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15 Incredible Ways Animals Stay Warm When It's Chilly

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Winter is coming, and while humans have the option of adding layers of clothing or cranking up the furnace, animals have to rely on their biology or resources to stay warm in the wild. Here are some of the ways our furry and scaly friends survive the cold. 

1. LEANING BACK

In addition to having a specialized circulatory system in their feet and flippers, emperor penguins often lean back onto their heels to get their toes off the ice. Their wedge-shaped tails provide stability, and there is no risk of losing heat because blood doesn’t flow through their tail feathers.

2. INCREASING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS

Some reptiles and amphibians like the European common lizard have the ability to increase their glucose levels during the colder months so that lethal ice crystals won’t form and puncture their blood vessels. The process is reversed as temperatures rise.

3. RELAXING IN HOT SPRINGS

Most of the photos on the Internet of Japanese macaques show the pink-faced snow monkeys grooming one another in one of the country’s many natural spas. Known as onsens, the hot springs have become big tourist attractions, which has not deterred the monkeys from returning every winter.

4. MAKING ANTIFREEZE

Scientists have found that Alaskan wood frogs and other species take hibernation one step further: Their bodies freeze during the winter. Glucose in the blood prevents their cells from freezing and prevents dehydration, but all bodily processes (including heart and brain function) stop during this time. According to scientists, the frogs are essentially dead—until spring comes, temperatures rise, and the frogs spring to life again. 

5. BUILDING SNOW BUNKERS

Burrowing into compressed snow traps air and creates an insulated pocket, just like how igloos work. Lemmings and other small animals build tunnel systems to stay safe from the wind, cold, and predators. 

6. SHUTTING DOWN THEIR LUNGS

Scientists previously thought that freshwater turtles slipped into comas during cold winters, but a 2013 study found that the reptiles still responded to stimuli. Short of going completely comatose, the turtles slow their metabolisms and self-anesthetize, shutting down organs until warmer days return. 

7. GROUP HUDDLE

What’s better than one body covered in layers of warm feathers? Try hundreds of them, standing flipper-to-flipper and moving in unison. Emperor penguins know that huddles are not just for football—they’re also a really good way to share the warmth. The wave of moving tuxedo-clad birds has been compared to a traffic jam, with the slightest movement by one penguin causing a ripple throughout the crowd. Research has also shown that the penguins are not crammed together, but instead stand barely touching so that no penguin’s feathers get compressed.

8. JUST KEEP FLYING

Some birds, like the Alpine swift, head for warmer climates in the winter. A study found that the swifts are able to stay in the air for six months at a time without touching the ground, subsisting on aerial plankton—a mix of small insects, bacteria, and spores found in the air—and forgoing sleep (scientists are divided as to whether the birds skip sleep completely, or catch some shut-eye during short periods spent gliding, rather than flapping). By the time the birds return to their starting location, they have six months to rest and refuel before they start their journey again. 

9. BUILDING FAT RESERVES

Some animals eat more in the summer months so that they can store fat for the winter. The fat-tailed dwarf lemur, as the name suggests, uses its tail as a fat bank, increasing its body weight by as much as 40 percent. 

10. DEEP SLEEP

Unlike other hibernating animals, North American black bears have the special ability to lower their metabolism without a dramatic drop in body temperature. What’s better than a toasty nap on a cold winter day? 

11. STEALING HEAT FROM OTHERS

In a process called kleptothermy, reptiles like the tuatara steal the body heat of animals from completely different species. One study observed that the animals entered the nests of seabirds at night while the owners were still home so that they could benefit from the birds’ higher body temperature. 

12. RELY ON HUMANS

Cats caught out in the cold often seek shelter under cars because the engines are an enticing source of heat (so always check before driving off). Smaller critters also enter homes in the winter to mooch off of the free warmth inside the walls. 

13. GROWING INSULATION

It’s common for animals, from domestic dogs to wild foxes, to grow thicker fur as added insulation. It’s easier to grow than it is to get rid of—creatures like the elk of Colorado have to scratch or lick off their winter coats once the weather warms up. 

14. GOING TORPID

Unlike hibernation, which is a long-term state, the torpor state happens in waves and can be frequent. Some species of birds enter torpor every day in the cold months to stay alive by lowering their heart and metabolic rates.

15. SHIVERING

Some animals shiver to stay warm just like we do. And it’s not only the warm-blooded ones—bees also shiver by vibrating their muscles and keeping their wings still.

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Roadside Bear Statue in Wales is So Lifelike That Safety Officials Want It Removed
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Wooden bear statue.

There are no real bears in the British Isles for residents to worry about, but a statue of one in the small Welsh town of Llanwrtyd Wells has become a cause of concern. As The Telegraph reports, the statue is so convincing that it's scaring drivers, causing at least one motorist to crash her car. Now road safety officials are demanding it be removed.

The 10-foot wooden statue has been a fixture on the roadside for at least 15 years. It made headlines in May of 2018 when a woman driving her car saw the landmark and took it to be the real thing. She was so startled that she veered off the road and into a street sign.

After the incident, she complained about the bear to highways officials who agreed that it poses a safety threat and should be removed. But the small town isn't giving in to the Welsh government's demands so quickly.

The bear statue was originally erected on the site of a now-defunct wool mill. Even though the mill has since closed, locals still see the statue as an important landmark. Llanwrtyd Wells councilor Peter James called it an "iconic gateway of the town," according to The Telegraph.

Another town resident, who wished to remain anonymous, told The Telegraph that the woman who crashed her car had been a tourist from Canada where bears are common. Bear were hunted to extinction in Britain about 1000 years ago, so local drivers have no reason to look out for the real animals on the side of the road.

The statue remains in its old spot, but Welsh government officials plan to remove it themselves if the town doesn't cooperate. For now, temporary traffic lights have been set up around the site of the accident to prevent any similar incidents.

[h/t The Telegraph]

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10 Scientific Benefits of Being a Dog Owner
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The bickering between cat people and dog people is ongoing and vicious, but in the end, we're all better off for loving a pet. But if anyone tries to poo-poo your pooch, know that there are some scientific reasons that they're man's best friend.

1. YOU GET SICK LESS OFTEN.

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If cleaning commercials are to be believed, humanity is in the midst of a war against germs—and we shouldn't stop until every single one is dead. In reality, the amount of disinfecting we do is making us sicker; since our bodies are exposed to a less diverse mix of germs, our entire microbiome is messed up. Fortunately, dogs are covered in germs! Having a dog in the house means more diverse bacteria enters the home and gets inside the occupants (one study found "dog-related biodiversity" is especially high on pillowcases). In turn, people with dogs seem to get ill less frequently and less severely than people—especially children—with cats or no pets.

2. YOU'RE MORE RESISTANT TO ALLERGIES.

Child and mother playing with a dog on a bed.
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While dog dander can be a trigger for people with allergies, growing up in a house with a dog makes children less likely to develop allergies over the course of their lives. And the benefits can start during gestation; a 2017 study published in the journal Microbiome found that a bacterial exchange happened between women who lived with pets (largely dogs) during pregnancy and their children, regardless of type of birth or whether the child was breastfed, and even if the pet was not in the home after the birth of the child. Those children tested had two bacteria, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira, that reduce the risk of common allergies, asthma, and obesity, and they were less likely to develop eczema.

3. YOU'LL HAVE BETTER HEART HEALTH.

Woman doing yoga with her dog.
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Everything about owning a dog seems to lend itself to better heart health. Just the act of petting a dog lowers heart rate and blood pressure. A 2017 Chinese study found a link between dog ownership and reduced risk of coronary artery disease, while other studies show pet owners have slightly lower cholesterol and are more likely to survive a heart attack.

4. YOU GET MORE EXERCISE.

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While other pets have positive effects on your health as well, dogs have the added benefit of needing to be walked and played with numerous times a day. This means that many dog owners are getting 30 minutes of exercise a day, lowering their risk of cardiovascular disease.

5. YOU'LL BE HAPPIER.

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Dog owners are less likely to suffer from depression than non-pet owners. Even for those people who are clinically depressed, having a pet to take care of can help them out of a depressive episode. Since taking care of a dog requires a routine and forces you to stay at least a little active, dog owners are more likely to interact with others and have an increased sense of well-being while tending to their pet. The interaction with and love received from a dog can also help people stay positive. Even the mere act of looking at your pet increases the amount of oxytocin, the "feel good" chemical, in the brain.

6. YOU HAVE A MORE ACTIVE SOCIAL LIFE.

Large bulldog licking a laughing man.
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Not only does dog ownership indirectly tell others that you're trustworthy, your trusty companion can help facilitate friendships and social networks. A 2015 study published in PLOS One found that dogs can be both the catalyst for sparking new relationships and also the means for keeping social networks thriving. One study even showed that those with dogs also had closer and more supportive relationships with the people in their lives.

7. YOUR DOG MIGHT BE A CANCER DETECTOR.

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Your dog could save your life one day: It seems that our canine friends have the ability to smell cancer in the human body. Stories abound of owners whose dogs kept sniffing or licking a mole or lump on their body so they got it checked out, discovering it was cancerous. The anecdotal evidence has been backed up by scientific studies, and some dogs are now trained to detect cancer.

8. YOU'LL BE LESS STRESSED AT WORK.

Woman working on a computer while petting a dog.
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The benefits of bringing a dog to work are so increasingly obvious that more companies are catching on. Studies show that people who interact with a pet while working have lower stress levels throughout the day, while people who do not bring a pet see their stress levels increase over time. Dogs in the office also lead to people taking more breaks, to play with or walk the dog, which makes them more energized when they return to work. This, in turn, has been shown to lead to much greater productivity and job satisfaction.

9. YOU CAN FIND OUT MORE ABOUT YOUR PERSONALITY.

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The kind of dog you have says a lot about your personality. A study in England found a very clear correlation between people's personalities and what type of dogs they owned; for example, people who owned toy dogs tended to be more intelligent, while owners of utility dogs like Dalmatians and bulldogs were the most conscientious. Other studies have found that dog owners in general are more outgoing and friendly than cat owners.

10. YOUR KIDS WILL BE MORE EMPATHETIC.

A young boy having fun with his dog.
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Though one 2003 study found that there was no link between pet ownership and empathy in a group of children, a 2017 study of 1000 7- to 12-year-olds found that pet attachment of any kind encouraged compassion and positive attitudes toward animals, which promoted better well-being for both the child and the pet. Children with dogs scored the highest for pet attachment, and the study notes that "dogs may help children to regulate their emotions because they can trigger and respond to a child's attachment related behavior." And, of course, only one pet will happily play fetch with a toddler.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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