CLOSE
The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO), via Wikimedia Commons
The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO), via Wikimedia Commons

A New Theory May Explain the Famous 'Wow!' Signal

The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO), via Wikimedia Commons
The Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory (NAAPO), via Wikimedia Commons

A new theory suggests that the origin of a famously unexplained signal from space recorded nearly 39 years ago may have been caused by two passing comets.

In 1977, a volunteer radio astronomer named Jerry Ehman was studying data collected by the Big Ear telescope at Ohio State University when he noticed a signal 30 times stronger than any of the normal radio waves detected. Ehman circled some of the characters on a printout that represented the abnormal 72-second-long signal, and next to them he wrote the word "Wow!" which was later adopted as the name of the rare discovery. The signal was never found again. Nevertheless, for decades some have believed that the Wow! signal was our planet's first interception of an alien broadcast.

According to a new theory by St. Petersburg College astronomer Antonio Paris, soon be published in the Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, hydrogen clouds from two comets that were not known at the time—266P/Christensen and P/2008 Y2 (Gibbs)—could be responsible. "I came across the idea when I was in my car driving and wondered if a planetary body, moving fast enough, could be the source," Paris told New Scientist.

The magazine reports that as comets orbit around the Sun, they release clouds of hydrogen because "ultraviolet light breaks up their frozen water, creating a cloud of the gas extending millions of kilometres out from the comet itself." And not everyone is convinced the comets would release enough hydrogen to generate the signal, New Scientist notes. Paris suggests testing his theory by studying the comets when they return to the region on January 25, 2017 and January 7, 2018, respectively.

[h/t IFL Science]

nextArticle.image_alt|e
NASA, JPL-Caltech
arrow
Space
It's Official: Uranus Smells Like Farts
NASA, JPL-Caltech
NASA, JPL-Caltech

Poor Uranus: After years of being the butt of many schoolyard jokes, the planet's odor lives up to the unfortunate name. According to a new study by researchers at the University of Oxford and other institutions, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the upper layer of Uranus's atmosphere consists largely of hydrogen sulfide—the same compound that gives farts their putrid stench.

Scientists have long suspected that the clouds floating over Uranus contained hydrogen sulfide, but the compound's presence wasn't confirmed until recently. Certain gases absorb infrared light from the Sun. By analyzing the infrared light patterns in the images they captured using the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, astronomers were able to get a clearer picture of Uranus's atmospheric composition.

On top of making farts smelly, hydrogen sulfide is also responsible for giving sewers and rotten eggs their signature stink. But the gas's presence on Uranus has value beyond making scientists giggle: It could unlock secrets about the formation of the solar system. Unlike Uranus (and most likely its fellow ice giant Neptune), the gas giants Saturn and Jupiter show no evidence of hydrogen sulfide in their upper atmospheres. Instead they contain ammonia, the same toxic compound used in some heavy-duty cleaners.

"During our solar system's formation, the balance between nitrogen and sulfur (and hence ammonia and Uranus’s newly detected hydrogen sulfide) was determined by the temperature and location of planet’s formation," research team member Leigh Fletcher, of the University of Leicester, said in a press statement. In other words, the gases in Uranus's atmosphere may be able to tell us where in the solar system the planet formed before it migrated to its current spot.

From far away, Uranus's hydrogen sulfide content marks an exciting discovery, but up close it's a silent but deadly killer. In large enough concentrations, the compound is lethal to humans. But if someone were to walk on Uranus without a spacesuit, that would be the least of their problems: The -300°F temperatures and hydrogen, helium, and methane gases at ground level would be instantly fatal.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
Live Smarter
Feeling Anxious? Just a Few Minutes of Meditation Might Help
iStock
iStock

Some say mindfulness meditation can cure anything. It might make you more compassionate. It can fix your procrastination habit. It could ward off germs and improve health. And it may boost your mental health and reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain.

New research suggests that for people with anxiety, mindfulness meditation programs could be beneficial after just one session. According to Michigan Technological University physiologist John Durocher, who presented his work during the annual Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego, California on April 23, meditation may be able to reduce the toll anxiety takes on the heart in just one session.

As part of the study, Durocher and his colleagues asked 14 adults with mild to moderate anxiety to participate in an hour-long guided meditation session that encouraged them to focus on their breathing and awareness of their thoughts.

The week before the meditation session, the researchers had measured the participants' cardiovascular health (through data like heart rate and the blood pressure in the aorta). They evaluated those same markers immediately after the session ended, and again an hour later. They also asked the participants how anxious they felt afterward.

Other studies have looked at the benefits of mindfulness after extended periods, but this one suggests that the effects are immediate. The participants showed significant reduction in anxiety after the single session, an effect that lasted up to a week afterward. The session also reduced stress on their arteries. Mindfulness meditation "could help to reduce stress on organs like the brain and kidneys and help prevent conditions such as high blood pressure," Durocher said in a press statement, helping protect the heart against the negative effects of chronic anxiety.

But other researchers have had a more cautious outlook on mindfulness research in general, and especially on studies as small as this one. In a 2017 article in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, a group of 15 different experts warned that mindfulness studies aren't always trustworthy. "Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed," they wrote.

But one of the reasons that mindfulness can be so easy to hype is that it is such a low-investment, low-risk treatment. Much like dentists still recommend flossing even though there are few studies demonstrating its effectiveness against gum disease, it’s easy to tell people to meditate. It might work, but if it doesn't, it probably won't hurt you. (It should be said that in rare cases, some people do report having very negative experiences with meditation.) Even if studies have yet to show that it can definitively cure whatever ails you, sitting down and clearing your head for a few minutes probably won't hurt.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios