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Nevşehir Municipality
Nevşehir Municipality

Archaeologists Unearth More of a Massive Underground City

Nevşehir Municipality
Nevşehir Municipality

In 2013, construction crews in the city of Nevşehir, in the Cappadocia region of Turkey, were demolishing low-income housing ringing a Byzantine castle when they unearthed something astonishing: entrances to a massive underground city.

Dating to at least Byzantine times, the vast network of tunnels and rooms had been carved into volcanic ash rock called tuff that gives Cappadocia—famed for its otherworldly “fairy houses,” cave churches, and evocative geologic formations—its singular terrain.

It’s not the first underground city to be discovered in the region; there are some 250 known subterranean dwellings of various sizes hidden within the fantastical landscape. The two biggest are Kaymakli and Derinkuyu; the latter is estimated to have been able to house up to 20,000 people. Both cities have been known for decades.

But this new underground town, hiding beneath a centuries-old castle on a hilltop right in Nevşehir, just might be the biggest. One early estimate by geophysicists put its area at nearly five million square feet and its depth at 371 feet. If those estimates are accurate, the city may outsize Derinkuyu by a third.

In the past year alone, archaeologists have brought to daylight a huge multistory complex with at least five levels. This largely self-sustaining underground metropolis had everything from churches and workshops to living spaces and fresh water channels.

Before you read on, take a look at this (dramatically scored) aerial video to get a sense of the scale, location, and sheer awesomeness of the site.

Dünyanın En Büyük Yeraltı Yerleşimin Nevşehirde Kale altında olduğunu biliyormusunuz ?

Posted by Nevşehir Platformu on Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Why was it constructed? For many centuries, such underground retreats were safe havens for the region's inhabitants, who were early adopters of Christianity. (The apostle Paul visited in the 1st century CE, and by the 4th century its bishops were power players in the newly Christian Byzantine Empire.) Muslim invaders, Seljuk Turks, and Ottoman rulers all swept through, with the Ottomans eventually ruling all of Anatolia—and far beyond.

The complexity, diversity, and size of the most recently discovered underground city is yet more evidence of how seriously the locals took these invasions. The inhabitants could live underground for some time if need be. They had fresh water and access to replenished supplies. To keep the outside world out, all they had to do was roll heavy stone-disc doors across the tunnels to seal themselves in.

FIVE LEVELS UNEARTHED IN THE PAST YEAR

Previous excavations revealed living spaces, kitchens, wineries, chapels, staircases, and bezirhane—linseed presses for producing lamp oil to light the underground city—that were likely in use from the Byzantine era through the Ottoman conquest.

In the past year archaeologists have excavated five more levels, or terraces, of the city. This intensive digging is helping them to piece together how the massive complex was organized and structured. “Most of the areas that have been brought to daylight are places where people lived their daily lives,” archaeologist Murat Gülyaz, director of the Nevşehir Museum, which oversees the excavation, tells mental_floss.

On the topmost level there are rock-cut tombs, religious altars, short tunnels, storage depots, and a small but spectacular church. “This terrace looks as if it was the location for religious activities,” Gülyaz says. The church is partially caved in and is plagued by high humidity; as a result, its frescos are peeling in places. Nevertheless, the unusual frescos, which include depictions of Christ’s baptism, transfiguration, and crucifixion, are colorful and vibrant, if still partially obscured by earth and stone.


Gülyaz says the church may date to the 12th or 13th century (though other archaeologists believe it could be older), making it slightly younger than the many other underground churches in the region, which today can be visited at places like the Goreme Open Air Museum.

The second level has living and storage spaces, and passages leading to the third level, where metalworking took place in the late Ottoman period. Archaeologists have found furnaces used to forge metals, and within them are processed iron slag and debris. They also found rock molds used for iron casting.

This level has three separate air ventilation systems, each one carefully designed for a specific need. One ventilates the rooms for breathing air. Another serves as an exhaust system for the furnaces. “In the rooms with the casting furnaces, the air ventilation funnels are made longer in order to reach temperatures high enough to melt metal,” Gülyaz says.

The fourth level is the main one, where most people would have lived day to day. It’s large, multipurposed, and located at the very heart of the city. There are large stables, depots, workshops, and residences here. It was also the main artery to the outside world. Cappadocians living underground would need access to the surface to maintain some contact with the outside world to replenish supplies.

“This terrace is like an entrance hall for visitors and locals living inside,” Gülyaz says. “It’s also the place where trades and logistic activities occurred … where outgoing caravans were sent from and the incoming ones were unloaded.”

They also found a tunnel nearly 2 feet wide and 6 feet tall that has two entry points, but because of a collapse in the tunnel, they’re not sure where it leads or what its purpose was. They suspect it was used for water transfer or transport.

Excavations on the fifth level only just began in January. Right now, the level is choked with earth, debris, and litter left behind by modern visitors, but the excavators are beginning to reveal the rock-cut rooms within. “More cleaning work needs to be done before we can have an idea about this terrace’s function within the complex,” Gülyaz says.

CARVING OUT THE TRUTH

One puzzle archaeologists will try to solve is how different sections of the city changed in design and function over time. Cappadocia’s tuff rock is easy to carve, but it's also easy to alter, both by natural processes and the hands of people. While that's good news for the Cappadocians who a thousand years ago carved underground refuges and today create hotels, shops, and restaurants that draw millions of tourists, it presents a challenge for archaeologists trying to figure out who did what when.

The view is especially complex in areas of the city that are closer to the surface; over the centuries, these rooms were reused and sometimes reconfigured. “These rock-cut places have been changed from their original functions. So their uses were transformed over time accordingly," Gülyaz says. “For example, a room first carved to be used as a depot was later used as a sitting room, a stable, a bathroom, etc. Or a stone-disc door could later be used as a wall.”

However, the deeper the researchers get into the structure, the more they find its original construction. “We can tell the original functions of the inner places more precisely and can gather more meaningful data about their periods,” Gülyaz says.

The winter cold and snow haven’t stopped excavations; the researchers have mostly just retreated to the interior. When the weather warms up, they’ll continue digging out the underground city. Gülyaz says there are more levels to be excavated above, below, and beyond what has been found so far. There's still so much that's unknown about the city.

Here's one last look inside, from October 2014—long before the latest finds were made. The interior was fantastic then, and it was only a fraction of what archaeologists can see now.

All images and video courtesy of Nevşehir Municipality

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Department Of Classics, University Of Cincinnati
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Ancient Poop Contains First Evidence of Parasites Described by Hippocrates
Department Of Classics, University Of Cincinnati
Department Of Classics, University Of Cincinnati

The long-held mystery of Hippocrates and the parasitic worms has finally been solved, and it’s all thanks to a few samples of ancient poop.

Researchers don’t know much about the parasites that plagued the Greeks thousands of years ago, and what they do know is largely from the Hippocratic Corpus, the medical texts that the father of medicine and his students put together between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. Modern historians have spent years trying to figure out which diseases and parasites Hippocrates and his followers were referring to in their writing, relying solely on their descriptions to guess at what ailments the ancient Greeks might have suffered from. Now, they finally have concrete evidence of the existence of some of the intestinal worms Hippocrates mentioned, Helmins strongyle and Ascaris.

As part of a study in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, an international group of researchers analyzed the ancient remains of feces in 25 prehistoric burials on the Greek island of Kea to determine what parasites the people were carrying when they died. Using microscopes, they looked at the soil (formed by the decomposed poop) found on the pelvic bones of skeletons dating back to the Neolithic, Bronze, and Roman periods.

A roundworm egg under the microscope
A roundworm egg
Elsevier

Around 16 percent of the burials they studied contained evidence of parasites. In these ancient fecal samples, they found the eggs of two different parasitic species. In the soil taken from the skeletons dating back to the Neolithic period, they found whipworm eggs, and in the soil taken from the Bronze Age skeletons, roundworm.

With this information, researchers deduced that what Hippocrates called the Helmins strongyle worm was probably what modern doctors would call roundworm. The Ascaris worm probably referred to two different parasites, they conclude, known today as pinworm (which was not found in this analysis) and whipworm (pictured below).

Whipworm under a microscope
A whipworm egg
Elsevier

Though historians already hypothesized that Hippocrates's patients on Kea had roundworm, the Ascaris finding comes as a particular surprise. Previous research based solely on Hippocrates’s writing rather than physical evidence suggested that what he called Ascaris was probably a pinworm, and another worm he mentioned, Helmins plateia, was probably a tapeworm. But the current research didn’t turn up any evidence of either of those two worms. Instead of pinworm eggs, the researchers found whipworm, another worm that’s similarly small and round. (Pinworms may very well have existed in ancient Greece, the researchers caution, since evidence of their fragile eggs could easily have been lost to time.) The soil analysis has already changed what we know about the intestinal woes of the ancient Greeks of Kea.

More importantly, this study provides the earliest evidence of ancient Greece’s parasitic worm population, proving yet again that ancient poop is one of the world’s most important scientific resources.

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
3500-Year-Old Mummy Discovered in Forgotten Egyptian Tomb

As the site of the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor is filled with archaeological treasures. But until recently, two forgotten tombs—both located in the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga, an important non-royal cemetery—hadn’t been fully explored. Now, National Geographic reports that experts have finally excavated these burial sites and discovered a 3500-year-old mummy, along with ornate funerary goods and colorful murals.

While excavating one of the two tombs, known as Kampp 150, experts found linen-wrapped remains that Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities believes belong to either "a person named Djehuty Mes, whose name was engraved on one of the walls ... [or] the scribe Maati, as his name and the name of his wife Mehi were inscribed on 50 funerary cones found in the tomb's rectangular chamber."

In addition to the mummy, archaeologists discovered wooden statues, masks, earthen pots, a cache of some 450 statuettes, and around 100 funerary cones—conical mud objects, which were often positioned outside a tomb's center, and could have served as identifying markers or as offerings—inside Kampp 150.

The Associated Press reported that the second tomb, known as Kampp 161, is thought to be approximately 3400 years old—about 100 years newer than its neighboring chamber—as its design is characteristic of other such structures dating back to the reigns of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV.

Inside Kampp 161, archaeologists discovered wooden funerary masks, a decorated coffin, furniture shards, and the mural of a festival or party depicting the tomb's unknown resident and his wife receiving ceremonial offerings.

German scholar Friederike Kampp-Seyfried surveyed and numbered both tombs in the 1990s, which is how they got their names, but she did not fully excavate nor enter either one.

Officials celebrated the rediscovery of the tombs on Saturday, December 9, when they publicly announced the archaeological finds. They hope that discoveries like these will entice foreign travelers to visit Egypt, as political unrest has harmed the country's tourism industry in recent years.

“It’s truly an exceptional day,” Khaled al-Anani, Egypt's antiquities minister, said in a statement. “The 18th dynasty private tombs were already known. But it’s the first time" anyone's ever entered them.

Check out some pictures of the newly revealed relics below.

Mustafa al-Waziri, director general of Luxor's Antiquities, points at an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis.
Mustafa al-Waziri, director general of Luxor's Antiquities, points at an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo, on December 9, 2017.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

An Egyptian archaeological technician restores artifacts found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
An Egyptian archaeological technician restores artifacts found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo, on December 9, 2017.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

An Egyptian laborer stands next to an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

Ancient Egyptian wooden funerary masks and small statuettes found in and retrieved from the newly discovered 'Kampp 150' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
A picture taken on December 9, 2017 shows ancient Egyptian wooden funerary masks and small statuettes found in and retrieved from the newly discovered 'Kampp 150' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

[h/t National Geographic]

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