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40 Fantastic F-Words To Further Your Vocabulary

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One of the earliest ancestors of our humble letter F was a Phoenician letter, waw, which was assimilated into the early Greek alphabet more than 2500 years ago. It’s thought that the Phoenicians used their letter waw to represent an array of different sounds—including “u,” “v,” and “w”—and as a result, when they adopted it the ever-ingenious Greeks cleverly divided its use in two. On the one hand, the Greek letter upsilon (Y) took over the “u” and “v” sounds, while another letter, digamma (F), took over the “w” sound. Unfortunately, “w” (or rather, the labio-velar approximant, if you want to get technical) wasn’t the most widely-used sound in Ancient Greek, and digamma soon fell out of use. But it was salvaged from the linguistic scrapheap by the Romans, whose Latin letter V took over where upsilon left off, leaving F to represent a newly-emerging softer “v” sound—“f.”

The letter F has remained in use in the Roman alphabet ever since, and now accounts for on average around 2.5 percent of any page of written English—a figure boosted by its appearance in high-frequency words like for, if, from and of (the only English word in which F is pronounced “v”). You can also expect it to begin around 3 percent of all the words in a standard dictionary, including the 40 fantastic F-words listed here…

1. FACETIAE

A Latin word for “cleverness” or “skillfulness,” facetiae came to be used to refer to a collection of witty sayings in 16th century English. But things took a turn for the worse in Victorian slang, when facetiae came to be used as a euphemism for pornographic literature.

2. FAKEMENT

An 18th century word for a forged signature.

3. FALSILOQUENCE

Also known as fallaciloquence, falsiloquence is another word for lying, deceitful speech. Fatiloquence or fatiloquy is another word for soothsaying or predicting the future, while if you’re flexiloquent then you like to deliberately use ambiguous language to confuse people.

4. FAMELICOSE

Fames was the Latin word for “hunger,” and it’s from there that both famelic (an adjective meaning “pertaining to being hungry”) and famelicose (an 18th century word meaning “often very hungry”) are derived. 

5. FAMGRASP

Famble was a 16th century word for a hand (probably originally derived from a slang mispronunciation of “fumble”), and from there the English language has gained a number of equally handy fam– words: on its own, a fam was a gold ring in 18th century English; gloves were nicknamed fam-snatchers in 19th century slang; among Victorian criminals, to fam-squeeze someone was to throttle them with your bare hands; and to famgrasp is to shake hands in agreement.

6. FAMIGERATE

Derived from a Latin word meaning “to carry,” to famigerate is to report news from abroad.

7. FAMILY-DISTURBANCE

An old cowboy slang nickname for whisky.

8. FANFARONADE

As well as being another word for an ostentatious fanfare, fanfaronade is a 17th century word for arrogant, self-aggrandizing language. Likewise, a fanfaron is an arrogant boaster.

9. FANG-FAKER

Victorian slang for a dentist.

10. FEDIFRAGOUS

If someone is fedifragous then they’ve broken a promise or pledge, or they’re faithless or disloyal. A fedifraction, likewise, is a breach of an oath or a broken promise.

11. FELL-LURKING

A Shakespearism, used in Henry VI: Part 2 to mean “hanging around waiting to do something bad.”

12. FESCENNINE

Fescennia was a city in Etruria, an ancient region of northern and central Italy occupied by the Etruscan civilization more than 2,500 years ago. As the Roman Empire expanded outwards from Rome, it’s thought that a number of local Etruscan songs and poems were adopted into Roman culture in the process. These “Fescennine verses” as they were known were originally sung at harvest time or at large celebrations like weddings, but steadily they became less celebratory and ever more coarse and raucous. Ultimately, the adjective fescennine has ended up being used to describe anything obscene, lewd, or licentious.

13. FILLYLOO

A noisy uproar or exclamation.

14. FIRE-SCORDEL

An old English dialect word for someone who lounges around in front of the fire all day. A dog that does precisely that is a fire-spannel.

15. FIRKYTOODLE

To fondle or caress someone is to firkytoodle them. It probably derives from an earlier work, firk, meaning “to beat.”

16. FIRTLE

To fidget or move around distractedly is to firtle, as is to look busy despite doing very little.

17. FLAMBUGINOUS

Like flimflam, a flam is a fanciful or whimsical idea—and anything flambuginous is “flam-like.”

18. FLAMFOO

An old Scots dialect word for a gaudily over-dressed woman. Derives from flamfew, a 16th century word for anything useless or trifling.

19. FLAPDOODLER

Flapdoodle is a 19th century slang word for nonsense or humbug, and so a flapdoodler is someone who talks rubbish.

20. FLAUNT-TANT

Appropriately enough, a flaunt-tant is a showy array of highfalutin words or language.

21. FLAYBOTTOMIST

Because they caned unruly pupils’ behinds, schoolteachers were nicknamed flaybottomists in 18th century slang. Much more pleasant nicknames for teachers include haberdasher of pronouns and knight of grammar.

22. FLITTER-MOUSE

Alongside flickermouse and flinder-mouse, flitter-mouse is a Tudor-period word for a bat.

23. FLOCCINAUCINIHILIPILIFICATION

Floccus (literally “a wisp”), naucum (“a trifle”), nihil (“nothing”) and pilus (“a hair”) are all Latin words that can be essentially interpreted as meaning “very little,” or “nothing at all.” The nonsense word floccinaucinihilipilificationapparently coined by students studying Latin at England’s famous Eton College—brings all four of them together in one noun, meaning “the act of estimating something as worthless.” Often considered one of the longest words in the English language and one of the longest words in most dictionaries, floccinaucinihilipilification is related etymologically to the 16th century verb…

24. FLOCCIPEND

…which similarly means “to regard as insignificant.” 

25. FLUCKADRIFT

An old word from the far north of Scotland for a sudden haste or hurry.

26. FLUG-FISTED

An Irish dialect word for being left-handed. 

27. FLUMMATY-GUMPTION

An old Yorkshire dialect word for a state of unrest or agitation, or, by extension, a profuse sweating.

28. FLUNTER-DRAWER

Flunter is an old English dialect word for a loose fragment or piece of something, or for the untidy tail-end of something, like the unraveled end of a rope or piece of string. Derived from that, the flunter-drawer is that untidy, shambolic drawer in which you keep all your odds and ends.

29. FLURRY-GO-NIMBLE

An astoundingly appropriate-sounding old Cornish dialect word for diarrhea.

30. FOISTER

A pickpocket or cheat.

31. FOLLIFUL

Derived from folly, if you’re folliful then you like to play pranks.

32. FOLLOW-ME-LADS

In the 19th century, loose curls of hair or bonnet-ribbons that hung down a lady’s back or over her shoulders were nicknamed follow-me-lads. There’s an old myth that claims single girls would deliberately leave their hair trailing or their bonnets untied as a signal to any potential suitors that they were looking for love, but sadly it seems the word inspired the myth, not the other way around.

33. FORDRUNKEN

No surprises for guessing that if you’re fordrunken, then you’re drunk.

34. FORE-WITTER

Someone who knows something before it takes place. If you’re fat-witted, incidentally, then you’re foolish or slow-thinking.

35. FORFEX

A “humorously pedantic” (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) Latin-origin word for a pair of scissors. Derived from that, if something is forficate then it’s shaped like a pair of scissors, while…

36. FORFICULATE

…to forficulate is to experience a creeping, tingling sensation. It derives from forficula, the Latin word for an earwig (which also derives from forfex), and so literally means “to have a sensation like an insect crawling over your body.”

37. FORTRAVAILED

A Scots dialect word meaning “exhausted,” or “wearied by work.”

38. FOX-FIRE

The glowing phosphorescence emitted by a dying ember is a fox-fire. Although it only survives in some local American dialects today, the word fox-fire dates back to mid-1400s.

39. FUTRAT

A 19th century word for a weasel or ferret—and so, metaphorically, a nickname for someone with a thin face.

40. FUZZLE

A Scots dialect word for just enough liquor to make someone feel slightly intoxicated.

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5 Quick Facts About the Hashtag
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The use of the hashtag as a Twitter tool to denote a specific topic in order for the masses to follow along turns 10 years old today, having first been suggested (in a Tweet, naturally) by Silicon Valley regular and early adopter Chris Messina back in 2007. Here’s a little history on its evolution from the humble numerical sign to the social media giant it is today.

1. IT COMES FROM THE LATIN TERM FOR “POUND WEIGHT.”

There’s no definitive origin story for the hash (or pound) symbol, but one belief is that when 14th-century Latin began to abbreviate the term for pound weight—libra pondo—to “lb,” a horizontal slash was added to denote the letters were connected. (The bar was called a tittle.) As people began to write more quickly, the letters and the tittle became amalgamated, eventually morphing into the symbol we see today.

2. IT SHOULD ACTUALLY BE CALLED AN OCTOTHORPETAG.

The symbol portion of the hashtag eventually made its way to dial-button telephones, the result of AT&T looking forward to phones interacting with computers. In order to complete a square keypad with 10 digits (including 0), they added the numerical sign and an asterisk. AT&T employee Don MacPherson thought they sign needed a more official name, so he chose Octothorpe—“octo” because it has eight points, and “thorpe” because he was a fan of football hero Jim Thorpe.

3. TWITTER WASN’T BIG ON THE IDEA AT FIRST.

When web marketer Messina had the notion to add hashtags to keep track of conversations, he stopped by Twitter’s offices to make an informal pitch. He came at a bad time: co-founder Biz Stone was trying to get the software back online after a crash and dismissed the idea with a “Sure, we’ll get right on that” burn. Undeterred, Messina started using them and the habit caught on.

4. IT’S IN THE OXFORD DICTIONARY.

By 2014, respect for the hashtag had grown to the point where the venerable Oxford English Dictionary gave the word its stamp of approval. Their entry: "hashtag n. (on social media web sites and applications) a word or phrase preceded by a hash and used to identify messages relating to a specific topic; (also) the hash symbol itself, when used in this way."

5. THERE ARE SOME HASHTAG ALL-TIMERS.

Hashtags can highlight interest in everything from political movements to breaking news stories, but the frequency of their use is often tied into popular culture. The most popular TV-related tag has been #TheWalkingDead; #StarWars sees a lot of action; and #NFL dominates sports-related Tweets.  

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35 Words for Hiccups from Around the World
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Hiccup is a perfect specimen of onomatopoeia, a word that sounds like the noise it represents: It echoes that sudden breath (hick-) and spasm (-up) of the diaphragm when, say, we’ve gobbled down food too quickly. But English is far from unique here. If we listen across the globe, we’ll hear all sorts of gasping h’s and gulping k’s, so much so that it almost seems like there’s a universal word for hiccup. Except there are some surprising, er, hiccups along the way. Get that spoonful of sugar, salt, or peanut butter ready, for here are 35 hiccup words in other languages.

1., 2., 3., 4., AND 5. DANISH, NORWEGIAN, SWEDISH, ICELANDIC, AND FINNISH

The English word hiccup (later spelled hiccough) is first recorded in 1580, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. A few decades earlier, English was using the word hicket. This word is a near mirror of the word in Scandinavian languages. Danish and Norwegian have hikke. The Swedish hicka is essentially the same. Up in Iceland, it’s hiksti. And over in Finland—neighbor in geography, though not tongue—it’s hikka.

6. FRENCH

If the French have had too much wine, they might hoquet. The -et, a diminutive ending found in English words like gullet, likely influenced the earlier English hicket.

7. SPANISH

In Spain, you get a bad case of the hipos.

8. AND 9. PORTUGUESE AND LATIN

You’d expect Spanish’s neighbor and Romance-language cousin, Portuguese, to have a nearly identical way of hiccuping, right? Think again. In Portugal, a hiccup is called a soluço, which may sound more like a sneeze to some ears. Soluço appears to derive from a Latin word for the bodily function: singultus, whose g brings back the hiccup’s characteristic gulp.

10. AND 11. ITALIAN AND ROMANIAN

Latin’s singultus also coughs up hiccup in Italian, singhiozzo—proving, yet again, that everything is more fun to say in Italian. Nearby in Romania, it’s sughiț, with that final ț pronounced like the ts in fits.

12. AND 13. WELSH AND IRISH

The Welsh have ig and the Irish snag, which happens to look like that metaphorical hiccup in English, or a “minor difficulty or setback.”

14. AND 15. DUTCH AND GERMAN

Dutch has the straightforward sound of hik, but German has to be different with Schluckauf, literally a “swallow up.” German, though, also has the onomatopoeic Hecker (noun) and hicksen (verb) for these belly bumps.

16., 17., 18., 19., AND 20. RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN, POLISH, CZECH, AND BULGARIAN

Like the Scandinavian languages, Slavic hiccupingsounds like hiccuping, just more Slavic-y. Russia gets an attack of the ikotas (икота), Ukraine the hykavkas (гикавка), Polish the czkawkas, Czech the škytavkas, and Bulgarian the khulstane’s (хълцане), to let out a few examples from this language family.

21. ALBANIAN

Hiccuping in Albanian, which boasts its own branch in the Indo-European languages, is a bit softer, but it does still feature something of a hiccupy bounce: lemzë (pronounced like lemzuh).

22. GREEK

Before we leave Europe, the diaphragm reflex in Greece can take the form of λόξιγκας, which roughly transliterates to loxigkas.

23. ARABIC

You try to get rid of your حازوقة (hazuqa) or فُواق (fuwaq) in Arabic ...

24. TURKISH

… or hıçkırık (which sounds like hichkerek) in Turkish ...

25. SWAHILI

…or kwikwi around parts of southeastern Africa.

26. YORUBA

Saying you have the hiccups in Yoruba, spoken widely in Western Africa, might actually give you the hiccups: òsúkèsúkèsúkè.

27. ZULU

In South Africa, where the Zulu language is prominent, you might call a hiccup an ingwici—with the letter c representing a click sound.

28. CHINESE

The Mandarin word for hiccup gets right to the back of the throat: , , voiced with a rising tone. The left part of the character, which looks like a squished box, is 口 (kǒu), meaning “mouth.”

29. JAPANESE

Like English, the Japanese for hiccup features a hard k-sound smack dab in the middle of the word: shakkuri (or しゃっくり in kana).

30. KOREAN

The Korean for hiccup is a three-part affair: 딸꾹질, roughly tal-kuk-jil.

31. VIETNAMESE

Slurp down your pho too fast? The basic word for hiccup in Vietnamese is nấc.

32. AND 33. HINDI AND BENGALI

Hundreds of millions of speakers of Hindi in India say हिचकी (hichakee, pronounced a bit like hitch-key). The word is similar in other closely related Indian languages in the region, such as Bengali হিক্কা(hikka).

34. BAHASA INDONESIAN

You might say “Excuse me” throughout Indonesia for your kecegukan, the word for hiccup in Bahasa Indonesian, the Malay-based official language and lingua franca of Indonesia.

35. OLD ENGLISH

A word Old English had for hiccup is ælfsogoða, literally a kind of “elves’ heartburn.” Apparently, Anglo-Saxons believed hiccups were caused by, yep, elves. It turns out that it isn’t just cures for the hiccups that are old wives’ tales.

BONUS: KLINGON

The fictional language of Star Trek’s Klingon is a notoriously guttural language. Most of the words we’ve seen for hiccup across the globe indeed feature such back-of-the-throat g’s and k’s. Yet the Klingon word for hiccup is bur. Let’s chalk that up to biological differences: Klingons are extraterrestrial beings, after all.

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