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10 Quirky Facts About Manx Cats

A Manx cat looks like your typical feline—that is, until it turns around and you realize it’s missing a tail. Here are 10 facts about the unusual kitty, which hails from an island in the Irish Sea, and its adorably stubby posterior.

1. ITS MISSING TAIL STEMS FROM A GENETIC MUTATION …

Today, the Manx is an international show cat. However, its roots can be traced back to the humble Isle of Man. The remote island sits in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. Hundreds of years ago, a genetic mutation caused one or more kitties on the Isle of Man to be born without a tail. Since the Isle of Man’s feline population is so small, generations of inbreeding caused the trait to become common among the local cats.

Naturally, the Manx is beloved on its native shores. It's been featured on currency, stamps, and company logos, and shops sell merchandise featuring the tailless cat.

2. … BUT MANY CREATIVE LEGENDS CLAIM OTHERWISE.

People once said that the Manx was running late for Noah’s Ark, and Noah slammed the door and severed its tail. Others theorized that Manxes were “cabbits”—the hybrid offspring of a cat and a rabbit—due to their long back legs, short tail, and rounded rump.

3. THE MANX WAS ONE OF THE WORLD’S FIRST SHOW CATS.

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Animal lovers in England began showcasing Manx cats at some of the world’s first cat shows in the late 19th century. When the Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA)—the world's largest registry of pedigreed cats—was formed in 1906, the Manx was one of the founding breeds.

4. MANXES CAN GIVE BIRTH TO KITTENS WITH OR WITHOUT TAILS …

Manx cats carry one gene for a full tail, and one for taillessness. This means that two Manx cats can mate and produce a kitten that’s a typical long-tailed feline. Sadly, kittens that inherit the taillessness gene from both parents will likely die before birth. That’s why some people have nicknamed the Manx gene “the lethal gene.”

5. …BUT THEIR TAILS MIGHT BE VARYING LENGTHS.

The Manx gene is an incomplete dominant gene, so kittens that inherit it can be born with full-length tails, stubby tails, or no tails at all—and all of these tail lengths can appear in a single litter.

Due to this variability, Manx cats are classified according to tail lengths. Completely tailless felines are called “rumpy,” whereas cats with short tail stumps that are often curved, knotted, or kinked are known as “stumpy,” and kitties with nearly normal-length tails are called “longy.” Only “rumpies,” or cats called “rumpy risers” that have a slight rise of bone where their tails would start, are eligible to compete in the championship classes in CFA cat shows.

Breeders like to include all four Manx tail types in their breeding programs, since genetic defects are more likely to arise when rumpies are only bred with other rumpies for multiple generations.

6. MANXES COME IN A VARIETY OF SHADES AND PATTERNS.

canong2fan via Flickr// CC BY-NC-ND-2.0

You’ll find Manx cats in hues ranging from red, white, and black to cream, blue, and shaded silver. (The CFA disqualifies against cats with lavender, chocolate, or pointed coloring, since these shades indicate hybridization [PDF].) Typically, a Manx cat's eyes are gold, copper, green, hazel, blue, or odd-eyed.

When it comes to patterns, Manx kitties can be bicolor, tabbies, or tortoiseshells. Some Manx-like cats also have long fur; they're called Cymrics, and most cat fanciers' associations view them as a separate breed.

7. KOKO THE GORILLA LOVED A MANX KITTEN.

Koko, the famous research gorilla that knows more than 1000 words of modified American Sign Language, once owned a Manx cat. In 1984, Koko was allowed to choose a pet kitten from a litter for her 12th birthday present. Koko selected a tailless grey-and-white cat, which she named "All Ball." ("The cat was a Manx and looked like a ball," Ron Cohn, a biologist at the Gorilla Sanctuary, told the LA Times in 1985. "Koko likes to rhyme words in sign language.")

Koko loved All Ball, and cuddled and played with her on a regular basis. Sadly, All Ball was struck by a car later that year and died. A devastated Koko was given a new pet, a red kitty named Lips Lipstick. She later owned a third cat, a gray feline named Smoky; the two animals were companions for nearly 20 years until Smoky died of natural causes.

8. MANX CATS SOMETIMES HAVE HEALTH PROBLEMS.

Like many pedigreed breeds, Manx cats are prone to a set of unique health problems. The mutation responsible for the cat's lack of a tail also affects the development of its spine and spinal cord. As a result, many Manx kitties suffer from a variety of painful symptoms that are collectively referred to as "Manx Syndrome," including spina bifida, a birth defect that prevents the vertebrae from growing around the spinal cord. Other afflictions include incontinence or constipation, an odd stance, a “hopping” walk, a lack of sensation or paralysis in the hind legs, and malformed pelvic or sacral bones. These birth defects can sometimes be fatal.

Be careful picking up your Manx cat, as the nerve endings near where its tail should be are exposed. Also, keep in mind that if you own a “longie” cat that’s five years or older, its tail may ossify and become arthritic.

9. SCIENTISTS WANT TO DECODE THE MANX'S GENOME.

While scientists at the University of Missouri released a rough draft of the cat genome in 2007 and another more complete version in 2014, no one has sequenced the Manx breed. That’s why a group of researchers on the Isle of Man plan to look at the whole genomes of Manx cats and locate breed-specific mutations.

“Sequencing multiple Manx cat genomes has a scientific purpose,” the scientists wrote on their project website. “If we can identify other mutations which are unique to the Manx breed this could possibly lead to diagnostic DNA tests that can be used by breeders to select their cats more appropriately to try and reduce the number of kittens born with Manx Syndrome. The more cats we can sequence the more we can discover!”

The team is currently raising funds for their scientific investigation. They plan to publish results in a peer-reviewed journal, and to submit a copy of the genomes to the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

10. THE MANX CAN BALANCE WITHOUT A TAIL.

Since a cat's tail is instrumental for balance, how do Manx cats manage to walk without wobbling? Experts think they have an especially sensitive vestibular apparatus inside their ears to compensate.

Additional Source: The Cat Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide

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science
These Deep-Sea Worms Could Live More Than a Thousand Years

Plunge below the sparkling surface of the Gulf of Mexico, head down into the depths, and there you'll find the ancient ones, growing in clusters of drab tubes like piles of construction equipment. Scientists writing in the journal The Science of Nature report that some of these worms could be more than 1000 years old.

When it comes to marine organisms, the deeper you go, the slower and older life gets. Biologists have found an octopus that guarded her eggs for four and a half years. They've seen clams born during the Ming dynasty and sharks older than the United States. They've seen communities of coral that have been around for millennia.

Previous studies have shown that some species of tube worm can live to be 250 years old. To find out if the same was true for other species—in this case, the Gulf of Mexico's Escarpia laminata—researchers spent years watching them grow. They used a long-lasting dye called Acid Blue to mark six clusters of worms, then let them to go about their wormy business. A year later, they collected all 356 blue-stained tubes and brought them back to the lab to measure their growth.

By calculating the speed of the worms' growth and comparing it to the size of the largest individuals, the scientists could devise a pretty good estimate of the oldest worms' age.

And boy, are they old. The researchers' worm-growth simulation suggested that the most ancient individuals could be more than 9000 years old. This seems incredible, even for tough old tube worms, so the scientists calculated a more conservative maximum age: a mere 1000 years.

A millennium-long lifespan is an extreme and not the average, the paper authors note. "There may indeed be large E. laminata over 1000 years old in nature, but given our research, we are more confident reporting a life span of at least 250 to 300 years," lead author Alanna Durkin of Temple University told New Scientist.

Still, Durkin says, "E. laminata is pushing the bounds of what we thought was possible for longevity."

She's excited by the prospect of finding older creatures yet.

"It's possible that new record-breaking life spans will be discovered in the deep sea,” she says, “since we are finding new species and new habitats almost every time we send down a submersible.”

 

[h/t New Scientist]

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Animals
Watch as Hummingbirds Fly, Drink, and Flap Their Tiny Wings in Slow Motion
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Hummingbirds have more feathers per inch than nearly any other bird, but it’s hard to fully appreciate their luminescent colors when they beat their wings between 70 to 200 times per second.

For the enjoyment of birders everywhere, National Geographic photographer Anand Varma teamed up with bird biologists and used a high-speed, high-resolution camera to capture the tiny creatures in slow motion as they flew through wind tunnels, drank artificial nectar from a glass vessel, and shook water from their magnificent plumage.

[h/t The Kid Should See This]

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