Larry Johnson
Larry Johnson

11 Tips for Taking Purrfect Cat Pics From a Professional Feline Photographer

Larry Johnson
Larry Johnson

Despite growing up with a dog, Larry Johnson ended up becoming one of the photography world’s most recognized feline portraitists. The former music teacher started taking landscape photos after he moved to South Florida from his native Chicago. While selling his shots of wildflowers, sunsets, and other natural scenes at an art show, Johnson met the manager of a cat show. She needed images of her kitty for the event’s catalog cover, and before Johnson knew it, he was photographing local cat club events on a regular basis.

Gradually, Johnson learned the ins and outs of handling his furry subjects—and found that he actually enjoyed capturing them on camera. “I guess I had some affinity with the animals, because they all seemed to like me,” Johnson tells mental_floss. Plus, “it’s really lots of fun, and quite different from studio work like school portraits—you know, ‘Click, sit, smile, next.’ It takes finesse and work to even get [a cat] into a picture, much less to capture each breed in the way it ought to look like.”

Two decades ago, Johnson made the jump to full-time photographer. Today, the shutterbug is based in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, but he spends much of his time traveling the world, snapping shots of felines for clients ranging from elite breeders to commercial magazines, books, and catalogs. While each animal requires a unique approach, Johnson says his photos are bound by a common theme: “I want people to look at my photographs and go, ‘Oh, that’s my cat.’”

Inspired to host your own feline photo shoot? Johnson provided us with some tips and tricks designed to help you immortalize a kitty's cuteness.

1. WORK WITH THE CAT’S PERSONALITY. 

“First, you have to understand that each animal has their own personality, and each breed has its own personality,” Johnson says. For instance, furry cats like Persians and Himalayans tend to be lazy and placid, and lend themselves well to seated and lying-down shots. These cats are also much more alert in the morning than in the late afternoon. Since their large eyes tend to droop when they're tired, Johnson always chooses to photograph longhairs early in the day at cat shows.

On the other end of the spectrum, Abyssinians, Russian Blues, and Cornish Rexes are hyper and playful. Johnson will wait until the early evening to photograph the rangy felines to ensure they've "gotten their energy out" during the day. They're also extremely agile animals, and like to hang off the tops of tall surfaces and perches. Use this trait to your advantage by choosing companion props like cat condos and baskets.

Age is also a factor. Johnson jokes that "everything in the world is a toy" to a kitten, meaning they're often more dynamic subjects than some older cats. But they're also difficult to manage. To deal with this challenge, Johnson relies on an ingenious strategy: He gently wakes the baby cats up from slumber and places them into his desired pose while they're still half-asleep. This way, he gets the shot he wants in half the time.

Also, keep in mind that each cat is different. Some are food-oriented, meaning a treat or two might be a good way to sweeten them up before a photo session. Others like to be petted, and are soothed when their owners touch them. Getting each cat to cooperate for the camera requires a different strategy.

2. KEEP THE BACKGROUND SIMPLE.

“I like to keep it simple and not busy in the background,” Johnson says. “Solid colors or a blank area or wall can work. The cat should be the focus of the image, and too much can be distracting.”

That being said, some cats tend to photograph better against bright backdrops, while others look better against a subdued white or black canvas. Feel free to experiment by draping couches, chairs, or other surfaces with different fabrics to see what looks best.

3. TAKE THE PICTURES IN A FAMILIAR SETTING.

According to Johnson, it’s better to photograph a cat in its own house than in a crowded show venue or a fancy studio. “If they’re in their own home, they know the places that they like to be. It feels good to them. And that’s where you need to capture them,” he says.

Johnson shows up to a home or venue with his portable studio—which includes lights, props, camera, and backdrops—and lets the cat follow him as he sets up. “I’ll pet them, and talk to them, and let them smell me,” he says.

4. BE CAUTIOUS WITH THE FLASH.

Johnson tries to photograph cats in bright, well-lit rooms so that the flash won’t startle them when it goes off. However, some felines still “freak out” from the burst of light or its accompanying noise, he says. To avoid this, Johnson will turn his flash off and shoot near windows or other sources of natural light. If there's no sunlight, he'll simply turn up his modeling lights.

5. ENGAGE THE CAT WITH TOYS ...

“Dogs are command-oriented,” Johnson says. “‘Sit!’ ‘Stay!’ ‘Yes, sir!’” You tell that to a cat and they’re like, ‘I’m out of here. You gotta be kidding me.' I have to approach them in a different way.”

Johnson gains a cat’s attention by waving around toys like “peacock feathers, pheasant feathers, or little jiggly things that they play with.” This way, they’re more likely to engage with him than to just “sit under the chair or in the corner and watch." (Johnson makes sure that the toys are attached to long sticks so that his hands don't show up in the photograph.)

Johnson also uses toys to ensure that a cat will stay in one place during a photo session. He places the kitty on a surface —usually a small table—and moves the toy around in circles. As the cat follows the toy from one end of the table to the other, Johnson will have its owner or a team of handlers stroke its fur. Between the playing and the petting, the cat eventually decides, "'Well, this is a fun place. I guess I'll stay here,'" Johnson says. "It's very psychological."

6. ... BUT USE CATNIP SPARINGLY.

“I usually don’t use catnip because each cat reacts very differently to it,” Johnson says. The herb makes some kitties silly and distracted, and thus more difficult to photograph. However, Johnson will rub a pinch of nip onto the end of a toy or another item. He’ll use the scented object to lure a wary cat onto a couch or chair, or into a camera-friendly pose.

7. CHOOSE YOUR EQUIPMENT WISELY.

Johnson uses a digital camera and shoots on manual. "I use studio strobes, so the shutter speeds need to match the flash sync. I will adjust to higher shutter speeds if the light is constant and less bright," he says. Also, Johnson typically uses a lens set to a F10 aperture.

Don't have professional gear? Use your smartphone camera and take pictures in a well-lit area without direct sunlight, like near a window. If you own an iPhone, the Burst Mode feature "can be helpful if the cat is being active," Johnson says.

8. CLIP THE CAT’S CLAWS PRE-PHOTO SESSION.

Some cats don’t like being touched or handled by a person who isn’t their owner. Use your intuition to feel out the cat’s mood. If it’s acting aggressive or agitated, it's probably a good idea to reschedule the shoot for another time. And Johnson recommends asking the cat’s owner to clip its claws pre-photo session so you won't be on the receiving end of any painful swats.

9. PLAY A LITTLE MUSIC.

Cats are very sensitive to sound. They’ll get scared if they hear a loud or sudden noise, making them more difficult to photograph. But according to Johnson, that doesn't mean the room should be super quiet; sounds are amplified in a silent space, so Johnson prefers to play some light music during his shoots. Also, avoid moving your cat from a loud space to a silent one (or vice versa) pre-photo session, as it will take your cat a while to adjust to the new noise levels.

When it comes to human noises, Johnson likes to use little trills, whistles, and purrs to get a cat’s attention.

10. GET CLOSE—BUT NOT TOO CLOSE.

Photographing a cat can be tricky. If you’re too far away, the cat will lose interest in the camera. If you’re too close, it will try to rub against you, swat your equipment, or play with you. Johnson makes sure to leave about 3 feet of distance between him and his subjects. If he's shooting a sleeping cat, or a feline that's naturally posed in position he wants, Johnson will move farther away and use a zoom lens.

11. USE PHOTO EDITING SOFTWARE SPARINGLY.

Do use photo-editing software like Photoshop to remove stray hairs, clean up runny eyes, eliminate fur frizz or static, and retouch backgrounds. Don’t use it to alter the cat’s appearance. In doing so, you’re changing the essence of the animal, Johnson says. “I will not make the eyes larger,” Johnson says. “I will not make the ears smaller, or bigger, or add space between the two of them. I will not make the cat longer or shorter.”

All photographs courtesy of Larry Johnson. 

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How Does Catnip Work?
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If you have a cat, you probably keep a supply of catnip at home. Many cats are irresistibly drawn to the herb, and respond excitedly to its scent, rubbing against it, rolling around on the floor, and otherwise going nuts. There are few things that can get felines quite as riled up as a whiff of catnip—not even the most delicious treats. But why does catnip, as opposed to any other plant, have such a profound effect on our feline friends?

Catnip, or Nepeta cataria, is a member of the mint family. It contains a compound called nepetalactone, which is what causes the characteristic catnip reaction. Contrary to what you might expect, the reaction isn’t pheromone related—even though pheromones are the smelly chemicals we usually associate with a change in behavior. While pheromones bind to a set of specialized receptors in what’s known as a vomeronasal organ, located in the roof of a cat's mouth (which is why they sometimes open their mouths to detect pheromones), nepetalactone binds to olfactory receptors at the olfactory epithelium, or the tissue that lines the mucus membranes inside a cat’s nose and is linked to smell.

Scientists know the basics of the chemical structure of nepetalactone, but how it causes excitement in cats is less clear. “We don’t know the full mechanisms of how the binding of these compounds to the receptors in the nose ultimately changes their behavior,” as Bruce Kornreich, associate director of the Cornell Feline Health Center, tells Mental Floss. Sadly, sticking a bunch of cats in an MRI machine with catnip and analyzing their brain activity isn’t really feasible, either from a practical or a financial standpoint, so it’s hard to determine which parts of a cat’s brain are reacting to the chemical as they frolic and play.

Though it may look like they’re getting high, catnip doesn’t appear to be harmful or addictive to cats. The euphoric period only lasts for a short time before cats become temporarily immune to its charms, meaning that it’s hard for them to overdo it.

“Cats do seem to limit themselves," Michael Topper, president of the American Veterinary Medical Association, tells Mental Floss. "Their stimulation lasts for about 10 minutes, then it sort of goes away.” While you may not want to turn your house into a greenhouse for catnip and let your feline friend run loose, it’s a useful way to keep indoor cats—whose environment isn’t always the most thrilling—stimulated and happy. (If you need proof of just how much cats love this herb, we suggest checking out Cats on Catnip, a new book of photography from professional cat photographer Andrew Martilla featuring dozens of images of cats playing around with catnip.)

That said, not all cats respond to catnip. According to Topper, an estimated 70 percent of cats react to catnip, and it appears to have a genetic basis. Topper compares it to the genetic variation that causes some individuals to smell asparagus pee while others don’t. Even if a cat will eventually love the smell of catnip, it doesn’t come out of the womb yearning for a sniff. Young kittens don’t show any behavioral response to it, and may not develop one until several months after birth [PDF].

But some researchers contend that more cats may respond to catnip than we actually realize. In one 2017 study, a group of researchers in Mexico examined how cats might subtly respond to catnip in ways that aren’t always as obvious as rolling around on the floor with their tongue hanging out. It found that 80 percent of cats responded to catnip in a passive way, showing decreased motor activity and sitting the “sphinx” position, an indicator of a relaxed state.

There are also other plants that have similar effects on cats, some of which may appeal to a wider variety of felines than regular old catnip. In a 2017 study in the journal BMC Veterinary Research, researchers tested feline responses to not just catnip, but several other plants containing compounds similar in structure to nepetalactone, like valerian root, Tatarian honeysuckle, and silver vine. They found that 94 percent of cats responded to at least one of the plants, if not more than one. The majority of the cats that didn’t respond to catnip itself did respond to silver vine, suggesting that plant might be a potential alternative for cats that seem immune to catnip’s charms.

Despite the name, domestic cats aren’t the only species that love catnip. Many other feline species enjoy it, too, including lions and jaguars, though tigers are largely indifferent to it. The scent of the plant also attracts butterflies. (However, no matter what you’ve heard, humans can’t get high off it. When made into a tea, though, it reportedly has mild sedative effects.)

The reason Nepeta cataria releases nepetalactone doesn’t necessarily have to do with giving your cat a buzz. The fact that it gives cats that little charge of euphoria may be purely coincidental. The chemical is an insect repellant that the plant emits as a defense mechanism against pests like aphids. According to the American Chemical Society, nepetalactone attracts wasps and other insect predators that eat aphids, calling in protective reinforcements when the plant is in aphid-related distress. That it brings all the cats to the yard is just a side effect.

Because of this, catnip may have even more uses in the future beyond sending cats into a delighted frenzy. Rutgers University has spent more than a decade breeding a more potent version of catnip, called CR9, which produces more nepetalactone. It’s not just a matter of selling better cat toys; since catnip releases the compound to ward off insects, it’s also a great mosquito repellant, one that scientists hope can one day be adapted for human use. In that case, you might be as excited about catnip as your cat is.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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12 Furry Facts About Red Pandas
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Red pandas have always lived in the shadow of the other, more famous panda. But now it's time to give the little guy its due.

1. THEY HAVE TWO EXTINCT RELATIVES.

Red panda in a tree.
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Currently, red pandas live in the Eastern Himalayas. But the first red panda fossil was found a little bit further afield than that—in the United Kingdom. In 1888, a fossil molar and lower jaw of a cougar-sized animal called the Giant Panda (unrelated to the modern giant panda) were discovered. More fossils have been found in Spain, Eastern Europe, and even the United States. Around 5 million years ago, Tennessee was home to a giant red panda that probably went extinct with the arrival of raccoons.

2. THEY'RE VEGETARIAN CARNIVORES.

Red panda eating bamboo.
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It might seem like an oxymoron, but carnivore in this case doesn't mean meat eater. Carnivore is a biological order that includes groups like bears, dogs, and cats, and while these animals are generally carnivores, some are omnivores, and some are vegetarians. Red pandas are classified as carnivores because they're descended from the same ancestors as the other carnivores, but they rarely eat anything other than bamboo and a few insects. And while giant pandas eat all of a bamboo plant, red pandas eat only the young leaves. Because this is such a nutritionally poor food source, they need to spend 13 hours a day eating and looking for food and can lose upwards of 15 percent of their body weight in winter.

3. THEY'RE SLIGHTLY BIGGER THAN A DOMESTIC CAT.

Red panda sleeping on a branch.
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But their tails add as much as 18 inches to their length. Red pandas live solitary lives in trees, high up in the mountains, so they wrap those big, bushy tails around themselves to keep warm. (They also use them for balance.)

4. THEY HAVE A FALSE THUMB.

Red panda perched on a log.
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This is another feature (along with diet) that red pandas and giant pandas share. Because both pandas have false thumbs—which is actually an extended wrist bone—it was thought that it must be an adaption to eating bamboo. But the red panda's more carnivorous ancestors had this feature as well. According to a 2006 study, what happened was "one of the most dramatic cases of convergence among vertebrates." Convergent evolution is when two unrelated animals faced with similar circumstances evolve to look similar. In this case, the red panda's false thumb evolved to help it climb trees, and only later became adapted for the bamboo diet, while giant pandas evolved this virtually identical feature because of their bamboo diet.

5. THEY'RE ESCAPE ARTISTS.

Red panda climbing across a tree.
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Rusty the red panda had been at the Smithsonian National Zoo for just three weeks when he made a break for it in June 2013. His method of escape? A tree branch that was pushed down over his enclosure's electric fence by heavy rains. The ensuing panda hunt (and endless bad jokes about panda-monium) captivated Twitter (tweeters used the hashtag #findrusty) until he was found in a nearby neighborhood. Soon after his daring escape, Rusty became a father, forcing him to put his wild youth behind him and settle down. But it could have been worse. After a similar escape in Dresden, Germany, the authorities got another red panda down from a tree by using a fire hose to spray it with water. The panda fell 30 feet to the ground, giving it a concussion. (Ultimately, the animal was OK.)

Red pandas have also escaped from zoos in London, Birmingham, and Rotterdam. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums even warn in their official care manual "beware: red pandas are escape artists" [PDF].

6. ONE ESCAPE LED TO SOMETHING CALLED THE RED PANDA EFFECT.

Red panda peeking out from behind some tree branches.
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Sadly, the red panda involved in the 1978 Rotterdam escape was found dead not long after the search for it began. But the event led to a very peculiar psychological observation. Even after the body of the panda was found, more than 100 people reported seeing it, very much alive. These sightings were clearly mistaken; there's no reason to think that multiple red pandas were loose in Rotterdam, and red pandas are distinctive enough that mistaking them for a dog or cat was unlikely. It's believed that people expected to see a red panda, so they saw one, even though there wasn't one there; researchers called it the Red Panda Effect.

7. THERE'S AN INTERNET BROWSER NAMED AFTER THEM.

The Mozilla Firefox logo.
LEON NEAL, AFP/Getty Images

Mozilla's flagship browser, Firefox, means red panda. Originally, Mozilla wanted to name the browser Firebird, but found that another open source project was using that name. Not wanting to upset anyone, they decided to go with Firefox, another name for the red panda. And in a true example of adorableness, in 2010 Mozilla adopted two baby red pandas that had been born at Tennessee's Knoxville Zoo.

8. THERE IS ONLY ONE TRUE PANDA—AND YOU CAN PROBABLY GUESS WHICH ONE IT IS.

Engraving of a parti-colored bear.
Engraving of a parti-colored bear, from The New Natural History Volume II by Richard Lydekker, 1901.

After the red panda was discovered in the 1820s, it was just called the panda (the origin of the name is controversial, but it probably comes from the Nepali word ponya, meaning "bamboo or plant eating animal"). Forty years later, Europeans found a new animal in China and called it the Parti-Colored bear—because unlike polar bears, black bears, or brown bears it was multi-colored.

9. THERE HAS BEEN A 140-YEAR TAXONOMIC MIX-UP.

A red panda walking toward the camera.
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Prepare to be confused: In the late 19th century, scientists noticed that the parti-colored bear and the (red) panda were very similar. Their jaws were more like each other than they were like any other animal, they lived near each other, they both had false thumbs, and their diets were similar. The decision was made to officially consider the (red) panda as a type of bear.

By the early 20th century, that decision was reversed: Parti-colored bears were declared bears, and (red) pandas were classified as cousins of the raccoon.

Then, in the 1910s, it was decided that parti-colored bears weren't actually bears at all, but were actually large pandas, and also distant relatives of the raccoon. But because parti-colored bears weren't classed as bears anymore, they had to have a name change. They became giant pandas, while the one true panda was renamed the red or lesser panda (to quote a 1920 issue of Popular Science: "Zoologists reverently refer to this rare beast as the "giant panda." Its more popular cognomen is the 'bear-raccoon'").

10. BUT RED PANDAS ARE THEIR OWN THING.

Two red pandas touch noses.
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By the 1980s, genetic evidence indicated that giant pandas actually were a type of bear, and red pandas belonged in their own family, the Ailuridae. They might seem similar, but they're not related.

All of this means that if you're the type of person who rolls their eyes when someone calls a bison a buffalo, or a koala a bear, you need to stop calling the bear a panda and instead refer to it as a "parti-colored bear," the original English name (but if you wanted to call it the bear-raccoon, no one would stop you). Giant pandas are not pandas. There is only one true panda.

11. BUT THIS DOESN'T AFFECT KUNG FU PANDA 3.

Red panda with teeth bared.
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There's still a kung fu panda in the series: Shifu, a red panda.

12. THEY'RE ENDANGERED.

Red panda laying down and sticking his tongue out.
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According to the World Wildlife Fund, there are fewer than 10,000 red pandas left in the wild. Habitat destruction increases the species' chances of extinction.

This story originally ran in 2015.

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