CLOSE
Nick Greene
Nick Greene

How Nazi Germany Advertised Itself to American Tourists

Nick Greene
Nick Greene

In 1935, just two years after the Nazi party seized power in Germany, Hitler was already at work shaping the country into his image. That year saw the passing of the Nuremberg Laws, a series of anti-Semitic measures to subjugate and abuse the Jewish population. 1935 also marked the first of five separate Neutrality Acts passed by U.S. Congress that barred any American involvement in overseas conflicts.

While the U.S.’s official stance was to turn a blind eye, Germany was actively courting American tourism dollars, as evidenced by these advertisements that appeared in the May 1935 issue of Fortune Magazine:

In the midst of perpetrating crimes against humanity, Germany marketed itself as "the healing country," full of rejuvenating resorts and spas. "Happy and gay is the life at these fashionable watering places," the ad copy reads, mentioning the inflation-free "Registered Travel Marks" offered to American tourists.

This other advertisement promises "proverbial German hospitality" aboard their steam ships, "Cherishing the welfare of every passenger whatever the class of accommodation":

Noticeably absent from these advertisements are any swastikas (which became Germany's official flag in 1935) or mention of the Nazi party or government. If one were to believe the ads he or she read in 1935, Germany would be a land of spa treatments, friendly cruises, healing health resorts, and nothing more.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Tim Sloan, AFP/Getty Images
arrow
History
Two Pages of 'Dirty Jokes' Uncovered in Anne Frank's Diary
Tim Sloan, AFP/Getty Images
Tim Sloan, AFP/Getty Images

Written while she was in hiding during World War II, Anne Frank's Diary of a Young Girl is one of the most intimate accounts we have of life for European Jews during the Holocaust. It's also the journal of an ordinary adolescent girl—one who dreamed about crushes, was curious about her body, and made jokes about sex. As the Chicago Tribune reports, new analysis from Dutch researchers reveals two pages of what Frank described in her diary as "dirty jokes" that had been impossible to read until now.

A 13-year-old Anne Frank filled the pages on September 28, 1942 while living with her family in a secret annex in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands. Even under those stressful circumstances, she was able to keep her sense of humor. She wrote jokes like, "Do you know why the German Wehrmacht girls are in Holland? As mattresses for the soldiers." And, “A man had a very ugly wife and he didn't want to have relations with her. One evening he came home and then he saw his friend in bed with his wife, then the man said: `He gets to and I have to!!!"'

On the same pages as the dirty jokes, she included musings on sexual development, prostitution, and contraception. She wrote that a young woman's first period is "a sign that she is ripe to have relations with a man but one doesn't do that of course before one is married."

At some point during her two years in the annex, Anne decided to tape brown adhesive paper over the passages, presumably to save herself embarrassment in case anyone found her diary. It wasn't until 75 years later that researchers at the Anne Frank museum were finally able to decipher the text hidden beneath the covering. To do so, they photographed the back-lit pages and scanned them with image-processing software.

"Anne Frank writes about sexuality in a disarming way. Like every adolescent she is curious about this subject," Anne Frank House executive director Ronald Leopold said in a statement. He said that the texts "bring us even closer to the girl and the writer Anne Frank."

The first edition of Anne Frank's diary was published by her father in 1947, two years after she died in a Nazi concentration camp. It's since sold more than 30 million copies and has been translated into 67 languages. Due to copyright issues, it's unclear if the newly revealed text will make it into future editions.

[h/t Chicago Tribune]

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
arrow
History
The Sky Was No Limit: The WASP Women Pilots of WWII
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Shirley Slade sat on the wing of a plane and looked off into an uncertain future. Slade—clad in her flight suit with pigtails guarding against Texas wind—was posing for the July 19, 1943 issue of Life magazine, and the composition between the aircraft and its operator was a juxtaposition spelled out in the cover headline: "Air Force Pilot."

Slade was one of more than 1000 women who had been solicited by the U.S. government to enter an intensive seven-month training course that would make them the first female pilots to enter the Air Force. What had been a boy's club was being forced into a kind of reluctant gender neutrality as a result of World War II and severe pilot shortages. By recruiting women, the Air Force could maintain delivery of aircraft, ferry supplies, and perform other non-combative functions that fueled the war efforts. Collectively, the group would become known as WASPs: Women Airforce Service Pilots.

While all of these women risked their lives—and more than a few lost them—they were not perceived as equals. Because they were designated as civilians, they were denied military honors and compensation. As the war wound down, men returning from combat jockeyed to take the WASPs' places as active-duty pilots. Occasionally, the women would be used in target practice. It would be decades before the women of WASP would finally get their due.

 
 

America's entry into World War II following the attack on Pearl Harbor heralded a new policy of rationing. Food, materials, and manpower were doled out carefully, but demand for pilots quickly exceeded the available personnel. By 1942, the Air Force realized they would have to tap into new sources in order to continue their campaign.

Jacqueline Cochran had a solution: A pilot in her own right and a contemporary of Amelia Earhart, Cochran knew there was a strong contingent of female fliers who had licenses and had logged air time who could be recruited for support missions. She petitioned the Air Force, including commanding general Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold, to approve a training program that would ultimately relocate volunteers to Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas. Another pilot, Nancy Harkness Love, submitted a similar proposal.

WASP pilot Elizabeth Remba Gardner looks out from her plane while on a Texas runway
WASP pilot Elizabeth Remba Gardner
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Cochran and Love were up against considerable resistance to involving women in military efforts. General Dwight D. Eisenhower once admitted he was "violently against" the idea (before concluding that none of his concerns came to light and women were an integral part of the effort). Internally, there was concern as to whether women would even be capable of handling a massive aircraft like the B-29 bomber, so superiors hedged their bets by creating two organizations.

Love was put in charge of the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS)—an organization to ferry planes—while Cochran was put in charge of the Women's Flying Training Detachment, which did whatever the Army Air Corps required of it. A little under a year later, these two groups were merged into a single organization: the WASPs. This new group demanded that incoming women logged at least 35 hours of flight time before coming to Sweetwater. More importantly, the women would be considered civilians, not military personnel.

Roughly 25,000 women applied; around 1900 were accepted and 1100 completed training. On their own dimes, these women streamed into Texas to begin the seven-month program that taught them every aspect of military flying except for gunnery duty and formation flying. Every day in the barracks included intensive lessons, physical fitness training, and studying. At night, the women would dance, sing, or play ping-pong. Life described their ambitions as "piloting with an unfeminine purpose" and noted that some of the women needed cushions in order to sit comfortably in planes designed for male bodies. Their mascot, a tiny winged sprite named Miss Fifinella, was designed by Disney, and the patch appeared on many of their jumpsuits and plane noses.

According to Life, the Air Force reported that the women were faster on instruments while the men "had better memory for details." But in virtually every way that counted, the magazine wrote, there was no practical difference in ability.

Graduates were dispatched to bases around the country, though the most pressing job was ferrying new aircraft from factories to places like Newark, New Jersey, where the planes would make the jump overseas. The women shuttled 12,000 of these planes during the war. They also escorted military chaplains from base to base on Sundays for religious services and operated test flights for repaired aircraft to make sure they were safe to fly in combat. Sometimes, they'd be tasked with towing targets behind them so soldiers could use live ammunition for combat practice.

Simulated combat may have been nerve-wracking, but it was no more dangerous than the actual flying and the very real possibility that the WASPs would experience equipment malfunction or fuel issues. In the two years the squad was active, 38 women perished during missions. At the time—and for decades afterward—the families of those women were denied many of the basic privileges afforded to the families of their male counterparts. When a WASP died, her colleagues—not the government—would pitch in to pay for her burial. Their families were prohibited from putting a gold star in their windows, a sign of a military casualty, nor were they "allowed" to drape the American flag over their coffins.

 
 

On December 20, 1944, the WASPs were sent home. The war wasn't yet over, but men returning from the front lines were dismayed that jobs they expected to find waiting for them were being occupied by women. Despite Cochran's petition to have the WASPs permanently incorporated into the Air Force, Congress turned her down.

WASP pilots are photographed circa 1943
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

The pride the women had felt serving their country turned to confusion. By being classified as "civilians," the WASPs found little respect for their efforts. When entering the workforce after the war, some even became flight attendants, as no commercial airline would hire a female pilot.

In the 1970s, the Air Force announced they'd be accepting female recruits for the "first time," a proclamation that angered the surviving WASPs. Their efforts had largely gone unheralded, and now it seemed like the government was wiping them from history completely. Petitioning for recognition and receiving aid from fellow war ferry pilot Senator Barry Goldwater, they were finally granted military status on November 23, 1977.

As the WASPs aged, a handful got the chance to enjoy another honor. In 2010, the women were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for their efforts. After flying 77 different types of planes over 60 million miles during wartime and being largely ignored for decades, it was recognition that was long overdue.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios