20 Things You Might Not Have Known About Hamilton

Joan Marcus
Joan Marcus

No one could have predicted that a hip-hop-infused musical based on the life of Alexander Hamilton would be Broadway’s hottest ticket, but Hamilton—which Lin-Manuel Miranda wrote over the course of six years—is sold out through next year. Here are a few things you might not have known about Miranda’s take on the life and times of the first Secretary of the Treasury.

1. IT WAS INSPIRED BY RON CHERNOW’S BIOGRAPHY OF HAMILTON.

Not long after his show In the Heights won four Tony Awards in 2008, Lin-Manuel Miranda went on vacation. Before he left, he picked up a biography called Alexander Hamilton. “I was just browsing the biography section. It could have been Truman,” he told 60 Minutes. “I got to the part where a hurricane destroys St. Croix, where Hamilton is living. And he writes a poem about the carnage and this poem gets him off the island.”

“That is part and parcel with the hip-hop narrative: writing your way out of your circumstances, writing the future you want to see for yourself,” Miranda told The New York Times. “This is a guy who wrote at 14, ‘I wish there was a war.’ It doesn’t get more hip-hop than that.”

Miranda recalled to Vogue that “I Googled ‘Alexander Hamilton hip-hop musical’ and totally expected to see that someone had already written it. But no. So I got to work.”

2. IT TOOK MIRANDA A YEAR TO WRITE THE FIRST SONG—AND ANOTHER YEAR TO WRITE THE SECOND SONG.

He performed the song, “Alexander Hamilton,” at the White House in 2009 (you can watch the video above). “From what I hear,” Questlove, who produced the cast album, told Billboard, “the president won't cease to let you know that: ‘The White House is where it began.’”

It took Miranda another year to craft Hamilton’s anthem, “My Shot.” “Every couplet needed to be the best couplet I ever wrote,” Miranda told 60 Minutes. “That’s how seriously I was taking it.”

When he needed to come up with lyrics, he told Smithsonian, he walked. “For Hamilton what I’d do is write at the piano until I had something I liked,” he said. “I’d make a loop of it and put it in my headphones and then walk around until I had the lyrics. That’s where the notebooks come in, sort of write what comes to me, bring it back to the piano. I kind of need to be ambulatory to write lyrics.”

3. IT STARTED AS A MIXTAPE, NOT A MUSICAL.

Initially, Miranda said he was working on a concept album inspired by the life of Alexander Hamilton called The Hamilton Mixtape. “I always had an eye toward the stage for the story of Hamilton's life, but I began with the idea of a concept album, the way Andrew Lloyd Webber's Evita and Jesus Christ Superstar were albums before they were musicals,” Miranda recounted to the Hollywood Reporter. “And I built this score by dream casting my favorite artists. I always imagined George Washington as a mix between Common and John Legend (a pretty good description of Christopher Jackson, actually, who plays our first president); Hercules Mulligan was Busta Rhymes; and Hamilton was modeled after my favorite polysyllabic rhyming heroes, Rakim, Big Pun, and Eminem.”

The reason, he told The New York Times, was because “I wanted to be a little more selfish with this—I wanted the lyrics to have the density that my favorite hip-hop albums have … It was easier to think of it as a hip-hop album, because then I could really just pack the lyrics. [But] I only know how to write musicals.” He performed 12 musical numbers from The Hamilton Mixtape at Lincoln Center’s American Songbook series in January 2012; he began workshopping the show in 2014. It played The Public beginning in January 2015 and made the jump to Broadway in July 2015 (it officially opened in August).

4. MIRANDA DID HIS RESEARCH—BOTH HISTORICALLY AND MUSICALLY.

In addition to reading Chernow’s biography of Hamilton, Miranda read Hamilton’s letters and works and visited sites important to the American Revolution in New York City. He explained to The Atlantic that, to understand Burr, he read The Heartbreak of Aaron Burr by H.W. Brands, and to nail the dueling code of the day, he picked up Affairs of Honor by Joanne Freeman. He wrote, for a time, at the Morris-Jumel Mansion, which Washington once used as a headquarters during the Revolutionary War. In October 2014, before the show began playing at The Public, he and director Thomas Kail went to the Weehawken, New Jersey dueling ground where Burr shot Hamilton (the actual dueling grounds are covered by train tracks now, but there is a small memorial there).

Miranda also looked at other musicals before diving into Hamilton, like Jesus Christ Superstar and Les Miserables. “I really got my Les Miz on in this score, like being really smart about where to reintroduce a theme,” he told The New Yorker. “In terms of how it accesses your tear ducts, nothing does it better than that show.”

5. CHERNOW BECAME A HISTORICAL CONSULTANT FOR THE SHOW.

Miranda met Chernow before he performed the song that would become “Alexander Hamilton” at the White House (in fact, he sang the song to Chernow in the biographer’s living room), and soon Chernow became a consultant on the show. “[Miranda] was smart enough to know that the best way to dramatize this story was to stick as close to the facts as possible,” Chernow told 60 Minutes.

“I’m theater people, and theater people, the only history they know is the history they know from other plays and musicals,” Miranda told The Atlantic. “So to that end, I felt an enormous responsibility to be as historically accurate as possible, while still telling the most dramatic story possible. And that’s why Ron Chernow is a historical consultant on the thing, and, you know, he was always sort of keeping us honest. And when I did part from the historical record or take dramatic license, I made sure I was able to defend it to Ron, because I knew that I was going to have to defend it in the real world. None of those choices are made lightly.”

According to Smithsonian, Chernow looked at every draft and every song and assessed everything for accuracy.

6. THE SHOW WASN’T ALWAYS SUNG THROUGH.

Hamilton is sung and rapped from start to finish, but it wasn’t always that way. “We actually went down the road with a playwright,” Miranda told Grantland. “There’s a version of Act 1 where we had songs and they were the songs that are in the show, but we found that if you start with our opening number, you can’t go back to speech. The ball is just thrown too high in the air.”

The show features one scene that isn’t sung, and which Miranda kept off of the cast album: In “Tomorrow There’ll Be More of Us,” which takes place between “Dear Theodosia” and “Non-Stop,” Hamilton finds out that his friend Laurens has been killed. “I made a decision not to record this scene on the album, for two reasons,” Miranda wrote on Tumblr:

1) It really is more of a scene than a song, the only SCENE in our show, and I think its impact is at its fullest in production form. 2) As someone who grew up ONLY listening to cast albums (we ain’t have money for a lot of Broadway shows, like most people) those withheld moments were REVELATIONS to me when I finally experienced them onstage, years later. Hamilton is sung through, and I wanted to have at least ONE revelation in store for you. I stand by the decision, and I think the album is better for it.

7. HE WROTE KING GEORGE’S SONG ON HIS HONEYMOON.

Because he’s an interloper on the proceedings of Hamilton, King George’s song, You'll Be Back, is quite different from the rest of the show’s numbers. “It’s a throwback to a sixties Beatles tune,” Jonathan Groff, who plays King George, told Vogue. “And it’s a breakup song between America and England, which is fabulous. He’s like, ‘You’re leaving me? Oh, really? Well, good luck with that.’” Miranda wrote the song while on his honeymoon in 2010 “without a piano around,” he told Grantland.

8. THE ORIGINAL VERSION OF “MY SHOT” HAD AN EXTRA VERSE FOR HERCULES MULLIGAN.

“I’m Hercules Mulligan, a tailor spying on the British Government / I take the measurements, information and then I smuggle it / Up to my brother's revolutionary covenant / I’m running with the Sons of Liberty, and I’m loving it,” Mulligan raps. At that point, neither the Marquis de Lafayette nor John Laurens were part of the song. You can hear the rest of the demo here; portions of Mulligan’s verse ended up in “Yorktown (World Turned Upside Down).”

9. MIRANDA WROTE “WAIT FOR IT” ON THE SUBWAY.

“I was going to a friend’s birthday party in [Brooklyn],” he said, when a lyric from the chorus to Aaron Burr’s song, “Wait for It,” came to him.  “I sang the melody into the iPhone, then I went to the guy’s party for 15 minutes, and wrote the rest of the song on the train back home.”

10. THE RAP IN “GUNS AND SHIPS” IS FAST. REALLY, REALLY FAST.

“I believe that form [rap] is uniquely suited to tell Hamilton’s story, because it has more words per measure than any other musical genre,” Miranda told 60 Minutes. “It has rhythm, and it has density, and if Hamilton had anything in his writing, it was this density.” The use of rap helps Miranda pack more than 20,000 words into two and a half hours—roughly 144 words per minute, according to Leah Libresco at FiveThirtyEight. “If Hamilton were sung at the pace of the other Broadway shows I looked at, it would take four to six hours,” Libresco wrote. She found that the musical’s fastest paced verse, from the song “Guns and Ships,” clocked in at 6.3 words per second.

11. THE SONGS SAMPLE RAP MUSIC AND REFERENCE RAP SONGS—AS WELL AS OTHER MUSICALS.

As a show that has its roots in rap, it’s not surprising that Miranda has peppered Hamilton with rap references and samples: “My Shot” has elements of Mobb Deep’s “Shook Ones Part II” and an homage to Notorious B.I.G.’s “Going Back to Cali”; the song “Ten Duel Commandments” samples B.I.G.’s “Ten Crack Commandments”; the opening to “Cabinet Battle #1” references Jay-Z’s “Izzo (H.O.V.A.)” and contains parts of “The Message” by Grandmaster Flash; “Meet Me Inside” contains elements of DMX’s “Party Up in Here (Up in Here)”; and “Cabinet Battle #2” references B.I.G’s “Juicy (It’s All Good).” These themes—and samples—show up in other songs throughout Hamilton.

Miranda pays homage to good old fashioned Broadway shows, too: He snatched a line from South Pacific for Burr (“I’m with you but the situation is fraught / You’ve got to be carefully taught,” in “My Shot”), makes reference to the song "Modern Major General" from Pirates of Penzance (when Washington sings, “The model of a modern major general / the venerated Virginian veteran whose men are all / Lining up, to put me on a pedestal,” in “Right Hand Man”), and put parts of “Nobody Needs to Know” from The Last Five Years in “Say No to This.”

Miranda’s lyrics are also packed with historical references. We decoded a few here, and many are annotating the lyrics on Genius (Miranda has also weighed in there). Miranda is working on his own book of annotated lyrics, which will hit stores in April. “I am writing a new set of annotations for the book,” he tweeted. “Not what you'd find on Genius, just things in my brain & heart.”  

12. AT FIRST, MIRANDA COULDN’T DECIDE IF HE WANTED TO PLAY HAMILTON OR BURR.

“I feel an equal affinity with Burr,” he told The New Yorker. “Burr is every bit as smart as Hamilton, and every bit as gifted, and he comes from the same amount of loss as Hamilton. But because of the way they are wired Burr hangs back where Hamilton charges forward. I feel like I have been Burr in my life as many times as I have been Hamilton.” But eventually, he chose Hamilton: “When I get called in for stuff for Hollywood, I get to be the best friend of the Caucasian lead. If I want to play the main guy, I have found, I have to write it ...  [As Hamilton], I get to be cockier than I really am; I get to be smarter than I really am; I get to be more impulsive than I really am—it’s taking the reins off your id for two and a half hours.”

Burr is now played by Leslie Odom Jr. “I stupidly gave him a lot of the best songs,” Miranda told Grantland. “‘Wait for It’ and ‘The Room Where It Happens’ are two of the best songs I’ve ever written in my life and he got them both.”

13. THE CASTING CHOICES WERE DELIBERATE.

“Our goal was: This is a story about America then, told by America now, and we want to eliminate any distance—our story should look the way our country looks,” Miranda told The New York Times. “Then we found the best people to embody these parts. I think it’s a very powerful statement without having to be a statement.” The only main character played by a white actor is King George.

“When I think about what it would mean to me as a 13-, 14-year-old kid, to get this album or see this show—it can make me very emotional,” Odom told The New York Times.

14. MIRANDA CUT GEORGE WASHINGTON’S DEATH FROM THE SHOW.

Initially, Washington’s death was in the show—but Miranda cut it. “Oof. I wrote that. Brutal,” he tweeted:

One cut line...

BURR: And in our grief-
HAMILTON/JEFFERSON: He unites us one last time.

“It was a cut musical moment, & actually began with Burr singing, ‘I hear wailing in the streets…,’” he continued. He cut it, he said, “because we sing a whole song about him saying goodbye and even though the moment gave us feels, it was redundant.”

15. THE LOTTERY FOR TICKETS SOMETIMES FEATURES ITS OWN SHOW.

So far, #Ham4Ham—as the show is called—has regularly featured members of Hamilton’s cast as well as other Broadway performers; it takes place on the street outside the Richard Rodgers theater. Among other things, Miranda has dueted with Broadway star Lea Salonga; answered audience questions with just Les Miz lyrics; showed his love for the show’s tech people by running the entire cast through a number while the cues were called; presided over the three actors who have played King George lip syncing a song from the show; and hosted a contest to see which Hamilton fan could nail the Lafayette rap in “Guns and Ships.” Miranda puts on the show, he told Rolling Stone, because he knows that most of the hundreds of people who line up for the lottery won’t win, and he doesn’t want them to walk away with nothing.

16. WHEN CELEBRITIES COME BACKSTAGE, THEY SIGN A LIFE-SIZED CUTOUT OF HAMILTON.

Jennifer Lopez, Danny DeVito, Steven Spielberg, Sting, Jon Lasseter, Oprah, Vice President Joe Biden, and more have put their kind words—and their John Hancocks—on and around Hamilton.

17. THE STARS OF THE SHOW HELPED TO RAISE MONEY FOR THE ORPHANAGE ELIZA HAMILTON STARTED.

In 1806, Eliza Hamilton was one of the founders of New York City’s first private orphanage; these days, it’s called Graham Windham. Miranda and Philippa Soo, who plays Eliza in Hamilton, performed at an event to raise money for the organization. “What a time at the @GrahamWindham luncheon today,” he tweeted. “When the kids (from ELIZA'S ORGANIZATION) sang ‘Eliza, you have done enough.’ I mean…”

18. THE PRESIDENT IS A HUGE FAN.

President Obama called the show “brilliant,” adding, “so much so that I’m pretty sure this is the only thing that Dick Cheney and I have agreed on—during my entire political career.”

19. IT HAS STEPHEN SONDHEIM'S SEAL OF APPROVAL.

At some point, Miranda showed his songs to Steven Sondheim, the man behind Into the Woods, Sweeney Todd, and many more musicals, who told The New York Times, “He sent me lyrics printed out, and recordings of the songs. This raised obvious red flags: I worried that an evening of rap might get monotonous; I thought the rhythm might become relentless. But the wonderful thing about Lin-Manuel’s use of rap is that he’s got one foot in the past. He knows theater … Hamilton is a breakthrough … We’ll certainly see more rap musicals. The next thing we’ll get is Lincoln set to rap. If you think I’m kidding, talk to me in a year.”

20. THERE’S GOING TO BE AN ACTUAL MIXTAPE.

Though Hamilton evolved beyond Miranda’s original vision, there are now plans to make a mixtape for real: “So the show is done. Cast album is out. Now we begin planning The Hamilton Mixtape. Remixes & Covers & Inspired bys. FOR REAL. GET READY,” he tweeted in October. “I was originally trying to get the mixtape done with Atlantic before we opened, but that's like performing surgery while having a baby.” The mixtape will feature a third, unreleased rap battle, “where Ham, Mad & Jeff go IN on slavery,” Miranda tweeted. “It was sort of our homage to ‘Hail Mary’ [by Tupac Shakur],” he told Billboard. Hopefully, it will also feature this cut rap about John Adams (who once called Hamilton the "bastard brat of a Scot peddler"). There’s no firm date, but the mixtape is expected early next year.

10 Dramatic Downton Abbey Fan Theories

Jim Carter as Mr. Carson in Downton Abbey (2019).
Jim Carter as Mr. Carson in Downton Abbey (2019).
Focus Features

Despite its exhaustively polished veneer, Downton Abbey was always a soap opera. Julian Fellowes's historical drama about a family of aristocrats and their many servants could never resist a good shocker, and it deployed plenty of them over the course of six seasons. The valet was suspected of murder (twice). One of the Crawley sisters got knocked up by her older married boyfriend, who promptly went missing. And another sister’s first sexual encounter ended in death. Considering all this, it should come as no surprise that fans have developed similarly wacky theories about the show. These fan theories include secret parentage, undercover spies, and, of course, poison.

Brush up on the best of them before the Downton Abbey movie hits theaters—just in case the whole miscarriage curse comes up.

1. Mr. Carson is Lady Mary’s father.

This theory all comes down to eyes. As you may recall from science class, certain genes are dominant and others are recessive. This is perhaps most easily understood through eye color, where brown eye color, a dominant gene, is expressed as BB and blue eye color, a recessive gene, is expressed as bb. A parent with brown eyes might carry the recessive blue eye gene (i.e. Bb), but if you plot out genetic probabilities on a basic Punnett square, two blue-eyed parents with double bbs have seemingly no shot at producing a Bb baby. Now, what does any of this have to do with Downton Abbey? Both Lord and Lady Grantham have blue eyes, but their eldest daughter, Mary, has brown eyes. This has led some fans to speculate that Lady Mary is actually the daughter of Carson, the family’s beloved butler who has always acted as as sort of second father to Mary. As debunkers have noted, two blue-eyed people can have a brown-eyed child, because recessive genes aren’t that simple. But isn’t it wild to think of Carson and Cora having an affair?

2. Thomas Barrow poisoned Kemal Pamuk.

One of the soapiest subplots of Downton Abbey's first season involved “poor Mr. Pamuk,” the dashing Turkish diplomat who makes a fateful visit to the Abbey. After enjoying a day of fox hunting and an evening of sparkling conversation, Kemal Pamuk drops dead ... right in Lady Mary’s bed. The cause, it is later revealed, was a heart attack, but many viewers suspected something more sinister. Earlier in the episode, the Crawleys’ closeted footman, Thomas Barrow, made a pass at Pamuk, which the diplomat rejected quite forcefully—so much so that he threatened to get Thomas fired. That placed the footman in a tricky situation, but it was nothing a little poison couldn't fix, and that’s exactly why some fans believe Thomas slipped something into Mr. Pamuk’s dinner.

3. Lady Grantham’s miscarriage started a curse.

In the Season 1 finale, tragedy strikes. The newly pregnant Lady Grantham slips on a bar of soap, falling onto the bathroom tiles and inducing a miscarriage. It’s a sad moment, but it’s also, Reddit claims, the source of the house’s future misfortune. According to this theory, the miscarriage kicks off a curse of deadly pregnancies: Lady Sybil dies in childbirth; Matthew Crawley dies in a car accident soon after the birth of his son; and when the maid Ethel Parks becomes pregnant with Major Bryant’s child, he dies, too.

4. Mr. Bates is actually a bad guy.

Brendan Coyle and Joanne Froggatt in Downton Abbey (2019).
Brendan Coyle and Joanne Froggatt in Downton Abbey (2019).
Focus Features

Downton Abbey invests a lot of time and effort in convincing us that John Bates, Lord Grantham's trusty, is a great guy—despite his checkered past and multiple murder allegations. But what if everyone’s assumptions about Bates are exactly right? Some Redditors believe Bates is just a remorseless serial killer, pointing to his intense hatred of his first wife and “creepy vibes” as evidence. Anna had better watch out.

5. Michael Gregson is a spy.

Lady Edith’s boss and lover Michael Gregson is the publisher of a London magazine, The Sketch. Thanks to his job, he knows tons of important people, travels all over the world, and speaks multiple languages. He eventually disappears inside Germany in season 4, and later dispatches to the Crawley family imply that he was a victim of Adolf Hitler’s “thugs.” (The show timeline places Gregson in Munich right around the time of the Beer Hall Putsch.) Or at least, that’s the official story. Another one suggests that Gregson was a British spy gathering intel on the insurgent Nazis—and he might not have died at all. His superiors simply needed to feed Edith a lie that would discourage her from poking around, so they made up a cover story that someone who follows the news would believe.

6. Lady Rosamund Painswick is Lady Edith’s mother.

When Lady Edith becomes pregnant with Michael Gregson’s child, she finds a strong support system in her aunt, Lady Rosamund Painswick. Upon learning Edith’s secret, Rosamund travels to Downton Abbey to help her niece through her pregnancy, and suggests adoption options as the due date draws near. Some fans have interpreted this empathy as a clue that Rosamund, not Lady Grantham, is Edith’s true mother. It could also explain why Edith looks (and behaves) so different from her sisters. Or it could just be a sign that Rosamund cares about her niece.

7. Lady Mary’s “operation” was IVF.

In season 3, Lady Mary claims to have undergone a “small operation” that will help her start a family with Matthew. It’s maddeningly unclear what this operation entails, but one wild guess is that she had an early version of IVF. The complete crackpot theory is that this was a cover for Matthew’s infertility, which the doctors wouldn’t disclose to him, presumably to preserve his 1920s masculinity.

8. Lady Mary’s son George becomes a Royal Air Force pilot in World War II.

Lady Mary’s son George is only five years old in the series finale of Downton Abbey. But that means he would theoretically be 18 in the fall of 1939, which is exactly when World War II broke out in Europe. He would almost certainly enlist, as show creator Julian Fellowes himself has suggested. But Decider has more specifically theorized that George would join the Royal Air Force (RAF), “with a desire to rebel against his emotionally distant mother and find purpose in a greater cause.” Sounds like George would be taking part in some dangerous missions, putting the entire family’s future at risk.

9. Public tours keep the estate alive.

The Crawleys spend much of Downton Abbey fretting about the future management of their estate—partially because Lord Grantham is kind of bad at it. But Lady Mary has taken over when the series ends, and Fellowes believes she’d find savvy ways to keep her family’s home in their hands. “She would probably have opened the house to the public in the 1960s, as so many of them did,” Fellowes told Deadline. “And she’d have retreated to a wing, and maybe only occupied the whole house during the winters. My own belief is that the Crawleys would still be there.”

10. The Dowager Countess keeps Denker and Spratt around for the drama.

Gladys Denker is a maid to the Dowager Countess. Septimus Spratt is her butler. These two do not like each other, and they’re quite public about it. Denker and Spratt’s unprofessional squabbles would’ve gotten plenty of other servants fired, but fans believe the Dowager Countess keeps them employed for her own amusement.

You Can Rent This Wizard of Oz-Themed Cottage in North Carolina

Airbnb
Airbnb

This year marks the 80th anniversary of The Wizard of Oz, the classic 1939 adaptation of L. Frank Baum’s book. In addition to watching the film, you can opt for a more immersive way to celebrate the occasion. As Travel + Leisure reports, a cottage in West Jefferson, North Carolina offered on Airbnb is perfect for any traveling Oz fan—and it’s only $35 a night.

The studio cottage is considered a glamping destination and is slim on amenities—it has a breakfast nook, porch, sofa bed, and a Porta John—but the Oz-themed details more than make up for the lack of luxurious perks.

A pair of stockinged feet are visible under the home, hinting at a witch’s untimely demise; a character mural of Dorothy and her three escorts, the Scarecrow, Tin Man, and Cowardly Lion, appears on the side of the cabin; inside, various other decorations pay homage to Baum's books, including a pair of ruby slippers and a few stuffed Totos.

A cottage with a 'Wizard of Oz' theme in West Jefferson, North Carolina is pictured
Airbnb

If you go, you’ll have to act quickly. The cottage is open only in the spring, summer, and fall, as it has no heat.

The Airbnb listing has a perfect score across 16 reviews. You can book it here.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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