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Komatta via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

Ring-Tailed Lemurs Use Perfume as a Weapon

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Komatta via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

If you’ve ever been forcibly farted on by an older brother or rerouted your walk to avoid a smelly alley or subway station, you understand the power of odor. Skunks and a number of other animals can use their stench defensively, and many use tantalizing aromas to draw in a mate. However, lemurs may be the first ones to use perfume as a weapon. Researchers say male ring-tailed lemurs mix their own potent fragrances from glandular secretions and wield them in “stink fights” with other males. The report is published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

You wouldn’t guess it to look at them, but the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and other lemurs are primates like humans. But unlike humans, L. catta is endangered and increasingly concentrated in shrinking small forest habitats on the island of Madagascar. They’re highly social animals, living in big groups of up to 30 animals. Consequently, getting along—or at least avoiding all-out brawls—is pretty important. So instead of resorting to violence, male lemurs joust with custom-blended body odor.

Each male lemur has dedicated ingredient glands on his chest (brachial, or B gland) and on the inside of his wrist (antebrachial, or A gland). The A gland produces a clear liquid, while the B gland makes a nasty-smelling brown paste.

Brachial (L) and antebrachial (R) glands. Image credit: Alex Dunkel via Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 3.0

These secretions can be used alone, as when the lemurs rub their wrists against trees to mark their territory, or in combination, either via wrist rubbing or through what researchers have termed “stink fighting.” Contenders rub the liquid on their wrists into the brown mash on their chests, then smear the resulting blend onto the tips of their tails. They then hoist their tails into the air and wave them around, aggressively fanning their stench at their opponents.

Observing this behavior, researchers at the Duke Lemur Center wondered why the lemurs would mix their fragrances, rather than just using secretions straight from the source. They rounded up 12 of the center’s lemurs and swabbed both sets of glands to collect secretions. Next, they smeared each lemur’s secretions on three wooden dowels: one with just gland A fluid, one with just gland B paste, and one with a mixture. The researchers brought the lemurs back in and gave them the chance to check out scented dowels from a male they didn’t know. Each lemur was offered two rounds: first, dowels with fresh secretions, and then those that had been sitting around for 12 hours, allowing the scent to evaporate.

When every lemur had had his smell test, the researchers analyzed the behavior patterns associated with each dowel. They found that, as expected, the lemurs were more interested in the blended fragrance. But they also learned that their test subjects were even more captivated by older scents, moving from sniffing to straight-up licking the other males’ dried-out secretions.

The scientists say the blended scents may be constructed like human perfumes, with each note (in this case, type of secretion) providing different information. They also think that mixing helps the fragrance stick around. On its own, A-gland fluid evaporates pretty quickly. But the paste produced by B glands includes a chemical called squalene, which is actually used in human perfume as a fixative, to keep a scent active longer. This could allow scent marking to serve like a flag, allowing a male to stake a claim and walk away.

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Animals
7 Fun Facts for Elephant Appreciation Day
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Happy Elephant Appreciation Day! Celebrate the occasion with some facts about everyone's favorite gentle giant. 

1. ELEPHANTS CAN RECOGNIZE OTHER ELEPHANT CARCASSES.

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The University of Sussex's Karen McComb told National Geographic that elephants "become excited and agitated if they come across a dead elephant," and, in particular, will investigate skulls and tusks. McComb teamed up with researchers at the Amboseli Elephant Research Project in Kenya to study the behavior, showing wild elephants a range of objects that included skulls. They found that the elephants examined skulls—and tusks in particular—of their own kind twice as long as other skulls, and examined tusks six times as long as they did pieces of wood. They were even able to recognize elephant skulls with the tusks removed, but didn't show preference for certain elephant skulls over others, which suggests they didn't know which skulls belonged to their own relatives. "Animals that are intensely social in life may be most likely to display an interest in their dead," McComb told National Geographic. "But what goes on in their minds while they are doing this is a total mystery."

2. THEY'RE SCARED OF BEES.

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Forget about mice scaring off elephants: When farmers need to keep elephants away from their crops, they should use bees. Researchers in Kenya discovered that even the recorded sound of buzzing bees was enough to make elephants retreat—and cause them to emit a low-frequency sound, inaudible to humans, that warns other elephants of the bees' presence.

"It's impossible to cover Africa in electric fences," Lucy King, author of the paper, told The Huffington Post. "The infrastructure doesn't exist in many places and it would restrict animals' movement." But something like a bee fence—hives strung on strong wires a certain distance apart that would move when elephants walked into them, disturbing the hives—"could be a better way to direct elephants away from farmers' crops," she said.

3. THEY MIGHT UNDERSTAND POINTING.

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Humans often use pointing as a way to nonverbally get a message across, though not many other animals grasp the concept. But according to a two-month study of 11 tame African elephants, these pachyderms might be able to: When presented with two identical buckets and pointed in the direction of the one containing food, elephants picked up on the cue fairly consistently: Elephants had a success rate of 67.5 percent (1-year-old humans have a success rate of 72.7 percent). But an earlier study of Asian elephants indicated that they don’t notice pointing gestures, which is a bit of a mystery.

4. ONE ELEPHANT CAN "TALK." 

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Koshik, an elephant in a South Korean zoo, developed the ability to imitate the sounds of five words he's heard from his trainer—annyeong (hello), anja (sit down), aniya (no), nuwo (lie down), and joa (good)—by sticking his trunk in his mouth. The scientists who first noticed Koshik’s ability speculate that he learned to “talk” because he was lonely.

5. THEY'RE DIGITIGRADES.

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It's Latin for "finger walking," and what it means is that elephants walk on their toes (there are five of them, as well a sixth false toe). According to the book Mammal Anatomy: An Illustrated Guidemost of the animals' weight "rests on a broad pad of elastic tissue behind the toes" which "acts as a shock absorber and prevents the skeleton from jolting too much when the animals walk. It also allows elephants to move surprisingly quietly despite their size."

6. AN ELEPHANT PREGNANCY LASTS ABOUT TWO YEARS.

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If you thought being pregnant for nine months was a long time, be glad you're not an elephant, which can be pregnant for up to 680 days, according to the BBC. All that time in the oven has a benefit, though: Elephant calves are born with highly-developed brains, capable of learning their herd's complex social structures and ready to put their trunks to use.

7. NINETY-SIX ELEPHANTS ARE KILLED IN AFRICA EVERY DAY.

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Unfortunately, elephant poaching remains a very big problem: An estimated 35,000 elephants are killed annually, their tusks sold illegally in the ivory market. Do the math, and that comes out to nearly 96 elephants every day. Find out what you can do to help elephants and stop poaching at 96Elephants.org.

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Yani Dubin via Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY-ND 2.0
Bumblebees Mark Their Trails With Tiny Scented "Footprints"
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Yani Dubin via Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY-ND 2.0

Bees seem to have an endless number of tricks up their sleeve—and on their feet. Scientists have discovered that bumblebees leave itty-bitty scented “footprints” on every flower they visit, thereby informing other foragers that the bloom’s been recently tapped. The researchers published their findings in the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

Bees are the queens of complex communication. They exchange information with one another and their environments using a dazzling array of sensory input, including electrical impulses, sound, dance, and chemical signals.

Some of those signals flow out into the world through the bees’ delicate little feet. The bottom segment of a bee’s leg, called the tarsus, secretes a scented goo that helps the bee stick to the soft surfaces of flower petals. The chemical profile of each bee’s foot-glue is as unique as a fingerprint.

Previous studies have shown that bees glean important information from one another’s goo, skipping flowers that other bees have already visited. This raised an interesting question: If a bee can "read" another bee’s scent mark, can it also identify that bee?

To find out, researchers planted small clusters of fake flowers in the laboratory and topped some of them up them with sucrose nectar. They then gave bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) free rein to tromp around the blossoms, marking them up and taking in the marks of other bees that had come before.

The bees proved careful and canny readers. Not only did they use other bees’ scent marks to decide which flowers to probe, but they also considered the source of the scent when making that decision. An individual bee could easily differentiate between the smell of its own feet (trustworthy), those of its family members (very trustworthy), and those of strangers (not a reliable source of floral information).

Lead author Richard Pearce is a biologist at the University of Bristol. "Bumblebees are flexible learners and, as we have discovered, can detect whether or not it is they or a different bumblebee that has visited a flower recently. These impressive abilities allows them to be cleverer in their search for food, which will help them to be more successful," he said in a statement.

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