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Nick Greene
Nick Greene

How Nazi Germany Advertised Itself to American Tourists

Nick Greene
Nick Greene

In 1935, just two years after the Nazi party seized power in Germany, Hitler was already at work shaping the country into his image. That year saw the passing of the Nuremberg Laws, a series of anti-Semitic measures to subjugate and abuse the Jewish population. 1935 also marked the first of five separate Neutrality Acts passed by U.S. Congress that barred any American involvement in overseas conflicts.

While the U.S.’s official stance was to turn a blind eye, Germany was actively courting American tourism dollars, as evidenced by these advertisements that appeared in the May 1935 issue of Fortune Magazine:

In the midst of perpetrating crimes against humanity, Germany marketed itself as "the healing country," full of rejuvenating resorts and spas. "Happy and gay is the life at these fashionable watering places," the ad copy reads, mentioning the inflation-free "Registered Travel Marks" offered to American tourists.

This other advertisement promises "proverbial German hospitality" aboard their steam ships, "Cherishing the welfare of every passenger whatever the class of accommodation":

Noticeably absent from these advertisements are any swastikas (which became Germany's official flag in 1935) or mention of the Nazi party or government. If one were to believe the ads he or she read in 1935, Germany would be a land of spa treatments, friendly cruises, healing health resorts, and nothing more.

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Metal Salvagers Are Destroying World War II Shipwrecks in Asia
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Military shipwrecks are viewed as underwater graveyards, but some illegal salvage divers view their metal hulls as goldmines. Their quest for scrap metals and valuable materials has led to the partial or complete destruction of up to 40 World War II ships in southeast Asia, according to a detailed account by The Guardian.

Crews of divers pretending to be fishermen or researchers have raided submerged ships around Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. They might have been looking for steel scrap metal, or copper cables, phosphor bronze propellers, and radiation-free steel, the last of which is used in scientific and medical equipment.

Some ships have been found cut in half, while others have been completely removed. But these divers aren't just destroying history, according to veterans and archaeologists—they’re also desecrating grave sites, as the 40 destroyed or damaged ships may have held around 4500 corpses. They belonged to World War II servicemen from countries including the United States, Australia, the Netherlands, and Japan.

Important British warships like the HMS Exeter, HMS Encounter, and HMS Electra—all of which sank in the Java Sea in 1942—have fallen victim to scavengers. So have the HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales, which sank off the coast of Malaysia in 1941.

Australia, meanwhile, has suffered the loss of the HMAS Perth, which met its end in 1942, near the islands of Java and Sumatra. Nearly 60 to 70 percent of its hull is gone, according to archaeologists. And Japanese ships have also been destroyed, with hundreds still remaining vulnerable underwater. All of these ships likely had the bodies of crew members onboard.

UK and U.S. officials have requested that Indonesia protect historic sunken warships. In the meantime, Cambodian, Chinese, and Malaysian-registered vessels have all been spotted hovering around wrecks, and shipwreck scavenging appears to be on the rise. The UK Ministry of Defence is asking the Indonesian government to step in, according to a spokesperson quoted by The Guardian: "A military wreck should remain undisturbed and those who lost their lives onboard should be allowed to rest in peace."

[h/t The Guardian]

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History
P.G. Wodehouse's Exile from England
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Hulton Archive/Getty Images

You don’t get more British than Jeeves and Wooster. The P.G. Wodehouse characters are practically synonymous with elevenses and Pimm’s. But in 1947, their creator left England for the U.S. and never looked back.

Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, better known as P.G., was living in northern France and working on his latest Jeeves and Wooster novel, Joy in the Morning, when the Nazis came knocking. They occupied his estate for a period of time before shipping him off to an internment camp in Germany, which he later said he found pretty pleasant:

“Everybody seems to think a German internment camp must be a sort of torture chamber. It was really perfectly normal and ordinary. The camp had an extraordinarily nice commander, and we did all sorts of things, you know. We played cricket, that sort of thing. Of course, I was writing all the time.”

Wodehouse was there for 11 months before being suddenly released to a hotel in Berlin where a man from the German foreign office named Werner Plack was waiting to meet him. Wodehouse was somewhat acquainted with Plack from a stint in Hollywood, so finding him waiting didn't seem out of the ordinary. Plack advised Wodehouse to use his time in the internment camp to his advantage, and suggested writing a radio series about his experiences to be broadcast in America.

As Plack probably suspected, Wodehouse’s natural writing style meant that his broadcasts were light-hearted affairs about playing cricket and writing novels, This didn’t sit too well with the British, who believed Wodehouse was trying to downplay the horrors of the war. The writer was shocked when MI5 subjected him to questioning about the “propaganda” he wrote for the Germans. "I thought that people, hearing the talks, would admire me for having kept cheerful under difficult conditions," he told them in 1944. "I would like to conclude by saying that I never had any intention of assisting the enemy and that I have suffered a great deal of mental pain as the result of my action."

Wodehouse's contemporary George Orwell came to his aid, penning a 1945 essay called “In Defense of P.G. Wodehouse." Sadly, it didn’t do much to sway public opinion. Though MI5 ultimately decided not to prosecute, it seemed that British citizens had already made up their minds, with some bookstores and libraries even removing all Wodehouse material from their shelves. Seeing the writing on the wall, the author and his wife packed up all of their belongings and moved to New York in 1947. They never went back to England.

But that’s not to say Wodehouse didn’t want to. In 1973, at the age of 91, he expressed interest in returning. “I’d certainly like to, but at my age it’s awfully difficult to get a move on. But I’d like to go back for a visit in the spring. They all seem to want me to go back. The trouble is that I’ve never flown. I suppose that would solve everything."

Unfortunately, he died of a heart attack before he could make the trip. But the author bore no ill will toward his native country. When The Paris Review interviewed Wodehouse in 1973, they asked if he resented the way he was treated by the English. “Oh, no, no, no. Nothing of that sort. The whole thing seems to have blown over now,” he said. He was right—the Queen bestowed Wodehouse with a knighthood two months before his death, showing that all was forgiven.

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