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What Early-20th Century American Presidents Sounded Like

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sultanknish via YouTube

Everyone knows JFK's Boston accent and, thanks to the 24-hour news cycle, is more than familiar with the voices of recent presidents like Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama (who, according to some, sounds more than a little bit like Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson). But what did President Calvin "Silent Cal" Coolidge sound like when he deigned to speak? Or how about 23rd President Benjamin Harrison, the first president to be captured on audio? Wonder no more—here's what nine presidents sounded like. (You'll have to continue using your imagination for Chester A. Arthur and all of his predecessors.)

1. BENJAMIN HARRISON

Twenty-third U.S. president Benjamin Harrison, who actually served his term in the 19th century, is believed to be the first POTUS to have his voice preserved for the ages. The 1889 recording was made on a Edison wax cylinder.

2. WILLIAM MCKINLEY

McKinley was known for making campaign speeches right from the front porch of his home in Canton, Ohio—this is one of them. He won the election, of course, and a second term as well—but was assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz six months in.

3. THEODORE ROOSEVELT

During his 1912 campaign, Roosevelt recorded several speeches for commercial release through the Edison company. This one addresses the poor wages and grueling hours experienced by industry workers of the day, but you can also listen to three others at the Library of Congress.

4. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT

This campaign speech about how the Republican party values the American farmer was recorded in 1908 in Hot Springs, Virginia. Taft won the election later that year.

5. WOODROW WILSON

Compared to today's fiery speeches, this 1912 campaign stop by then-Governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson seems downright dull. 

6. WARREN G. HARDING

Harding's famous "Return to Normalcy" campaign speech from 1920 struck a chord with Americans who were eager to get back to how life was before World War I. They voted Harding into the White House by a landslide.

7. CALVIN COOLIDGE

The president known as "Silent Cal" was a man of notoriously few words, so it's a bit funny that he was featured in the first presidential film with sound.

8. HERBERT HOOVER

Hoover may not have campaigned so hard had he known what was about to happen. This clip shows the future 31st U.S. president asking voters to visit the polls for the 1928 election.

9. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

All of the presidents make speeches, but not many deliver lines that become as historic as FDR's "a date which will live in infamy." You can listen to the full speech, delivered the day after the Pearl Harbor attacks, above.

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History
Abraham Lincoln Letter About Slavery Could Fetch $700,000 at Auction
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Christie's Images Ltd. 2017

The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, in which future president Abraham Lincoln spent seven debates discussing the issue of slavery with incumbent U.S. senator Stephen Douglas, paved the way for Lincoln’s eventual ascent to the presidency. Now part of that history can be yours, as the AP reports.

A signed letter from Lincoln to his friend Henry Asbury dated July 31, 1858 explores the “Freeport Question” he would later pose to Douglas during the debates, forcing the senator to publicly choose between two contrasting views related to slavery’s expansion in U.S. territories: whether it should be up to the people or the courts to decide where slavery was legal. (Douglas supported the popular choice argument, but that position was directly counter to the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision.)

The first page of a letter from Abraham Lincoln to Henry Asbury
Christie's Images Ltd. 2017

In the letter, Lincoln was responding to advice Asbury had sent him on preparing for his next debate with Douglas. Asbury essentially framed the Freeport Question for the politician. In his reply, Lincoln wrote that it was a great question, but would be difficult to get Douglas to answer:

"You shall have hard work to get him directly to the point whether a territorial Legislature has or has not the power to exclude slavery. But if you succeed in bringing him to it, though he will be compelled to say it possesses no such power; he will instantly take ground that slavery can not actually exist in the territories, unless the people desire it, and so give it protective territorial legislation."

Asbury's influence didn't end with the debates. A founder of Illinois's Republican Party, he was the first to suggest that Lincoln should run for president in 1860, and secured him the support of the local party.

The letter, valued at $500,000 to $700,000, is up for sale as part of a books and manuscripts auction that Christie’s will hold on December 5.

[h/t Associated Press]

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History
3 Fascinating Items in Abraham Lincoln's Newly Released Archives

The Abraham Lincoln collection in the Library of Congress just got a major boost. The 16th president’s full papers are now entirely available online in full color for the first time, giving you high-resolution access to his letters, campaign materials, speeches, and more.

Lincoln’s papers took a roundabout route to the Library of Congress. After his assassination, Lincoln’s son Robert Todd Lincoln sent the president’s papers to one of the former congressman’s associates in Illinois, Judge David Davis, who worked with Lincoln’s presidential secretaries to organize them. Robert Todd Lincoln gave them to the Library of Congress in 1919, and in 1923, deeded them to the archive, mandating that they be sealed until 21 years after his death. They were opened in 1947.

This isn’t the first time some of these documents have been available online—scanned images of them first appeared on the Library of Congress’s American Memory website in 2001—but this 20,000-document collection provides higher-resolution versions, with new additions and features. Previous papers were uploaded as image scans from microfilm, meaning they weren’t particularly high quality. Now, researchers have better access to the information with scans from the original documents that you can zoom in on and actually read.

There are searchable transcriptions for about 10,000 hand-written documents in the collection, including those written in Lincoln’s hand, along with annotations that provide contextual explanations. Here are three items in the collection not to miss:

1. THE EARLIEST VERSION OF THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

Lincoln read this early version of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet in July 1862, telling them he was going to propose freeing slaves held by Confederate rebels. Secretary of State William Seward convinced him that he should wait until there was a major Union victory to announce the proclamation.

2. A LETTER FROM MRS. LINCOLN

In the fall of 1862, Mary Todd Lincoln wrote her husband during her month-long trip to New York and Boston about her dressmaker and confidant, a former slave named Elizabeth Keckley, asking him for money to give to her to buy blankets for escaped slaves, then referred to as “contrabands.”

3. A DRAFT OF THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS

This may be the only copy of Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg address that was drafted before he delivered it. There are five known drafts of the speech, but three were written out for people who requested copies afterward. It’s unclear if one of the other copies was made before or after the speech, but this one was definitely drafted beforehand. It belonged to Nicolay Hay, Lincoln’s secretary, who also helped organize his papers after the president’s death. It differs a little from the speech we’re familiar with, so you should definitely read the transcript. (Click “show text” above the image on the Library of Congress page for the text and annotations.)

You can see all the documents here.

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