropriate, in a strange sort of way.

Why Do We Eat Candy on Halloween?

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Jupiterimages/iStock via Getty Images

On October 31, hordes of children armed with Jack-o'-lantern-shaped buckets and pillow cases will take to the streets in search of sugar. Trick-or-treating for candy is synonymous with Halloween, but the tradition had to go through a centuries-long evolution to arrive at the place it is today. So how did the holiday become an opportunity for kids to get free sweets? You can blame pagans, Catholics, and candy companies.

Historians agree that a Celtic autumn festival called Samhain was the precursor to modern Halloween. Samhain was a time to celebrate the last harvest of the year and the approach of the winter season. It was also a festival for honoring the dead. One way Celtics may have appeased the spirits they believed still walked the Earth was by leaving treats on their doorsteps.

When Catholics infiltrated Ireland in the 1st century CE, they rebranded many pagan holidays to fit their religion. November 1 became the “feasts of All Saints and All Souls," and the day before it was dubbed "All-Hallows'-Eve." The new holidays looked a lot different from the original Celtic festival, but many traditions stuck around, including the practice of honoring the dead with food. The food of choice for Christians became "soul cakes," small pastries usually baked with expensive ingredients and spices like currants and saffron.

Instead of leaving them outside for passing ghosts, soul cakes were distributed to beggars who went door-to-door promising to pray for souls of the deceased in exchange for something to eat. Sometimes they wore costumes to honor the saints—something pagans originally did to avoid being harassed by evil spirits. The ritual, known as souling, is believed to have planted the seeds for modern-day trick-or-treating.

Souling didn't survive the holiday's migration from Europe to the United States. In America, the first Halloween celebrations were a way to mark the end-of-year harvest season, and the food that was served mainly consisted of homemade seasonal treats like caramel apples and mixed nuts. There were no soul cakes—or candies, for that matter—to be found.

It wasn't until the 1950s that trick-or-treating gained popularity in the U.S. Following the Great Depression and World War II, the suburbs were booming, and people were looking for excuses to have fun and get to know their neighbors. The old practice of souling was resurrected and made into an excuse for kids to dress up in costumes and roam their neighborhoods. Common trick-or-treat offerings included nuts, coins, and homemade baked goods ("treats" that most kids would turn their noses up at today).

That changed when the candy companies got their hands on the holiday. They had already convinced consumers that they needed candy on Christmas and Easter, and they were looking for an equally lucrative opportunity to market candy in the fall. The new practice of trick-or-treating was almost too good to be true. Manufacturers downsized candies into smaller, bite-sized packages and began marketing them as treats for Halloween. Adults were grateful to have a convenient alternative to baking, kids loved the sweet treats, and the candy companies made billions.

Today, it's hard to imagine Halloween without Skittles, chocolate bars, and the perennial candy corn debates. But when you're digging through a bag or bowl of Halloween candy this October, remember that you could have been having eating soul cakes instead.

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What's the Difference Between Cement and Concrete?

Vladimir Kokorin/iStock via Getty Images
Vladimir Kokorin/iStock via Getty Images

Picture yourself walking down a city block. The sidewalk you follow may be obscured by shuffling feet and discarded gum, but it’s clearly made from something hard, smooth, and gray. What may be less clear is the proper name for that material: Is it concrete or cement? Is there even a real difference between the two words?

Though they’re often used interchangeably, concrete and cement describe different yet related elements of the blocks, flooring, and walls that make up many everyday structures. In simple terms, concrete is the name of the gray, gritty building material used in construction, and cement is an ingredient used in concrete.

Cement is a dry powder mixture that looks much different from the wet stuff poured out of so-called cement trucks. It’s made from minerals that have been crushed up and mixed together. Exactly what kind of minerals it’s made from varies: Limestone and clay are commonly used today, but anything from seashells to volcanic ash is suitable. After the ingredients are mixed together the first time, they’re fired in a kiln at 2642°F to form strong new compounds, then cooled, crushed, and combined again.

Cement
Cement
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This mixture is useless on its own. Before it’s ready to be used in construction projects, the cement must be mixed with water and an aggregate, such as sand, to form a moldable paste. This substance is known as concrete. It fills whatever mold it’s poured into and quickly hardens into a solid, rock-like form, which is partly why it’s become the most widely-used building material on Earth.

So whether you’re etching your initials into a wet sidewalk slab, power-hosing your back patio, or admiring some Brutalist architecture, you’re dealing with concrete. But if you ever happen to be handling a chalky gray powder that hasn’t been mixed with water, cement is the correct label to use.

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