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The Difference Between Tylenol, Aspirin, Advil, and Aleve

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It’s the morning after a wild night out. You stumble to the medicine cabinet and stare blearily at the array of over-the-counter painkillers, wondering which one will bring the quickest relief (and why all the labels have to be so darn bright). Fortunately, you’ve taped this article to the cabinet door, and instead of guessing, you can just check our handy guide below.

TYLENOL (ACETAMINOPHEN)

There are two main types of non-prescription painkillers: acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which includes basically everything that is not acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is the most popular pain-relieving option the world over, and it works by encouraging the brain to stop sending pain signals. 

Best for: Headaches and muscle aches

Not great for: Inflammation and joint pain

Watch out for: Taking too much acetaminophen, or mixing acetaminophen and alcohol, can lead to liver damage, and acetominophen is one of the drugs most frequently involved in overdose. Check the bottle to find out the maximum safe dose, and take it seriously.

ASPIRIN (ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID)

Aspirin and other NSAIDs work by decreasing your body’s production of enzymes that create pain-related chemicals. When prescribed by a doctor and taken every day, a small dose of aspirin can help lower the risk of heart attack or stroke for some people.

Best for: Reducing cardiovascular risk

Not great for: Intense pain  

Watch out for: Aspirin can be hard on the gut, liver, and kidney. Talk to your doctor to find out if it’s safe for you. Use caution when giving aspirin to children.

ADVIL AND MOTRIN (IBUPROFEN)

Ibuprofen is a pretty versatile drug, with the power to help with a broad range of aches, pains, and other complaints. 

Best for: Hangover (there you go!), menstrual cramps, sore or injured muscles, sinus pain, earaches, and toothaches

Not great for: Chronic headache

Watch out for: Ibuprofen carries most of the same risks as aspirin but is often available in higher doses, which can be even harder on your body. It’s also fast-acting and fast-fading, which might lead to more frequent doses.

ALEVE (NAPROXEN)

Naproxen is slow to kick in but longer lasting than ibuprofen, making it a good choice for people with mild-to-moderate chronic pain.

Best for: Inflammation, hangover, lasting headache, arthritis

Not great for: Quick pain relief

Watch out for: Like all NSAIDs, naproxen carries some cardiovascular risk and is associated with stomach distress.

THE UPSHOT

Taking too much of any painkiller is bad for you, and not just in the ways we’ve already discussed. People who rely on over-the-counter medication for daily headaches often find that the medication itself can cause additional headaches, called rebound headaches. If you find yourself taking over-the-counter drugs for the same reason every day, it’s time to talk to your doctor about the underlying issue and other treatment options.

[h/t Business Insider]

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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