Jean-Leon Gerome, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Jean-Leon Gerome, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Diogenes of Sinope, the Ancient Philosopher Who Lived in a Wine Barrel

Jean-Leon Gerome, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Jean-Leon Gerome, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Diogenes of Sinope was an ancient Greek philosopher and self-proclaimed "Citizen of the World" who, at different points, allegedly lived in a wine barrel (or possibly another kind of jar), urinated on guests at a banquet, and made a regular practice of insulting famous figures and lecturing shoppers in the marketplace. Plato reportedly called him “a Socrates gone mad,” while 21st century historians have compared his life to “one long Monty Python sketch.” But, though some believed him to be crazy, Diogenes was also one of the most respected and beloved philosophers of the 4th century BCE, and one of the founders of the ancient Greek school of philosophy known as Cynicism.

It’s important to note, from the outset, that there is a huge amount of historical speculation about Diogenes: The philosopher left behind no first-hand accounts of his own life (or if he did, they’ve since been lost), and his larger-than-life persona has likely inspired plenty of apocryphal tales over the last 2500 or so years. Nevertheless, the legend and legacy of Diogenes, as much as the actual person, have played an essential role in the evolution of philosophy as a discipline.

Often said to have been born in 412 BCE in Sinope, now a city in Turkey, Diogenes seems to have had an unremarkable childhood. His father worked with money—perhaps as a banker or minter. As a young man, Diogenes began working with his father, but before long, the pair had a life-changing brush with the law: For reasons now lost to time, Diogenes (or possibly his father, or possibly both of them) began defacing money. While some historians believe their motivations were political, others think the defaced coins may have been the result of an incident involving the Oracle of Delphi. Either way, Diogenes soon skipped town—perhaps because he was exiled, or because he fled before he could be tried for his crimes.

He headed to Athens, the capital of Greek philosophy and culture, where he became enamored with the teachings of a philosopher named Antisthenes who preached a life of asceticism and simplicity. Diogenes took those teachings to heart in a more extreme way than his teacher, renouncing almost all of his physical possessions and embracing a life of homelessness. He took up residence in a barrel (some describe it as a jar, others as a wine cask or tub) at the Temple of Cybele. When he saw a child cupping his hands to drink water, the radical philosopher threw away his own cup, remarking something along the lines of “A child has beaten me in plainness of living.”

Diogenes began building upon the moral and political theories of Antisthenes, eventually developing a lived philosophy that was inspired by, but distinct from, his mentor’s. That philosophy, which embraced poverty and rejected the material and cultural trappings of Greek life, came to be known as Cynicism.

Getty Images

But the Cynicism of Diogenes was more than an ascetic movement. Diogenes didn’t just renounce possessions—he promoted obscenity, broke taboos, and was relentlessly and proudly rude. For Diogenes, honesty was a key value, and he saw Athenian conventions and manners as a form of lie. He was said to walk the streets holding up a candle or lantern and shining it into the faces of passersby, claiming to be looking for “an honest man” or a “human being” [PDF]. 

He also urinated in public. The philosopher believed that any act that was considered natural and acceptable in private, like urination, should be acceptable in public spaces as well. He famously ate food in the marketplace, an act that was considered taboo, and, when confronted, replied, “I did, for it was in the market-place that I was hungry.”

The philosopher wielded absurdity and wit like weapons, using them to question conventions, and to make fun of the aristocrats, intellectuals, and philosophers of his time.

On one occasion, Diogenes showed up at Plato’s academy to contest the famed philosopher’s definition of a human. Because Plato had once defined a human as a “featherless biped animal” (an intentionally broad definition), Diogenes arrived carrying a plucked fowl, crying, “Behold! I’ve brought you a man.”

On another occasion, a group of wealthy Athenians at a banquet began throwing bones at Diogenes, calling him a dog. Diogenes responded by lifting his leg and urinating on the banqueters.

In fact, Diogenes was often associated with dogs. He once explained, “I fawn upon those who give me anything, and bark at those who give me nothing, and bite the rogues.” The word Cynic itself is related to the Greek word for dog, though it’s unclear whether Cynicism is named for Diogenes’s affinity for the animal, or for his teacher’s academy, which was called “The Temple of The White Dog."

A bust of Diogenes in the Vatican Museum. Credit: Getty Images

After years of torturing the intellectual elite of Athens (many of whom, it should be noted, actually loved his entertaining antics), Diogenes ended up in Corinth. To be more specific, he was captured by pirates during a voyage to Aegina and sold to a wealthy Corinthian named Xeniades. When asked if he had any skills, Diogenes replied, “That of governing men.” Xeniades instated Diogenes as the tutor for his sons, and eventually Diogenes became like a member of the family (whether he was ever officially freed is a matter of debate, though it’s clear he was allowed to do what he wanted).

Diogenes lived in Corinth for the rest of his days, where he continued to promote his philosophy and live a life of poverty. He is believed to have passed away in 323 BCE at the age of 90, though like much of his life, the cause of his death is a source of debate. Some believe the philosopher was bitten by a dog, others that he ate a bit of bad octopus, and still others that he held his breath until he died. Most historians, however, believe he likely died of old age-related ailments. Though Diogenes had requested his remains be thrown to the dogs, his friends and fans insisted he receive a proper burial. His friends placed a marble pillar and a statue of a dog above his grave.

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Medicine
Charles Dickens Museum Highlights the Author's Contributions to Science and Medicine

Charles Dickens is celebrated for his verbose prose and memorable opening lines, but lesser known are his contributions to science—particularly the field of medicine.

A new exhibition at London’s Charles Dickens Museum—titled "Charles Dickens: Man of Science"—is showcasing the English author’s scientific side. In several instances, the writer's detailed descriptions of medical conditions predated and sometimes even inspired the discovery of several diseases, The Guardian reports.

In his novel Dombey and Son, the character of Mrs. Skewton was paralyzed on her right side and unable to speak. Dickens was the first person to document this inexplicable condition, and a scientist later discovered that one side of the brain was largely responsible for speech production. "Fat boy" Joe, a character in The Pickwick Papers who snored loudly while sleeping, later lent his namesake to Pickwickian Syndrome, otherwise known as obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

A figurine of Fat Boy Joe
Courtesy of the Charles Dickens Museum

Dickens also wrote eloquently about the symptoms of tuberculosis and dyslexia, and some of his passages were used to teach diagnosis to students of medicine.

“Dickens is an unbelievably acute observer of human behaviors,” museum curator Frankie Kubicki told The Guardian. “He captures these behaviors so perfectly that his descriptions can be used to build relationships between symptoms and disease.”

Dickens was also chummy with some of the leading scientists of his day, including Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, and chemist Jane Marcet, and the exhibition showcases some of the writer's correspondence with these notable figures. Beyond medicine, Dickens also contributed to the fields of chemistry, geology, and environmental science.

Less scientifically sound was the author’s affinity for mesmerism, a form of hypnotism introduced in the 1770s as a method of controlling “animal magnetism,” a magnetic fluid which proponents of the practice believed flowed through all people. Dickens studied the methods of mesmerism and was so convinced by his powers that he later wrote, “I have the perfect conviction that I could magnetize a frying-pan.” A playbill of Animal Magnetism, an 1857 production that Dickens starred in, is also part of the exhibit.

A play script from Animal Magnetism
Courtesy of the Charles Dickens Museum

Located at 48-49 Doughty Street in London, the exhibition will be on display until November 11, 2018.

[h/t The Guardian]

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NASA // Public Domain
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History
On This Day in 1983, Sally Ride Made History
NASA // Public Domain
NASA // Public Domain

Thirty-five years ago today, on June 18, 1983, Sally Ride became the first American woman in space. She flew on the space shuttle Challenger on a six-day mission. She had previously helped build the shuttle's robot arm, and now she operated it in space. Not only was she the first American woman to go to space, she was the youngest astronaut in space, at age 32.

(As with many space-related firsts, that "American" qualifier is important. The Soviet space program had sent two women cosmonauts into space well in advance of Ride. Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova flew all the way back in 1963, and Svetlana Savitskaya in 1982. They also sent various younger people to space, including Tereshkova.)

Ride represented a change in the previously completely male astronaut program. Although NASA had unofficially tested women in the late 1950s as part of the Mercury program, the idea of sending women into space was quickly discarded. NASA policy for decades was that only men would be considered as astronauts. It took until 1978 for NASA to change the policy—that year, six women became astronauts: Sally Ride, Judith Resnik, Kathryn Sullivan, Anna Fisher, Margaret Rhea Seddon, and Shannon Lucid.

Ride and her colleagues were subject to an endless barrage of sexist media questions, curious how women might fare in space. They also encountered institutional sexism at NASA itself. Ride recalled:

"The engineers at NASA, in their infinite wisdom, decided that women astronauts would want makeup—so they designed a makeup kit. A makeup kit brought to you by NASA engineers. ... You can just imagine the discussions amongst the predominantly male engineers about what should go in a makeup kit."

Ride held a Ph.D. in astrophysics, two bachelor's degrees (English and physics), and had served as CapCom (Capsule Communicator) for the second and third shuttle flights, STS-2 and -3. She was an accomplished pilot and athlete, as well as a Presbyterian elder. She was closely connected to Challenger, performing two missions on it and losing four fellow members of her 1978 class when it exploded.

After her astronaut career concluded, Ride served on both the Challenger and Columbia disaster review panels. During the former, she leaked vital information about the Challenger disaster (o-ring engineering reports), though this wasn't broadly known until after her death. She wrote educational books and founded Sally Ride Science. She was asked to head up NASA by the Clinton administration, but declined.

Ride died in 2012 from pancreatic cancer. Her obituary made news for quietly mentioning that she was survived by her partner of 27 years, Tam O'Shaughnessy. Although Ride had come out to her family and close friends, the obituary was the first public statement that she was gay. It was also the first time most people found out she'd suffered from pancreatic cancer at all; she asked that donations in her memory be made to a fund devoted to studying that form of cancer.

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