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Does Chicken Soup Help a Cold?

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There may be no cure for the common cold, but if our parents taught us anything, it’s that a steaming bowl of chicken soup is the next best thing—and there's science to back that up: Studies have shown that chicken soup does indeed hold some medicinal properties.

One paper published by the medical journal Chest in 1978 suggests that the healing powers of chicken soup can partly be attributed to thermodynamics. When Mount Sinai Medical Center researchers in Miami Beach fed chicken soup to 15 healthy participants, the hot broth was shown to be successful in loosening mucus and clearing nasal passageways. The heat coming off the soup may seem like a simple explanation for the phenomenon, but the rest of the study paints a more complicated picture. When pitted against plain hot water, chicken soup was proven to be the better decongestant. A 1998 report published in Coping With Allergies and Asthma would later say that chicken soup also improves the performance of cilia, the tiny, hairlike structures that prevent contagions from infiltrating our bodies.

In addition to directly treating our respiratory systems, there’s data that shows chicken soup has an impact on our white blood cells as well. For his 2000 study (also published in Chest [PDF]), Dr. Stephen Rennard of the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha conducted laboratory tests using his wife’s homemade soup, a recipe that had been passed down by her Lithuanian grandmother. When he studied blood samples from volunteers, Rennard found that the presence of chicken soup slowed the movement of neutrophils, a common white blood cell that fights against infection. Cold symptoms are caused by our immune system's reaction to viral infections in the upper respiratory tract. The white blood cells that flood the area can often do little to kill the virus, and we’re left to cope with the consequences of their efforts: an overproduction of mucus. By inhibiting these cells, chicken soup actually helps ease our symptoms.

Rennard’s grandmother-in-law’s recipe contained chicken, onions, sweet potatoes, parsnips, turnips, carrots, celery, parsley, salt, and pepper—but exactly which of these ingredients contributed to the results remains a mystery. According to Rennard, it’s likely a combination of the vegetables and chicken in the soup rather than a singular ingredient that’s responsible for its soothing properties. Organosulfide, a chemical that’s found in onions, consumed along with Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the production of the immune cell macrophage, while Vitamin A and carotenoids found in carrots boost antibody production. A study published in the American Journal of Therapeutics in 2012 suggests that carnosine, a chemical compound found in the soup, could help combat the early stages of the flu. And while you can get these nutrients from sources other than chicken soup, they’re easier for your body to absorb in liquid form.

If you’re feeling a bit under the weather, Rennard’s scientifically backed chicken soup recipe is available to view online. But don’t sweat it if you don’t have the energy to whip up a home cooked meal—his study showed that canned stuff like Campbell’s, Lipton, and Progresso is just as effective.

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Do 'Close Door' Buttons in Elevators Actually Do Anything?
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When you’re running late for work, one small comfort is finding an empty elevator waiting for you at your office building. You scurry inside, and since no one else is waiting to enter, you jab the 'close door' button. The doors comply, the elevator starts moving, and you breathe a sigh of relief.

This is a familiar scenario for many, but it’s also a big fat lie. That’s because most of the door-close buttons in U.S. elevators don’t actually work. In fact, they’re programmed that way.

But before you get ready to send off a strongly worded email to your office building’s elevator manufacturer, you may want to hear why this is the case. When the Americans With Disabilities Act was first passed in 1990, certain requirements for elevators were outlined, such as the installation of raised buttons, braille signs, and audible signals.

The act ensured that someone with a disability would have enough time to get inside, stipulating that elevator doors must remain fully open for at least three seconds and thereby preventing the button from cutting that time short. Some elevator manufacturers took it one step further by deactivating the button entirely.

Since the life span of an elevator is about 25 years and the Disabilities Act has been around for 28 years, it’s safe to assume that most of the elevators in operation today do not have a functioning 'close door' button, The New York Times reports. Only firefighters are able to close elevator doors manually through the use of a key.

It's important to note that there are exceptions to this rule, though. As the New York Daily News noted, New York City elevators are required by law to have working 'close door' buttons, even though some operate on a long delay (so long, in fact, that it calls the button's usefulness into question).

However, you’re in luck if you’re taking a lift (which, of course, is British for “elevator”). 'Close door' buttons are fully functional in most elevators in the UK, according to The Telegraph. A spokesman for the Lift and Escalator Industry Association told the newspaper that not all elevators have the button, but when they’re present, they do work. Again, the time it takes for the doors to shut after pressing the button varies from lift to lift.

While U.S. elevator manufacturers have a seemingly good reason for disabling the 'close door' button, some may question the point of propagating the myth and installing a button that serves no purpose in the first place. In response, some would argue that placebo buttons serve an important psychological function in society.

"Perceived control is very important," Harvard psychologist Ellen J. Langer told The New York Times. "It diminishes stress and promotes well-being."

That’s right: By believing that you’re in control of your fate—or at least how quickly you can make it up to the sixth floor—you’re better off. It doesn’t end with elevators, either. Buttons placed at city crosswalks are often disabled, and the thermostats in many office buildings are rigged so that the temperature can’t be altered (even if the numbers appear to change).

Some might swear up and down that elevator 'close door' buttons work, but this, too, could be your brain deceiving you. As author David McRaney wrote in an essay: “If you happen to find yourself pressing a nonfunctional close-door button, and later the doors close, you’ll probably never notice because a little spurt of happiness will cascade through your brain once you see what you believe is a response to your action. Your behavior was just reinforced. You will keep pressing the button in the future.”

According to The New Yorker, these buttons are designed to alleviate some of the subconscious anxiety that comes from stepping inside a tiny box that's hoisted up some 20 or 40 or 80 floors by a cable: “Elevator design is rooted in deception—to disguise not only the bare fact of the box hanging by ropes but also the tethering of tenants to a system over which they have no command."

So now you know: Next time you’re running late to work, take comfort in the fact that those few extra seconds you would’ve saved by pressing a functioning 'close door' button aren’t worth all that much in the long run.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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What’s the Difference Between Prison and Jail?
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Many people use the terms jail and prison interchangeably, and while both terms refer to areas where people are held, there's a substantial difference between the two methods of incarceration. Where a person who is accused of a crime is held, and for how long, is a factor in determining the difference between the two—and whether a person is held in a jail or a prison is largely determined by the severity of the crime they have committed.

A jail (or, for our British friends, a gaol) refers to a small, temporary holding facility—run by local governments and supervised by county sheriff departments—that is designed to detain recently arrested people who have committed a minor offense or misdemeanor. A person can also be held in jail for an extended period of time if the sentence for their offense is less than a year. There are currently 3163 local jail facilities in the United States.

A jail is different from the similarly temporary “lockup”—sort of like “pre-jail”—which is located in local police departments and holds offenders unable to post bail, people arrested for public drunkenness who are kept until they are sober, or, most importantly, offenders waiting to be processed into the jail system.

A prison, on the other hand, is usually a large state- or federal-run facility meant to house people convicted of a serious crime or felony, and whose sentences for those crimes surpass 365 days. A prison could also be called a “penitentiary,” among other names.

To be put in a state prison, a person must be convicted of breaking a state law. To be put in a federal prison, a person must be convicted of breaking federal law. Basic amenities in a prison are more extensive than in a jail because, obviously, an inmate is likely to spend more than a year of his or her life confined inside a prison. As of 2012, there were 4575 operating prisons in the U.S.—the most in the world. The country with the second highest number of operating prisons is Russia, which has just 1029 facilities.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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