Ashford Castle by Larry Koester, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Ashford Castle by Larry Koester, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

15 Castles You Can Stay In

Ashford Castle by Larry Koester, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Ashford Castle by Larry Koester, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

These castles are the perfect places to visit when you're looking to get the royal treatment.

1. ASHFORD CASTLE // COUNTY GALWAY, IRELAND

Ashford Castle was built in 1228 on an early Monastic site. While it's changed hands several times over its long history, it was originally constructed and owned by the House of Burke (originally de Burgos), an early Anglo-Norman family, and was purchased by Sir Benjamin Guinness of the Guinness brewing company in 1852. After several hundred years of additions and renovations, the castle was converted into a hotel in 1939. It served as home base and a backdrop for 1951's The Quiet Man, starring John Wayne and Maureen O'Hara and directed by John Ford, and was named the world's best luxury hotel in 2015 by Virtuoso.

Book it: Ashford Castle

2. AYRSHIRE CASTLE // WEST KILBRIDE, SCOTLAND

Also known as Castle Law, this Scottish castle was built in the 15th century as a wedding present for Princess Mary, the daughter of James II of Scotland, following her marriage to Thomas Boyd, the Earl of Arran. On a slightly less romantic note, among the structure’s many authentic medieval touches are a trapdoor-accessed pit prison and a “murder hole” that was once used to pour scalding oil onto unsuspecting enemies below. Today, visitors can enjoy fresh linens, a fireplace, stunning views, and a secret staircase during their stay.

Book it: Airbnb

3. TALABGAON CASTLE // DAUSA, INDIA

Located in the western Indian state of Rajasthan (which translates to “Land of Kings”), Talabgaon Castle was originally built as a fort in 1818, during a dispute between two warring states over the nearby Sambhur Lake—and its salt deposits. It was later converted into a castle in 1900 by Thakur Vijay Singh ji Rathore, and is still owned by the Singh Rathore family today.

Book it: Talabgaon Castle.

4. SCHLOSS KAPFENSTEIN // KAPFENSTEIN, AUSTRIA

Schloss Kapfenstein is built atop an extinct volcano in southeastern Styria, a region of Austria near the borders of Hungary and Slovenia. It was originally built as a fortress in the 11th century to guard against invading Huns and Turks. Nowadays, Schloss Kapfenstein hosts travelers and wine connoisseurs from around the world, who come to tour the surrounding vineyards that are owned by the same family who own the castle.

Book it: Schloss Hotels

5. CHATEAU AUBEPINE // FOURNEAUX, RHONE-ALPES, FRANCE

Chateau Aubepine is classified as a “classé Monument Historique,” the highest honor bestowed by the French government in recognition of historical significance. The private chateau, built in 1621, sits among gardens created by Le Nôtre, Louis XIV's gardener. It's nestled among 247 acres of private woodland, and the grounds contain tennis courts, a swimming pool, and a private fishing lake.

Book it: Oliver's Travels

6. CASTLE PERGINE // TRENTINO, ITALY

Originally constructed around 1000 CE and converted into a medieval fortress in the 13th century, Castle Pergine was owned by Austrian dukes for a time, then became property of the Prince-Bishop of Trent in 1531. In 1900, renovations began to convert the building and today, the castle is an exclusive luxury hotel with 20 rooms and three towers, all located within what is called the “Ala Clesiana” wing, which was added in the mid-1500s.

Book it: Castelpergine

7. PARADOR DE OROPESA // OROPESA, SPAIN

Restored in 1402 after almost being destroyed, Parador de Oropesa is one of Spain’s oldest paradors: historically significant structures converted into hotels by the government in order to pay for their upkeep and restoration. The castle was once the home of the Toledo family of nobles, and the castle’s legacy has given birth to a yearly celebration in the town of Oropesa called “Jornadas Medievales,” or “Medieval Days”.

Book it: Parador

8. DALHOUSIE CASTLE // MIDLOTHIAN, SCOTLAND

Roger W Haworth, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.5

Eight miles outside of Edinburgh and overlooking the River Esk, the main structure of Dalhousie Castle was originally built in the mid-1400s. The castle has had a role in several important moments in Scottish history: King Edward I stayed there en route to meeting Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk, which was a pivotal battle in the Scottish War for Independence. Later, Oliver Cromwell used Dalhousie Castle as his base while invading Scotland. For those wishing to get a taste of historic Scotland today, the castle-turned-hotel offers a formal restaurant located in the castle’s old dungeons, as well as a recreational “falconry experience.”

Book it: Dalhousie Castle

9. POUSADA DE CASTELO // OBIDOS, PORTUGAL

Obidos, Portugal is a small coastal town—once an early Roman settlement—whose name is said to derive from the Latin oppidum, or “fortified city.” The town’s namesake fortifications are still around today, as is its centerpiece castle, now a luxury hotel. Because the castle and surrounding property were gifted by King Denis of Portugal to his bride Queen Isabel in 1282, Obidos is also sometimes known as the “wedding present town.” The luxury hotel Pousada de Castelo is housed in the 12th century castle in the heart of the town.

Book it: Pousadas

10. CHATEAU DE LA CAZE // SAINTE-ENIMIE, FRANCE

This 15th century castle was originally constructed as a honeymoon getaway for French noblewoman Soubeyrane Alamand. Built into the cliffs overlooking the Tarn River, this fairytale castle-turned-hotel features interiors decorated with tapestries and antiques, as well as exteriors dotted with authentic arrow slits, both recalling its medieval past.

Book it: Chateau De LaCaze

11. SCHLOSS SOMMERSDORF // BURGOBERBACH, GERMANY

This castle, located in the heart of Bavaria, was built in the 14th century under one Ludvig von Eyb. In 1550, the castle came into the ownership of the prominent Crailsheim family, who brought the Protestant reformation to the surrounding town of Sommersdorf. After barely surviving the Thirty Years War, the castle underwent renovations that replaced its drawbridge with a permanent bridge. Today, the castle is still owned by the Crailsheim family—rather than a hotel, the castle is actually the home of Dr. Manfred Baron von Crailsheim, who enjoys hosting guests. Fun Fact: Graf Crailsheim, of the Crailsheim family, was one of several officials who in the early 19th century attempted to have then-king Ludwig II deposed and certified as insane. Ludwig II was later found dead, mysteriously drowned in waist-high water.

Book it: Schloss sommersdorf

12. HEVER CASTLE // HEVER, ENGLAND

This 13th century double-moated castle—now a luxury bed and breakfast—is located in Hever, a small village in Kent, England. The castle once served as the childhood home of Anne Boleyn, the doomed second wife of King Henry VIII. The castle passed through several hands and eventually fell into disrepair until the early 1900s, when it was revived through the restoration efforts of American mogul William Waldorf Astor. Today, visitors from all over the world come to see 125 acres of formal gardens and collections of Tudor-era artifacts, including a prayer book said to be the one Anne Boleyn took with her to her execution.

Book it: Hever Castle

13. THE SABABURG (OR DORNRÖSCHENSCHLOSS SABABURG) // SABABURG, GERMANY

The small town of Sababurg is located in the heart of the Reinhardswald, an enchanting forest straight out of a fairytale—literally. The forest is said to have inspired the tales of the Brothers Grimm, and the nearby castle of Sababurg (also known as Dornröschenschloss or “Sleeping Beauty Castle”) served as the setting for the tale of Sleeping Beauty. Today, the restored 650-year-old castle houses a luxury hotel as well as a theater.

Book it: Sababurg

14. RUTHIN CASTLE // RUTHIN, WALES

Jim Linwood, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

First constructed in the late 1200s, Ruthin Castle was originally known as Castell Coch yn yr Gwernfor, or The Red Castle in the Great Marsh, because of its red sandstone walls. The castle was the residence of the prominent de Grey family up until the 1500s, when it was sold to Henry VII, who then handed it to King Henry VIII. The estate continued to pass through royal hands, and was eventually sold by King Charles I before being partially dismantled during the English Civil War as part of a process of organized defortification called slighting, an effort to prevent castles from being militarily viable in the future. After centuries withstanding war and sieges, the castle was given new life by the wealthy Myddleton family, who repaired and rebuilt upon the medieval ruins. Ruthin Castle was converted into Britain's first private hospital in 1923, and finally into a hotel in the 1960s. Today, the castle retains touches of its violent past, like its whipping pit, drowning pool, and dungeon, but visitors wishing for a tamer medieval experience can attend one of the hotel’s themed Medieval Feasts, complete with period-appropriate costumes and a toast of mead. It also may or may not be haunted.

Book it: RuthinCastle.co.uk

15. BALFOUR CASTLE // SHAPINSAY, SCOTLAND

Located in the Orkney Islands off the northeastern coast of Scotland, Balfour Castle promotes itself as “the world’s most northerly castle.” Located on the island of Shapinsay, which is said to have once served as a mooring for fleets of Viking longships, the surrounding bay now plays host to seal colonies and the occasional pod of orca whales. The castle itself is a rare example of a “Calendar House,” with architectural elements that correspond to the number of days in a year, months in a year, weeks in a year, and days in a week; Balfour Castle’s design features 365 window panes, 12 external doors, 52 rooms, and 7 turrets. The castle was commissioned by Colonel David Balfour, and constructed in 1847. It was designed by architect David Bryce, and built around an older structure built in the 18th century. If you're not able to afford the luxurious island castle, you can still ogle it here.

Book it: Balfour Castle

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The Body
10 Facts About the Appendix
Illustration by Mental Floss / Images: iStock
Illustration by Mental Floss / Images: iStock

Despite some 500 years of study, the appendix might be one of the least understood structures in the human body. Here's what we know about this mysterious organ.

1. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS CALLED IT THE "WORM" OF THE BOWEL.

The human appendix is small, tube-shaped, and squishy, giving ancient Egyptians, who encountered it when preparing bodies for funerary rites, the impression of a worm. Even today, some medical texts refer to the organ as vermiform—Latin for "worm-like."

2. THE APPENDIX SHOWS UP IN LEONARDO DA VINCI’S DRAWINGS.

The earliest description of a human appendix was written by the Renaissance physician-anatomist Jacopo Berengario da Carpi in 1521. But before that, Leonardo da Vinci is believed to drawn the first depiction of the organ in his anatomical drawings in 1492. Leonardo claimed to have dissected 30 human corpses in his effort to understand the way the body worked from mechanical and physiological perspectives.

3. IT'S ABOUT THE SIZE OF A PINKY FINGER.

The appendix is a small pouch connected to the cecum—the beginning of the large intestine in the lower right-hand corner of your abdomen. The cecum’s job is to receive undigested food from the small intestine, absorb fluids and salts that remain after food is digested, and mix them with mucus for easier elimination; according to Mohamad Abouzeid, M.D., assistant professor and attending surgeon at NYU Langone Medical Center, the cecum and appendix have similar tissue structures.

4. CHARLES DARWIN THOUGHT IT WAS A VESTIGIAL ORGAN …

The appendix has an ill-deserved reputation as a vestigial organ—meaning that it allegedly evolved without a detectable function—and we can blame Charles Darwin for that. In the mid-19th century, the appendix had been identified only in humans and great apes. Darwin thought that our earlier ancestors ate mostly plants, and thus needed a large cecum in which to break down the tough fibers. He hypothesized that over time, apes and humans evolved to eat a more varied and easier-to-digest diet, and the cecum shrank accordingly. The appendix itself, Darwin believed, emerged from the folds of the wizened cecum without its own special purpose.

5. … BUT THE APPENDIX PROBABLY EVOLVED TO HELP IMMUNE FUNCTION.

The proximity and tissue similarities between the cecum and appendix suggest that the latter plays a part in the digestive process. But there’s one noticeable difference in the appendix that you can see only under a microscope. “[The appendix] has a high concentration of the immune cells within its walls,” Abouzeid tells Mental Floss.

Recent research into the appendix's connection to the immune system has suggested a few theories. In a 2015 study in Nature Immunology, Australian researchers discovered that a type of immune cells called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) proliferate in the appendix and seem to encourage the repopulation of symbiotic bacteria in the gut. This action may help the gut recover from infections, which tend to wipe out fluids, nutrients, and good bacteria.

For a 2013 study examining the evolutionary rationale for the appendix in mammal species, researchers at Midwestern University and Duke University Medical Center concluded that the organ evolved at least 32 times among different lineages, but not in response to dietary or environmental factors.

The same researchers analyzed 533 mammal species for a 2017 study and found that those with appendices had more lymphatic (immune) tissue in the cecum. That suggests that the nearby appendix could serve as "a secondary immune organ," the researchers said in a statement. "Lymphatic tissue can also stimulate growth of some types of beneficial gut bacteria, providing further evidence that the appendix may serve as a 'safe house' for helpful gut bacteria." This good bacteria may help to replenish healthy flora in the gut after infection or illness.

6. ABOUT 7 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL GET APPENDICITIS DURING THEIR LIFETIMES.

For such a tiny organ, the appendix gets infected easily. According to Abouzeid, appendicitis occurs when the appendix gets plugged by hardened feces (called a fecalith or appendicolith), too much mucus, or the buildup of immune cells after a viral or bacterial infection. In the United States, the lifetime risk of getting appendicitis is one in 15, and incidence in newly developed countries is rising. It's most common in young adults, and most dangerous in the elderly.

When infected, the appendix swells up as pus fills its interior cavity. It can grow several times larger than its average 3-inch size: One inflamed appendix removed from a British man in 2004 measured just over 8 inches, while another specimen, reported in 2007 in the Journal of Clinical Pathology, measured 8.6 inches. People with appendicitis might feel generalized pain around the bellybutton that localizes on the right side of the abdomen, and experience nausea or vomiting, fever, or body aches. Some people also get diarrhea.

7. APPENDECTOMIES ARE ALMOST 100 PERCENT EFFECTIVE FOR TREATING APPENDICITIS.

Treatment for appendicitis can go two ways: appendectomy, a.k.a. surgical removal of the appendix, or a first line of antibiotics to treat the underlying infection. Appendectomies are more than 99 percent effective against recurring infection, since the organ itself is removed. (There have been cases of "stump appendicitis," where an incompletely removed appendix becomes infected, which often require further surgery.)

Studies show that antibiotics produce about a 72 percent initial success rate. “However, if you follow these patients out for about a year, they often get recurrent appendicitis,” Abouzeid says. One 2017 study in the World Journal of Surgery followed 710 appendicitis patients for a year after antibiotic treatment and found a 26.5 percent recurrence rate for subsequent infections.

8. AN INFECTED APPENDIX DOESN’T ACTUALLY BURST.

You might imagine a ruptured appendix, known formally as a perforation, being akin to the "chestbuster" scene in Alien. Abouzeid says it's not quite that dramatic, though it can be dangerous. When the appendix gets clogged, pressure builds inside the cavity of the appendix, called the lumen. That chokes off blood supply to certain tissues. “The tissue dies off and falls apart, and you get perforation,” Abouzeid says. But rather than exploding, the organ leaks fluids that can infect other tissues.

A burst appendix is a medical emergency. Sometimes the body can contain the infection in an abscess, Abouzeid says, which may be identified through CT scans or X-rays and treated with IV antibiotics. But if the infection is left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the abdomen, a serious condition called peritonitis. At that point, the infection can become life-threatening.

9. SURGEONS CAN REMOVE AN APPENDIX THROUGH A TINY INCISION.

In 1894, Charles McBurney, a surgeon at New York's Roosevelt Hospital, popularized an open-cavity, muscle-splitting technique [PDF] to remove an infected appendix, which is now called an open appendectomy. Surgeons continued to use McBurney's method until the advent of laparoscopic surgery, a less invasive method in which the doctor makes small cuts in the patient's abdomen and threads a thin tube with a camera and surgical tools into the incisions. The appendix is removed through one of those incisions, which are usually less than an inch in length.

The first laparoscopic appendectomies were performed by German physician Kurt Semm in the early 1980s. Since then, laparoscopic appendectomies have become the standard treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis. For more serious infections, open appendectomies are still performed.

10. AN APPENDIX ONCE POSTPONED A ROYAL CORONATION.

When the future King Edward VII of Great Britain came down with appendicitis (or "perityphlitis," as it was called back then) in June 1902, mortality rates for the disease were as high as 26 percent. It was about two weeks before his scheduled coronation on June 26, 1902, and Edward resisted having an appendectomy, which was then a relatively new procedure. But surgeon and appendicitis expert Frederick Treves made clear that Edward would probably die without it. Treves drained Edward's infected abscess, without removing the organ, at Buckingham Palace; Edward recovered and was crowned on August 9, 1902.

11. THE WORLD'S LONGEST APPENDIX MEASURED MORE THAN 10 INCHES.

On August 26, 2006, during an autopsy at a Zagreb, Croatia hospital, surgeons obtained a 10.24-inch appendix from 72-year-old Safranco August. The deceased currently holds the Guinness World Record for "largest appendix removed."

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History
13 Incredible Facts About Frederick Douglass
Photo Illustration: Mental Floss. Douglass: Glasshouse Images, Alamy. Backgrounds: iStock
Photo Illustration: Mental Floss. Douglass: Glasshouse Images, Alamy. Backgrounds: iStock

The list of Frederick Douglass's accomplishments is astonishing—respected orator, famous writer, abolitionist, civil rights leader, presidential consultant—even without considering that he was a former slave with no formal education. In honor of his birth 200 years ago, here are 13 incredible facts about the life of Frederick Douglass.

1. HE BARTERED BREAD FOR KNOWLEDGE.

Because Douglass was a slave, he wasn't allowed to learn to read or write. A wife of a Baltimore slave owner did teach him the alphabet when he was around 12, but she stopped after her husband interfered. Young Douglass took matters into his own hands, cleverly fitting in a reading lesson whenever he was on the street running errands for his owner. As he detailed in his autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, he'd carry a book with him while out and about and trade small pieces of bread to the white kids in his neighborhood, asking them to help him learn to read the book in exchange.

2. HE CREDITED A SCHOOLBOOK FOR SHAPING HIS VIEWS ON HUMAN RIGHTS.

Engraving of Frederick Douglass, circa the 1850s.
Engraving of Frederick Douglass, circa the 1850s.
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

During his youth, Douglass obtained a copy of The Columbian Orator, a collection of essays, dialogues, and speeches on a range of subjects, including slavery. Published in 1797, the Orator was required reading for most schoolchildren in the 1800s and featured 84 selections from authors like Cicero and Milton. Abraham Lincoln was also influenced by the collection when he was first starting in politics.

3. HE TAUGHT OTHER SLAVES TO READ.

While he was hired out to a farmer named William Freeland, a teenaged Douglass taught fellow slaves to read the New Testament—but a mob of locals soon broke up the classes. Undeterred, Douglas began the classes again, sometimes teaching as many as 40 people.

4. HIS FIRST WIFE HELPED HIM ESCAPE FROM SLAVERY.

Portrait of Anna Murray Douglass, Frederick Douglass's first wife.
First published in Rosetta Douglass Sprague's book My Mother As I Recall Her, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Anna Murray was an independent laundress in Baltimore and met Douglass at some point in the mid-1830s. Together they hatched a plan, and one night in 1838, Douglass took a northbound train clothed in a sailor's uniform procured by Anna, with money from her savings in his pocket alongside papers from a sailor friend. About 24 hours later, he arrived in Manhattan a free man. Anna soon joined him, and they married on September 15, 1838.

5. HE CALLED OUT HIS FORMER OWNER.

In an 1848 open letter in the newspaper he owned and published, The North Star, Douglass wrote passionately about the evils of slavery to his former owner, Thomas Auld, saying "I am your fellow man, but not your slave." He also inquired after his family members who were still enslaved a decade after his escape.

6. HE TOOK HIS NAME FROM A POEM.

He was born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, but after escaping slavery, Douglass used assumed names to avoid detection. Arriving in New Bedford, Massachusetts, Douglass, then using the surname "Johnson," felt there were too many other Johnsons in the area to distinguish himself. He asked his host (ironically named Nathan Johnson) to suggest a new name, and Mr. Johnson came up with Douglas, a character in Sir Walter Scott's poem The Lady of the Lake.

7. HE'S CALLED THE 19TH CENTURY'S MOST PHOTOGRAPHED AMERICAN.

Portrait of Frederick Douglass
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

There are 160 separate portraits of Douglass, more than Abraham Lincoln or Walt Whitman, two other heroes of the 19th century. Douglass wrote extensively on the subject during the Civil War, calling photography a "democratic art" that could finally represent black people as humans rather than "things." He gave his portraits away at talks and lectures, hoping his image could change the common perceptions of black men.

8. HE REFUSED TO CELEBRATE THE 4TH OF JULY.

Douglass was well-known as a powerful orator, and his July 5, 1852 speech to a group of hundreds of abolitionists in Rochester, New York, is considered a masterwork. Entitled "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July," the speech ridiculed the audience for inviting a former slave to speak at a celebration of the country who enslaved him. "This Fourth [of] July is yours, not mine," he famously said to those in attendance. "Do you mean, citizens, to mock me, by asking me to speak to-day?" Douglass refused to celebrate the holiday until all slaves were emancipated and laws like the Compromise of 1850, which required citizens (including northerners) to return runaway slaves to their owners, were negated.

9. HE RECRUITED BLACK SOLDIERS FOR THE CIVIL WAR.

The Union attack on Fort Wagner, Charleston, during the American Civil War. The fort was under attack from July 18 to September 7, 1863, by soldiers including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the first African-American regiment in the U.S. Army.
The Union attack on Fort Wagner, Charleston, during the American Civil War. The fort was under attack from July 18 to September 7, 1863, by soldiers including the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the first African-American regiment in the U.S. Army.
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

Douglass was a famous abolitionist by the time the war began in 1861. He actively petitioned President Lincoln to allow black troops in the Union army, writing in his newspaper: "Let the slaves and free colored people be called into service, and formed into a liberating army, to march into the South and raise the banner of Emancipation among the slaves." After Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, Douglass worked tirelessly to enlist black soldiers, and two of his sons would join the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, famous for its contributions in the brutal battle of Fort Wagner.

10. HE SERVED UNDER FIVE PRESIDENTS.

Later in life, Douglass became more of a statesman, serving in highly appointed federal positions, including U.S. Marshal for D.C., Recorder of Deeds for D.C., and Minister Resident and Consul General to Haiti. Rutherford B. Hayes was the first to appoint Douglass to a position in 1877, and Presidents Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, and Benjamin Harrison each sought his counsel in various positions as well.

11. HE WAS NOMINATED FOR VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

As part of the Equal Rights Party ticket in 1872, Douglass was nominated as a VP candidate, with Victoria Woodhull as the Presidential candidate. (Woodhull was the first-ever female presidential candidate, which is why Hillary Clinton was called "the first female presidential candidate from a major party" during the 2016 election.) However, the nomination was made without his consent, and Douglass never acknowledged it (and Woodhull's candidacy itself is controversial because she wouldn't have been old enough to be president on Inauguration Day). Also, though he was never a presidential candidate, he did receive one vote at each of two nomination conventions.

12. HIS SECOND MARRIAGE STIRRED UP CONTROVERSY.

Frederick Douglass with Helen Pitts Douglass (seated, right) and her sister Eva Pitts (standing, center), circa the 1880s.
Frederick Douglass with Helen Pitts Douglass (seated, right) and her sister Eva Pitts (standing, center), circa the 1880s.

Two years after his first wife, Anna, died of a stroke in 1882, Douglass married Helen Pitts, a white abolitionist and feminist who was 20 years younger than him. Even though she was the daughter of an abolitionist, Pitts's family (which had ancestral ties directly to the Mayflower) disapproved and disowned her—showing just how taboo interracial marriage was at the time. The black community also questioned why their most prominent spokesperson chose to marry a white woman, regardless of her politics. But despite the public's and their families' reaction, the Douglasses had a happy marriage and were together until his death in 1895 of a heart attack.

13. AFTER EARLY SUCCESS, HIS NARRATIVE WENT OUT OF PRINT.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, his seminal autobiography, was heralded a success when it came out in 1845, with some estimating that 5000 copies sold in the first few months; the book was also popular in Ireland and Britain. But post-Civil War, as the country moved toward reconciliation and slave narratives fell out favor, the book went out of print. The first modern publication appeared in 1960—during another important era for the fight for civil rights. It is now available for free online.

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