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Pschemp, Wikipedia // CC BY-SA 3.0

A Brief, Fur-Filled History of Cat Shows

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Pschemp, Wikipedia // CC BY-SA 3.0

If you’re a die-hard feline fancier, you’ve most likely been to a cat show. Between the elaborately decorated cages, the agility contests, and the perfectly groomed Persians, you may have a) left the premises needing Benadryl or a lint roller, or b) wondered how these juried competitions began.

Turns out, ailurophiles have wanted to show their furry companions off to the world since long before the Internet popularized cat videos, or memes transformed felines like Lil Bub or Grumpy Cat into celebrities. Many sources say that the world’s very first cat show was held at the St. Giles Fair in Winchester, England in 1598, but beyond that, there's not much information about the event (if it actually took place). In subsequent years, more cat owners might have hosted similar, lesser-known affairs. But the event that truly put cat shows on the map was a national competition at London's Crystal Palace in July 1871.

Harrison Weir, an artist and "Father of Cat Fancy," who authored the first pedigree cat book, Our Cats and All About Them (1889), founded the UK's National Cat Club and was the first to set standards for specific cat breeds. Thanks to these bona fides, he’s usually credited with organizing the Crystal Palace show. Other accounts state that naturalist Fred Wilson, who served as superintendent of the natural history department at the Crystal Palace, was instrumental in planning it. (Newspapers also mention that Wilson may have hosted his own small cat show at the venue three years prior.)

In any case, the grand Crystal Palace event reportedly showcased a range of exotic cats. According to varying reports, between 150 and 211 were shown. A staggering 200,000 guests are said to have ogled a range of Siamese cats, Manx cats, Persian cats, and English Shorthair cats. Newspapers noted the presence of other unusual felines, including a Scottish Wildcat owned by the Duke of Sutherland, an Algerian Cat that was listed as a “French African cat,” a polydactyl cat that had 26 claws, and a tortoiseshell cat. Some cats are also said to have belonged to the Palace's workmen, or to have been caught in the palace cellars and thrown into cages to satisfy the event's animal quota.  

Weir and one of his brothers, John Jenner Weir, served as judges along with the Reverend J. Cumming Macdona, a well-known Saint Bernard breeder. Weir had written a set of guidelines to judge the cats by, which he called “Standards of Excellence” or “Standards of Points.” They were later transformed into a manual for cat show organizers called “Our Cats.” Participating felines were sorted into different classes according to color, shape, coat length, and body type. Awards were granted to cats that fit Weir’s criteria, and prizes were also given to the event’s “fattest cat” and “biggest cat.”

The cat show ended up being such a public success that Weir organized another cat show at the Crystal Palace several months later. The first cat competition had been planned in a hurry, and showcased many fancy pets from aristocratic households. The second show, however, encouraged working-class individuals to submit their ordinary domestic cats. Weir hoped that by celebrating the humble Tom, owners would take better care of their feline companions. The follow-up exhibition ended up displaying far more kitties than the first one, and an expanded judge pool awarded trophies to pedigreed and "working men's cats" alike. 

Meanwhile, between the two Crystal Palace shows, a feline frenzy spread over the denizens of Europe. Four other private cat shows were held by entrepreneurial members of the lay public—two in London, and two in Scotland. Soon after, cat shows became a common occurrence in Europe. 

Eventually, the practice crossed the Pond. The first well-known cat show in America was held in New York City’s Madison Square Garden in 1895. Fanciers began organizing their own events, and various American cat clubs and associations were formed.

Over the years, cat shows gradually morphed into the be-glittered, be-furred, and, well, slightly absurd animal pageants they are today. Of course, all countries rely on separate breed standards, and each cat group adheres to its own rules and regulations—meaning one cat show isn't necessarily like the other, depending on its location or organizer. Still, it's fun to know where the practice got its start—and to know that the Siamese, which is now the ninth most popular cat breed in America, was once seen by a journalist at the first Crystal Palace show and described as an "an unnatural, nightmare kind of cat." Times and tastes may change, but rest assured: As long as there are cats, there will always be cat people ... and cat shows. 

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Animals
25 Benefits of Adopting a Rescue Dog
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According to the ASPCA, 3.3 million dogs enter shelters each year in the United States. Although that number has gone down since 2011 (from 3.9 million) there are still millions of dogs waiting in shelters for a forever home. October is Adopt a Shelter Dog Month; here are 25 benefits of adopting a shelter dog.

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Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.406E
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Art
New Smithsonian Exhibit Explains Why Felines Were the Cat's Meow in Ancient Egypt
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Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.406E

From bi-coastal cat cafes to celebrity pets like Lil Bub, felines are currently enjoying a peak moment in popular culture. That’s part of the reason why curators at the Smithsonian’s Arthur M. Sackler Gallery—which will re-open to visitors on Saturday, October 14, following a 3-month closure—decided to dedicate a new exhibition to ancient Egypt’s relationship with the animals.

Divine Felines: Cats of Ancient Egypt” looks at the cultural and religious importance of cats, which the Egyptians appreciated long before YouTube was a thing and #caturday was a hashtag. It's based on a traveling exhibition that began at the Brooklyn Museum in New York City. On view until January 15, 2018, it's one of several exhibits that will kick off the grand reopening of the Smithsonian’s Freer and Sackler galleries, the conjoined national museums of Asian and Middle Eastern Art.

The Freer has been closed since January 2016 for major renovations, and the Sackler since July 2016 for minor ones. The upgraded institutions will make their public debut on October 14, and be feted by a free two-day festival on the National Mall.

Featuring 80 artworks and relics, ranging from figurines of leonine deities to the tiny coffins of beloved pets, "Divine Felines" even has a cat mummy on loan from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. These objects span from the Middle Kingdom (2008 to 1630 BCE) to the Byzantine period (395 to 642 CE).

An ancient Egyptian metal weight shaped like a cat, dating back to 305 to 30 BCE, on view at the Smithsonian’s Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
Weight in Form of a Cat, 305 to 30 BCE, Bronze, silver, lead
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 36.114

The term “cat” is used loosely, as the Egyptians celebrated domestic mousers and fearsome predators alike.

“The Egyptians were close observers of nature, so they were observing cat behaviors,” Antonietta Catanzariti, the exhibition's in-house curator, tells Mental Floss. “They noticed that cats and lions— in general, felines—have aggressive and protective aspects, so they associated those attributes to deities.”

The ancient Egyptians viewed their gods as humans, animals, or mixed forms. Several of these pantheon members were both associated with and depicted as cats, including Bastet, the goddess of motherhood, fertility, and protection; and Sakhmet, the goddess of war and—when appeased—healing. She typically has a lion head, but in some myths she appears as a pacified cat.

A limestone sculptor's model of a walking lion, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Sculptor's Model of a Walking Lion, ca. 664 to 630 BCE, limestone
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 33.190

While Bastet was a nurturer, Sakhmet—whose name means “The Powerful One”—could use her mighty force to either slay or safeguard humanity. These characterizations are typical of the ancient Egyptian worldview, which perceived the universe in dualistic terms. “There’s always a positive and a negative,” Catanzariti explains.

Contrary to popular belief, however, ancient Egyptians did not view cats themselves as gods. “The goddess Sakhmet does have the features as a lion, or in some cases as a cat, but that doesn’t mean that the Egyptians were worshipping cats or lions,” Catanzariti says. Instead, they were simply noting and admiring her feline traits. This practice, to an extent, also extended to royalty. Kings were associated with lions and other large cats, as they were the powerful protectors of ancient Egypt’s borders.

These myriad associations prompted Egyptians to adorn palaces, temples, protective amulets, ceremonial vessels, and accessories with cat images. Depending on their context, these renderings symbolized everything from protection and power to beauty and sexuality. A king’s throne might have a lion-shaped support, for example, whereas a woman’s cosmetics case might be emblazoned with a cat-headed female goddess of motherhood and fertility.

An ancient Egyptian figurine of a standing lion-headed goddess, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Figurine of a Standing Lion-Headed Goddess, 664 to 630 BCE, Faience
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.943E

While cats were linked with heavenly figures and kings, they were also popular domestic pets. Their ability to catch vermin made them an important addition to households, and owners loved and anthropomorphized their pets just like we do today.

Egyptians often named, or nicknamed, their children after animals; Miit (cat) was a popular moniker for girls. It's said that entire households shaved their eyebrows in mourning if a house cat died a natural death. Some also believe that cats received special legal protection. (Not all cats were this lucky, however, as some temples bred kittens specifically to offer their mummified forms to the gods.) If a favorite cat died, the Egyptians would bury them in special decorated coffins, containers, and boxes. King Tutankhamen, for example, had a stone sarcophagus constructed just for his pet feline.

An ancient Egyptian bronze cat head adorned with gold jewelry, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Cat's Head, 30 BCE. to third century CE, bronze, gold
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 36.114

“Divine Felines” breaks down these facts, and more, into five thematic sections, including “Cats and Kings"; “Cats and Gods”; “Cats and Death”; “Cats and Protection”; and “Dogs as Guardians and Hunters.” Yes, there’s also an exhibition section for dog lovers—“a small one,” Catanzariti laughs, that explains why canines were associated with figures like Anubis, the jackal-headed god of mummification and the afterlife.

Did the ancient Egyptians prefer cats to dogs? “I would say that both of them had different roles,” Catanzariti says, as dogs were valued as hunters, scavengers, and guards. “They were appreciated in different ways for their ability to protect or be useful for the Egyptian culture.” In this way, "Divine Felines" is targeted to ailurophiles and canophiliacs alike, even if it's packaged with pointed ears and whiskers.

An ancient Egyptian cat coffin, on display at the Smithsonian's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.
Coffin for a Cat, 664 to 332 BCE, or later, Wood, gesso, paint, animal remains
Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.1944Ea-b

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