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13 Things You Might Not Know About Eva Perón

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From 1946 to 1952, Eva Perón (full name: María Eva Duarte de Perón—though she was born Eva María Ibarguren) was Argentina’s First Lady. Nicknamed Evita, she became a massively popular celebrity and icon to Argentinians, as well as a source of great controversy. Her life inspired the Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber Broadway musical Evita (which became the 1996 film version starring Madonna), but there’s much more to the real Evita’s life. Here are 13 facts about Perón in honor of her birthday.

1. ALTHOUGH HER FATHER WAS WEALTHY, SHE GREW UP IN POVERTY.

Eva’s father, Juan Duarte, was a wealthy farmer who raised livestock and grew crops. The only problem was that he already had a wife and kids, so she, her mother, and her four older siblings were Duarte’s second family. Because they were born out of wedlock, Perón and her siblings were legally illegitimate; when Duarte abandoned them to return to his first wife, he left them impoverished in rural Argentina. Eva was 6 years old when her father died in 1926, and though her family was allowed to quickly pay their respects, they were not allowed to attend his funeral.

2. AS A YOUNG TEENAGER, SHE MOVED TO BUENOS AIRES TO BE AN ACTRESS.

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In her early teens (most sources say she was 15), Perón left home to be an actress in Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. Although some of her early biographical information is sketchy, most historians agree that the story (which appears in the musical Evita) that she ran off to Buenos Aires with Augustín Magaldi, a tango singer, is apocryphal. In Buenos Aires, Perón got work as a radio actress and acted in plays and films. By the early 1940s, she had achieved major financial success with her radio show on Radio Belgrano.

3. SHE MET HER HUSBAND THANKS TO AN EARTHQUAKE.

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In January 1944, an earthquake in San Juan, Argentina killed an estimated 10,000 people. The military colonel Juan Perón, who headed Argentina’s Ministry of Labor, organized a fundraiser to help the victims of the earthquake. As an actress and radio show host, Perón was invited to attend, and she met her future husband at the fundraiser’s gala at Luna Park Stadium. Despite their age difference—she was in her mid-twenties, and he was in his late forties—they got married in 1945.

4. SHE BECAME A SUPER-INVOLVED AND ACTIVE FIRST LADY.

Perón broke gender barriers in Argentina by campaigning with her husband, who won Argentina’s 1946 presidential election. As First Lady, she was no less involved. Perón unofficially took over the Ministries of Health and Labor, devoted a huge amount of time to meeting with poor Argentinians, visited hospitals and orphanages, and founded the Female Perónist Party, a political party comprised of female voters.

5. HER FOUNDATION HELPED SICK AND POOR ARGENTINIANS.

In July 1948, Perón established the María Eva Duarte Social Help Foundation (renamed two years later as the Eva Perón Foundation) to fight poverty in Argentina. She worked long hours giving money and medicine to the poor, touching and kissing the sick, and empathizing with the plight of the descamisados (the poor workers; literally, "shirtless ones"). Funding for her foundation came from unions, taxes and levies, and businesses that were pressured or forced to contribute money. Perón’s foundation gave items such as shoes, cookware, and clothing to needy Argentinians, and it funded the building of hospitals, schools, and housing for homeless women and children.

6. EVITA CITY WAS DESIGNED IN THE SHAPE OF HER PROFILE.

Located in the greater Buenos Aires area, Ciudad Evita (Evita City) was named by the Eva Perón Foundation, which funded the suburb for working class Argentinians to live in. But it’s not just named after Perón—it also resembles her. An aerial view of the city reveals that Evita City was built in the shape of her profile, with her head facing right and her hair tied in her signature chignon. After military coups in 1955 and 1976 overthrew Juan Perón and pro-Perón leaders, Evita City was renamed twice. But the city’s current name is back to Ciudad Evita, and around 70,000 people live there today.

7. SHE TRAVELED TO EUROPE ON A “RAINBOW TOUR.”

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Perón at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris in 1947.

In 1947, Perón traveled to Spain, Italy, France, and Switzerland. Dubbed the “Rainbow Tour,” Perón’s goodwill trip included meetings with Francisco Franco, Pope Pius XII, and Charles de Gaulle. Dressed to the nines, she gave money to poor children in Spain, visited the Palace of Versailles, and encountered protesters in Switzerland who threw stones and tomatoes at her. Some Europeans distrusted aspects of Juan Perón’s fascist rule and ties to Nazi war criminals, while others disapproved of what they viewed as her ostentatious "famewhoring."

8. YOU CAN SEE HER ELABORATE CLOTHING AT THE OFFICIAL EVITA PERÓN MUSEUM.

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In July 2002, to commemorate 50 years since her death, Museo Evita (The Evita Museum) opened in Palermo, Buenos Aires. Founded by Cristina Alvarez Rodriquez, Perón’s grand-niece, the museum is housed in a building that the Eva Perón Foundation set up for homeless women and children to live in until they found work and a more permanent home. Visitors to the museum can see Perón’s portraits and designer clothing on display—she famously wore Dior dresses, tailored suits, and eye-catching jewelry, especially after her return from Europe.

9. SHE HELPED ARGENTINIAN WOMEN WIN THE RIGHT TO VOTE.

Perón believed that all women should have the right to vote, so she gave radio addresses, wrote articles, and made speeches at rallies supporting women’s suffrage. Although some scholars argue that her real political power in gaining women’s suffrage may have been exaggerated, she nevertheless succeeded in her goal. Argentina’s senate sanctioned the women’s suffrage bill in 1946, and it became law in 1947, making it legal for women to vote and run for office.

10. CANCER PREVENTED HER FROM RUNNING FOR VICE PRESIDENT.

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In January 1950, Perón fainted and was diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer (though other sources say she had uterine cancer). She underwent various procedures including a hysterectomy, and she was the first Argentine to undergo chemotherapy, but the cancer metastasized. In 1951, she announced her candidacy for vice president to her husband as president. Millions of working class Argentinians and members of labor unions supported her, but members of the military elite did not. Due to their opposition as well as her cancer—she was weak, thin, and in great pain—she decided to withdraw from the race.

11. SHE MAY HAVE HAD A LOBOTOMY IN A LAST-DITCH EFFORT TO EASE HER PAIN.

Perón’s medical records suggest that she may have had a prefrontal lobotomy in June 1952, a month before she died. Although the purpose of the lobotomy was to control the pain and anxiety caused by her advanced cancer, a neurosurgeon at Yale argued that Juan Perón also ordered the lobotomy as part of a political conspiracy, trying to control her violent, erratic behavior and silence her to prevent a civil war. Despite the possible motives or surgery, she died on July 26, 1952 at 33 years old.

12. MILLIONS OF MOURNERS ATTENDED HER FUNERAL.

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Although she had detractors who despised her and viewed her as a megalomaniac, millions of Argentinians loved her and saw her as a saint. Before she died, Argentina’s Congress gave Perón the official title of “Spiritual Leader of the Nation.” Her state funeral was fitting for a queen, and throngs of weeping people stood outside the president’s house, mourning her death with flowers. Three million people in Buenos Aires reportedly attended her funeral and mass, and long lines of people waited to see her body on display at the Ministry of Labor.

13. HER CORPSE WAS MISSING FOR 16 YEARS.

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The bodies of Juan and Eva Perón on display in Buenos Aires.

After her body was embalmed and put on display, a military coup overthrew Juan Perón in 1955. He fled to Spain, and the new military leaders banned anything that was pro-Perón. They removed Eva Perón’s corpse, reportedly made wax decoy bodies to confuse her supporters, and stored the real corpse in a van and then an office. In 1957, they sent the body to a cemetery in Milan, Italy, to be buried under a fake name.

Her corpse stayed in Milan until 1971, when it was disinterred and given to Juan Perón in Madrid. Because the body was damaged, he and his third wife, Isabel, brushed her hair, cleaned the body, and put it on display in their dining room. By 1973, Juan Perón had come out of exile and won the Argentinian presidency again (with Isabel as his vice president). He died in office the following year, and Isabel had Evita's corpse returned to Buenos Aires, where it was put on display next to Juan Perón’s corpse for a time. Finally, in 1976, her body was buried in her maiden family’s tomb in a secure, tamper-proof spot in a cemetery in Buenos Aires.

All images via Getty.

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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