What is Lorem Ipsum Filler Text?


Have you ever visited a website that’s under construction and seen a jumble of Latin text? Most likely, what you saw was Lorem Ipsum filler text.

Used in newspaper and magazine publishing, typesetting, and web design, Lorem Ipsum serves as a temporary placeholder for text before the final copy is inserted. Although Lorem Ipsum consists of Latin words, it’s an example of "Greeking"—making text unreadable to signify that it’s a placeholder. Lorem Ipsum is less distracting for designers when they're trying to get a visual feel for a piece of text, and copyeditors are less likely to mistake Lorem Ipsum for the final text, lest they accidentally publish a document that still contains it. Sometimes, though, editors miss a block of Lorem Ipsum text and it gets published, as it did for an article in this Singapore newspaper.

In the 1980s, the general public became exposed to Lorem Ipsum when the filler text appeared on several desktop publishing and word processing templates such as PageMaker. However, Lorem Ipsum isn't new. In the 1500s—relatively soon after the invention of the printing press—typesetters first began using random Latin text for mock-ups. Amazingly, the Lorem Ipsum text that made its way into computer publishing software in the 20th century is a version of what was used in the 1500s.

Latin scholar Dr. Richard McClintock discovered that this common text is in fact a scrambled section from ancient Roman philosopher Cicero’s De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum ("On The Ends of Good and Evil"). "This text has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since some printer in the 1500s took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book," McClintock told Before & After, a publishing magazine, in 1994. "[I]t has survived not only four centuries of letter-by-letter resetting but even the leap into electronic typesetting, essentially unchanged." (But he later told The Straight Dope that he hasn’t been able to find the old type sample that contained the phrase "lorem ipsum," so the practice might be only a few decades old.)

Written in 45 BCE, Cicero’s text explores different schools of philosophy such as Epicureanism and Stoicism. The specific “lorem ipsum” section is derived from a passage in which Cicero discusses pain and pleasure.

As it appears on design templates today, however, Lorem Ipsum is not taken verbatim from Cicero’s text. Rather, the text is jumbled so that it’s meaningless: even if someone knows Latin, they won’t be distracted by the text. The word lorem is abridged from the Latin word dolorem (pain), so dolorem ipsum translates to "pain itself."

Here's a comparison of Lorem Ipsum filler text and the original Cicero source, with English translation:

Standard Lorem Ipsum Filler Text:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

The original Cicero passage:

Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem.

English translation:

Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure.

If you’re bored with the standard Lorem Ipsum, you can always use funnier alternatives such as Bacon Ipsum, Nietzsche Ipsum, or Hipster Ipsum.

Do 'Close Door' Buttons in Elevators Actually Do Anything?

When you’re running late for work, one small comfort is finding an empty elevator waiting for you at your office building. You scurry inside, and since no one else is waiting to enter, you jab the 'close door' button. The doors comply, the elevator starts moving, and you breathe a sigh of relief.

This is a familiar scenario for many, but it’s also a big fat lie. That’s because most of the door-close buttons in U.S. elevators don’t actually work. In fact, they’re programmed that way.

But before you get ready to send off a strongly worded email to your office building’s elevator manufacturer, you may want to hear why this is the case. When the Americans With Disabilities Act was first passed in 1990, certain requirements for elevators were outlined, such as the installation of raised buttons, braille signs, and audible signals.

The act ensured that someone with a disability would have enough time to get inside, stipulating that elevator doors must remain fully open for at least three seconds and thereby preventing the button from cutting that time short. Some elevator manufacturers took it one step further by deactivating the button entirely.

Since the life span of an elevator is about 25 years and the Disabilities Act has been around for 28 years, it’s safe to assume that most of the elevators in operation today do not have a functioning 'close door' button, The New York Times reports. Only firefighters are able to close elevator doors manually through the use of a key.

It's important to note that there are exceptions to this rule, though. As the New York Daily News noted, New York City elevators are required by law to have working 'close door' buttons, even though some operate on a long delay (so long, in fact, that it calls the button's usefulness into question).

However, you’re in luck if you’re taking a lift (which, of course, is British for “elevator”). 'Close door' buttons are fully functional in most elevators in the UK, according to The Telegraph. A spokesman for the Lift and Escalator Industry Association told the newspaper that not all elevators have the button, but when they’re present, they do work. Again, the time it takes for the doors to shut after pressing the button varies from lift to lift.

While U.S. elevator manufacturers have a seemingly good reason for disabling the 'close door' button, some may question the point of propagating the myth and installing a button that serves no purpose in the first place. In response, some would argue that placebo buttons serve an important psychological function in society.

"Perceived control is very important," Harvard psychologist Ellen J. Langer told The New York Times. "It diminishes stress and promotes well-being."

That’s right: By believing that you’re in control of your fate—or at least how quickly you can make it up to the sixth floor—you’re better off. It doesn’t end with elevators, either. Buttons placed at city crosswalks are often disabled, and the thermostats in many office buildings are rigged so that the temperature can’t be altered (even if the numbers appear to change).

Some might swear up and down that elevator 'close door' buttons work, but this, too, could be your brain deceiving you. As author David McRaney wrote in an essay: “If you happen to find yourself pressing a nonfunctional close-door button, and later the doors close, you’ll probably never notice because a little spurt of happiness will cascade through your brain once you see what you believe is a response to your action. Your behavior was just reinforced. You will keep pressing the button in the future.”

According to The New Yorker, these buttons are designed to alleviate some of the subconscious anxiety that comes from stepping inside a tiny box that's hoisted up some 20 or 40 or 80 floors by a cable: “Elevator design is rooted in deception—to disguise not only the bare fact of the box hanging by ropes but also the tethering of tenants to a system over which they have no command."

So now you know: Next time you’re running late to work, take comfort in the fact that those few extra seconds you would’ve saved by pressing a functioning 'close door' button aren’t worth all that much in the long run.

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What’s the Difference Between Prison and Jail?

Many people use the terms jail and prison interchangeably, and while both terms refer to areas where people are held, there's a substantial difference between the two methods of incarceration. Where a person who is accused of a crime is held, and for how long, is a factor in determining the difference between the two—and whether a person is held in a jail or a prison is largely determined by the severity of the crime they have committed.

A jail (or, for our British friends, a gaol) refers to a small, temporary holding facility—run by local governments and supervised by county sheriff departments—that is designed to detain recently arrested people who have committed a minor offense or misdemeanor. A person can also be held in jail for an extended period of time if the sentence for their offense is less than a year. There are currently 3163 local jail facilities in the United States.

A jail is different from the similarly temporary “lockup”—sort of like “pre-jail”—which is located in local police departments and holds offenders unable to post bail, people arrested for public drunkenness who are kept until they are sober, or, most importantly, offenders waiting to be processed into the jail system.

A prison, on the other hand, is usually a large state- or federal-run facility meant to house people convicted of a serious crime or felony, and whose sentences for those crimes surpass 365 days. A prison could also be called a “penitentiary,” among other names.

To be put in a state prison, a person must be convicted of breaking a state law. To be put in a federal prison, a person must be convicted of breaking federal law. Basic amenities in a prison are more extensive than in a jail because, obviously, an inmate is likely to spend more than a year of his or her life confined inside a prison. As of 2012, there were 4575 operating prisons in the U.S.—the most in the world. The country with the second highest number of operating prisons is Russia, which has just 1029 facilities.

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