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Inuit Snow Goggles

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of James A. Houston, 1969, www.metmuseum.org

This small pair of snow goggles, made of antler, pigment, and sinew, was created in Canada’s Hudson Bay by an unidentified Inuit craftsperson at the turn of the 20th century. The goggles, held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, were intended for a child’s use. Unlike many other examples of Inuit snow goggles, this pair is convex, and would stand out from a child’s face, rather than lying flat on her cheeks; the part that’s decorated with pigment is on the top of the goggles, so that an adult looking down at a child’s head might see the embellishments. 

Photokeratitis, sometimes known as snow blindness, is caused by ultraviolet light amplified while reflecting off the white of a snowy landscape. (You might think that a bright, sunny day would put eyes more at risk of damage, but in actuality, as Antarctic explorers of the first half of the 20th century found, cloudy days with diffuse light could be just as dangerous.) The condition can be intensely painful and requires days of recovery, which poses a serious problem for people who need to travel through all-white landscapes. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of James A. Houston, 1969, www.metmuseum.org

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of James A. Houston, 1969, www.metmuseum.org

The Inuit solution—snow goggles like these—allowed people to travel long distances without suffering the pain of photokeratitis. “Unlike sunglasses, [Inuit] snow goggles do not mist or ice over in the polar climate,” writes ophthalmologist Mogens Norn, who looked at Inuit snow goggles held in Danish and Greenlandic museums and assessed their usefulness in a 1996 study. Their simplicity equals stability of use; a wearer would not find himself taking off the goggles to clean them, putting himself at risk of exposure. While pointing out that the goggles restrict the wearer’s visual field—“there is a risk of stumbling, as the wearer cannot see depressions in the ground”—Norn writes that the goggles he tested did work well to protect eyes from ultraviolet light and visible short-wave light, which cause snow-blindness.

This pair is carved from antler, but some Inuit goggles, especially those made later in the 20th century, have been made from wood. “Gunpowder or soot mixed with oil and rubbed on the outside cuts down on the glare even more,” writes Jessica Metcalfe on her Beyond the Buckskin blog, in a post that also features a neat photo of a Canadian First Nations man identified only as “Anavik,” wearing some wooden snow goggles in 1916.

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The Most Searched Shows on Netflix in 2017, By State

Orange is the New Black is the new black, at least as far as Netflix viewers are concerned. The women-in-prison dramedy may have premiered in 2013, but it’s still got viewers hooked. Just as they did in 2017, HighSpeedInternet.com took a deep dive into Netflix analytics using Google Trends to find out which shows people in each state were searching Netflix for throughout the year. While there was a little bit of crossover between 2016 and 2017, new series like American Vandal and Mindhunter gave viewers a host of new content. But that didn’t stop Orange is the New Black from dominating the map; it was the most searched show in 15 states.

Coming in at a faraway second place was American Vandal, a new true crime satire that captured the attention of five states (Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin). Even more impressive is the fact that the series premiered in mid-September, meaning that it found a large and rabid audience in a very short amount of time.

Folks in Alaska, Colorado, and Oregon were all destined to be disappointed; Star Trek: Discovery was the most searched-for series in each of these states, but it’s not yet available on Netflix in America (you’ve got to get CBS All Access for that, folks). Fourteen states broke the mold a bit with shows that were unique to their state only; this included Big Mouth in Delaware, The Keepers in Maryland, The OA in Pennsylvania, GLOW in Rhode Island, and Black Mirror in Hawaii.

Check out the map above to see if your favorite Netflix binge-watch matches up with your neighbors'. For more detailed findings, visit HighSpeedInternet.com.

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Monthly Internet Costs in Every Country

Thanks to the internet, people around the world can conduct global research, trade tips, and find faraway friends without ever leaving their couch. Not everyone pays the same price for these digital privileges, though, according to new data visualizations spotted by Thrillist.

To compare internet user prices in each country, cost information site HowMuch.net created a series of maps. The data comes courtesy of English market research consultancy BDRC and Cable.co.uk, which teamed up to analyze 3351 broadband packages in 196 nations between August 18, 2017 and October 12, 2017.

In the U.S., for example, the average cost for internet service is $66 per month. That’s substantially more than what browsers pay in neighboring Mexico ($27) and Canada ($55). Still, we don’t have it bad compared to either Namibia or Burkina Faso, where users shell out a staggering $464 and $924, respectively, for monthly broadband access. In fact, internet in the U.S. is far cheaper than what residents in 113 countries pay, including those in Saudi Arabia ($84), Indonesia ($72), and Greenland ($84).

On average, internet costs in Asia and Russia tend to be among the lowest, while access is prohibitively expensive in sub-Saharan Africa and in certain parts of Oceania. As for the world’s cheapest internet, you’ll find it in Ukraine and Iran.

Check out the maps below for more broadband insights, or view HowMuch.net’s full findings here.

Map of Internet costs in each country created by information site HowMuch.net.
HowMuch.net

Map of Internet costs in each country created by information site HowMuch.net.
HowMuch.net

Map of Internet costs in each country created by information site HowMuch.net.
HowMuch.net

Map of Internet costs in each country created by information site HowMuch.net.
HowMuch.net

Map of Internet costs in each country created by information site HowMuch.net.
HowMuch.net

[h/t Thrillist]

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