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Why Do Babies' Eyes Change Color?

In this episode of mental_floss' Big Questions, Craig answers a question from one of our YouTube fans: "Why do babies' eyes change color?"

Don't miss an episode—subscribe here! (Images provided by Shutterstock; transcript provided by Nerdfighteria Wiki.) 

Hi I'm Craig, my eyes might be brown, but my heart burns red for you, and this is mental_floss video. Today I'm gonna answer YouTuber doxysrkx's Big Question, "Why are babies born with blue eyes?" It's true that the majority of Caucasian newborns have blue eyes, but by adulthood only one in five have them. That's because eye color can change for white babies. African, Hispanic, and Asian babies are typically born with brown eyes which don't change color. Let's get started.

First, let's talk about what eye color is. Whether your eyes are brown, green, hazel, or blue has to do with something called melanin. It's basically a type of pigment which can also affect the colors of your skin and hair.

Your eyes contain melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin. If there's a lot of melanin, the eyes are brown, if there's a medium amount, they're green or hazel, and a little bit means blue eyes. Another thing that affects eye color is the Tyndall effect, which is virtually identical to Rayleigh scattering, a concept you remember from our episode on whether blood is blue. I don't remember 'cause we do a million of these videos. And I'm usually drunk. But that explains why eyes may look different colors in different light; it doesn't affect whether eyes actually change color.

Newborns don't have the levels of melanin that they'll eventually have; the amount increases over time, which is why eyes often start blue then change to another color. They go from a small amount of melanin, which you'll remember causes eyes to be blue, to a larger amount which means they'll be a different color. Usually this happens around six months, but eyes can change color up to about three years old. And the reason this only happens for Caucasian babies is because they tend to be born with less pigment than other ethnicities.

So does this mean that your biology teacher was lying to you and eye color is more about melanin than genetics? Well no, it is genetic, they might've been lying to you about something else—I don't know, I don't know your biology teacher. But we now know that the genetics associated with eye color are more complicated than we once thought. You can't map it out on a simple chart because there are a handful of genetics that come together to affect eye color. In fact, experts predict that there are about 15 of them, and melanin production is just a little piece of the puzzle. 

Supposedly, there's a way to tell whether or not eye color will change by looking at a baby's eye from the side so that there's no light affecting your view. If there are hints of gold in the iris, you're rich! No, the eyes will probably become brown or green over time. If the eyes are still very blue, they'll probably stay that way. This needs to be properly studied though. And I'm not gonna do it. Someone will eventually.

Thanks for watching mental_floss video, which is made with the help of all of these cute widdle babies. If you have a big question of your own that you'd like answered, leave it below in the comments. I'll see you next week, with these brown eyes.

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Animals
Why Do Female Spotted Hyenas Give Birth Through Their Pseudo-Penises?
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YouTube

At the zoo, you can sometimes tell the difference between male and female animals by noting their physical size, their behavior, and yes, their nether regions. Hyenas, however, flip the script: Not only are lady spotted hyenas bigger and meaner than their male counterparts, ruling the pack with an iron paw, they also sport what appear to be penises—shaft, scrotum, and all.

"Appear" is the key word here: These 7-inch-long phalluses don't produce sperm, so they're technically really long clitorises in disguise. But why do female hyenas have them? And do they actually have to (gulp) give birth through them? Wouldn't that hurt … a lot?

The short answers to these questions are, respectively, "We don't know," "Yes," and "OW." Longer answers can be found in this MinuteEarth video, which provides the full lowdown on hyena sex. Don't say we didn't warn you.

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science
Are Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'n' Roll Really Linked? Researchers Investigate
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Steve Wood/Express/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Around the world, sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll are said to go hand-in-hand. But do they? As PsyPost reports, a pair of Pennsylvania psychologists recently dove into the empirical evidence tying the three together, asking college students to talk about their drug use, sex lives, and music preferences and talents to suss out whether people who play and enjoy rock music really do have more active sex lives and drug use.

Published in the journal Human Ethnology Bulletin, the study [PDF] of 467 students relied on self-reporting, which isn't typically the most reliable evidence—people are wont to exaggerate how often they've had sex, for instance—but the survey also asked them about their desires, posing questions like "If you could, how frequently would you have sex?" It also asked about how often the students drank and what drugs they had tried in their lifetimes. They also described their musical experience and what kind of music they listened to.

The results were mixed, but the researchers identified a relationship between liking faster, "harder" music and having more sex and doing more drugs. Acoustic indie rock aficionados weren't getting quite as wild as heavy metal fans. High-tempo-music lovers were more likely to have taken hallucinogenic drugs like LSD, for example, and tended to have had more sexual partners in the previous year than people who favored slower types of music. According to the study, previous research has found that attention-seeking people are more likely to enjoy "hard" music.

The study didn't have a diverse enough group either in age or in ethnicity to really begin to make sweeping generalizations about humans, especially since college students (the participants were between 18 and 25) tend to engage in more risky behaviors in general. But this could lay the groundwork for future research into the topic. Until then, it might be more accurate to change the phrase to "sex, drugs, and heavy metal."

[h/t PsyPost]

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