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The Difference Between Tylenol, Aspirin, Advil, and Aleve

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It’s the morning after a wild night out. You stumble to the medicine cabinet and stare blearily at the array of over-the-counter painkillers, wondering which one will bring the quickest relief (and why all the labels have to be so darn bright). Fortunately, you’ve taped this article to the cabinet door, and instead of guessing, you can just check our handy guide below.

TYLENOL (ACETAMINOPHEN)

There are two main types of non-prescription painkillers: acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which includes basically everything that is not acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is the most popular pain-relieving option the world over, and it works by encouraging the brain to stop sending pain signals. 

Best for: Headaches and muscle aches

Not great for: Inflammation and joint pain

Watch out for: Taking too much acetaminophen, or mixing acetaminophen and alcohol, can lead to liver damage, and acetominophen is one of the drugs most frequently involved in overdose. Check the bottle to find out the maximum safe dose, and take it seriously.

ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID)

Aspirin and other NSAIDs work by decreasing your body’s production of enzymes that create pain-related chemicals. When prescribed by a doctor and taken every day, a small dose of aspirin can help lower the risk of heart attack or stroke for some people.

Best for: Reducing cardiovascular risk

Not great for: Intense pain  

Watch out for: Aspirin can be hard on the gut, liver, and kidney. Talk to your doctor to find out if it’s safe for you. Use caution when giving aspirin to children.

ADVIL AND MOTRIN (IBUPROFEN)

Ibuprofen is a pretty versatile drug, with the power to help with a broad range of aches, pains, and other complaints. 

Best for: Hangover (there you go!), menstrual cramps, sore or injured muscles, sinus pain, earaches, and toothaches

Not great for: Chronic headache

Watch out for: Ibuprofen carries most of the same risks as aspirin but is often available in higher doses, which can be even harder on your body. It’s also fast-acting and fast-fading, which might lead to more frequent doses.

ALEVE (NAPROXEN)

Naproxen is slow to kick in but longer lasting than ibuprofen, making it a good choice for people with mild-to-moderate chronic pain.

Best for: Inflammation, hangover, lasting headache, arthritis

Not great for: Quick pain relief

Watch out for: Like all NSAIDs, naproxen carries some cardiovascular risk and is associated with stomach distress.

THE UPSHOT

Taking too much of any painkiller is bad for you, and not just in the ways we’ve already discussed. People who rely on over-the-counter medication for daily headaches often find that the medication itself can cause additional headaches, called rebound headaches. If you find yourself taking over-the-counter drugs for the same reason every day, it’s time to talk to your doctor about the underlying issue and other treatment options.

[h/t Business Insider]

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Animals
Owning a Dog May Add Years to Your Life, Study Shows
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We've said that having a furry friend can reduce depression, promote better sleep, and encourage more exercise. Now, research has indicated that caring for a canine might actually extend your lifespan.

Previous studies have shown that dog owners have an innate sense of comfort and increased well-being. A new paper published in Scientific Reports and conducted by Uppsala University in Sweden looked at the health records of 3.4 million of the country's residents. These records typically include personal data like marital status and whether the individual owns a pet. Researchers got additional insight from a national dog registry providing ownership information. According to the study, those with a dog for a housemate were less likely to die from cardiovascular disease or any other cause during the study's 12-year duration.

The study included adults 40 to 80 years old, with a mean age of 57. Researchers found that dogs were a positive predictor in health, particularly among singles. Those who had one were 33 percent less likely to die early than those who did not. Authors didn't conclude the exact reason behind the correlation: It could be active people are more likely to own dogs, that dogs promoted more activity, or that psychological factors like lowered incidences of depression might bolster overall well-being. Either way, having a pooch in your life could mean living a longer one.

[h/t Bloomberg]

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Live Smarter
Not Sure About Your Tap Water? Here's How to Test for Contaminants
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In the wake of Flint, Michigan's water crisis, you may have begun to wonder: Is my tap water safe? How would I know? To put your mind at ease—or just to satisfy your scientific curiosity—you can find out exactly what's in your municipal water pretty easily, as Popular Science reports. Depending on where you live, it might even be free.

A new water quality test called Tap Score, launched on Kickstarter in June 2017, helps you test for the most common household water contaminants for $120 per kit. You just need to take a few samples, mail them to the lab, and you'll get the results back in 10 days, telling you about lead levels, copper and cadmium content, arsenic, and other common hazardous materials that can make their way into water via pipes or wells. If you're mostly worried about lead, you can get a $40 test that only tells you about the lead and copper content of your water.

In New York State, a free lead-testing program will send you a test kit on request that allows you to send off samples of your water to a state-certified lab for processing, no purchase required. A few weeks later, you'll get a letter with the results, telling you what kind of lead levels were found in your water. This option is great if you live in New York, but if your state doesn't offer free testing (or only offers it to specific locations, like schools), there are other budget-friendly ways to test, too.

While mailing samples of your water off to a certified lab is the most accurate way to test your water, you can do it entirely at home with inexpensive strip tests that will only set you back $10 to $15. These tests aren't as sensitive as lab versions, and they don't test for as many contaminants, but they can tell you roughly whether you should be concerned about high levels of toxic metals like lead. The strip tests will only give you positive or negative readings, though, whereas the EPA and other official agencies test for the concentration of contaminants (the parts-per-billion) to determine the safety of a water source. If you're truly concerned with what's in your water, you should probably stick to sending your samples off to a professional, since you'll get a more detailed report of the results from a lab than from a colored strip.

In the future, there will likely be an even quicker way to test for lead and other metals—one that hooks up to your smartphone. Gitanjali Rao, an 11-year-old from Colorado, won the 2017 Young Scientist Challenge by inventing Tethys, a faster lead-testing device than what's currently on the market. With Tethys, instead of waiting for a lab, you can get results instantly. It's not commercially available yet, though, so for now, we'll have to stick with mail-away options.

[h/t Popular Science]

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