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15 Shimmering Questions About Glitter, Answered

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Everyone has feelings about glitter. Unicorns bathe in the stuff. Six year olds dream about it. It’s essential to Pride parades, a weapon of social disruption and foremost in a pop star’s make-up arsenal. It’s also the stuff of cleaning nightmares. But where does glitter come from? Why does it exist? And how in the name of all that is good can you get it off the upholstery?

1. WHY ARE HUMANS SO ATTRACTED TO GLITTER?

Culturally, of course, we love shiny things, perhaps because they are associated with wealth and status: flashy cars, blinged out accessories, even solid gold toilets. But the roots of our attraction to All Things Sparkly goes deeper. Anthropologists have noted that many hunter-gatherer tribes equated shiny things with spiritual powers. Prehistoric man also had a habit of polishing his bone tools. But it seems to be more than just an “ooh, pretty,” phenomenon. Babies, after all, can’t tell a diamond-coated Rolex from a Timex, but new research shows that kids favor putting shiny objects into their mouths over matte materials. And it turns out, there’s an evolutionary reason for that.

According to researchers from the University of Houston and Ghent University in Belgium, our impulse for shiny things comes from an instinct to seek out water. The theory is that our need to stay hydrated has kept mankind on the lookout for shimmering rivers and streams. And thanks to natural selection, that’s left us with an innate preference for things that sparkle. 

2. HOW DID OUR ANCESTORS GET THEIR GLITTER ON?

For those who couldn’t get their mitts on gold, silver, or precious jewels, mica has been a saving grace. These naturally occurring sheets of silicate-forming minerals have been used to bedazzle objects ever since the Paleolithic era. Mayans, for example, chipped and mixed the stuff into pigments and slapped it onto 6th-century temples. Even today, you can find mica in luster paints. 

But mica was hardly the only option. Pyrite was used in Paleolithic cave paintings to produce a muted shimmer. Ancient Egyptians slipped ground green malachite, a copper carbonate with an iridescent effect, into their cosmetics, and there was also galena, a silvery mineral used in early eyeliners. 

By the 19th century, however, glitter was most often made from powdered or ground glass. It came in any color that glass came in and was often marketed under the name “diamantine.” As an 1896 article syndicated from The New York Sun explained, the ornamental effect was achieved by coating fabric in glue and rolling it in glass powder. Which sounds somewhat glamorous, but more dangerous. 

3. WHO INVENTED GLITTER?

Glitter as we know it today wasn’t invented until 1934. According to glitter lore, New Jersey machinist Henry Ruschmann accidentally invented the stuff after he took a load of scrap metals and plastics and ground it up very fine. Some reports claim that his invention took off during World War II, when American access to Germany’s glittering diamantine was cut off. While the origin story is murky, Ruschmann is a strong candidate: He did file for four separate patents for inventions related to cutting up strips of foil or film. And though he died in 1989, his company Meadowbrook Inventions is still in the glitter business today, peddling more than 20,000 different kinds of glitter. 

4. WHY DID THE MILITARY EXPERIMENT WITH GLITTER?

While cosmetics and crafts seemed to be the obvious uses, inventors also dabbled with the sparkling substance. The U.S. Air Force briefly tried spraying what amounted to glitter—they called it chaff”—from the back of warplanes. The idea was to create a cloud of false echoes to throw off enemy radar, making it virtually impossible for the enemy to determine the real target from a fake. The UK also used something similar in “Operation Window,” where planes released strips of aluminum-coated paper at timed intervals, swamping German radar screens with false signals. But the armed forces aren’t the only group to take advantage of glitter’s shimmering qualities: A significant number of glitter patents have also been filed for fishing lures. Fish, like humans, like shiny things.

5. HOW IS GLITTER MADE?

The making of glitter is fairly banal. Color is applied to a copolymer sheet, then a layer of reflective material, such as aluminum foil, is placed on top of that. Then, the now-fused film is run through a rotary cutter—“a combination of a paper shredder and a wood chipper,” according to a glitter maker on a Reddit thread—resulting in precision-cut pieces of uniform size. That size varies according to the need of the customer; Meadowbrook offers a teeny, tiny, microscopic .002-inch-by-.002-inch glitter, typically used in cosmetics or aerosol sprays. And while the shapes are most often hexagonal, they can be nearly anything you want: square, butterfly, stars, hearts. How much glitter these machines can produce in an hour is dependent on size, shape, and yield.

6. HOW CAN YOU CLEAN UP AFTER A GLITTER SPILL?

You can’t. Glitter sticks to stuff because of the static electricity generated between its small particles of metal or plastic and virtually every surface known to man or beast. Getting it off is often an exercise in futility and frustration. But if moving away isn’t an option, Real Simple says all is not lost. For tiled or hardwood floors, you can aggressively vacuum up drifts with the crevice attachment. For fabric surfaces, such as couches and other upholstery, a lint roller works best. Meanwhile, you can use a rubber-gloved hand to loosen glitter stuck in carpet and then attack with the vacuum’s upholstery brush. For your keyboard, try loosening the glitter with a shot of compressed air. Just be prepared: This is a war you will not win. There will always be a bit of sparkle somewhere.

7. WHAT IF THE GLITTER IS STUCK TO YOU?

If the glitter is on your person, you can unstick it with oil on a cotton ball. Beyonce’s make-up artist, who has coated the flawless star in craft glitter at least twice, says Scotch tape is another great way to remove it (although she still spots the lingering glitter in her make-up kit). 

If you’ve ever used glitter nail polish, you’re probably aware that it requires a chisel to remove. Pro-tip, via Glamour: You can use either a cotton ball soaked in acetone and secured around your fingertips with aluminum foil for as long as it takes to remove the stuff, or try a felt pad soaked in nail polish remover; evidently, the felt is rougher and more durable than just regular cotton. 

8. DOES GLITTER EVER REALLY GO AWAY?

No. And that’s a problem for the environment. 

Remember in 2014, when microbeads, those tiny, supposedly exfoliating beads that come in face washes, came under fire? The beads, made of plastic, are too small to be filtered out by water treatment plants, so they end up in lakes and rivers where they are eaten by unsuspecting fish. Eventually, environmentalists called for bans and several companies stopped using them. Glitter is similar. When it ends up in waterways and oceanic environments, it’s often mistaken for prey by marine life and ingested.

But since people still want sparkle, companies are working on ways to satisfy that need without harming the environment. Ronald Britton, a UK-based glitter manufacturer, has come up with Bio-Glitter, a certified compostable, biodegradable glitter that won’t clog waterways or harm marine life. Manufacturers on the consumption end, such as distinctively-scented soaps company Lush, have started using biodegradable glitter made from synthetic mica in their bath products. And if you’re feeling a bit uncomfortable about all the fish your glitter habit has probably murdered, rest easy knowing that going forward, you can make your own non-toxic, animal-safe glitter using food coloring and salt.  

9. WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU EAT GLITTER?

Though eating glitter is ill-advised, most commercially available glitter is non-toxic and won’t hurt you in small amounts. Or, and this is rather more likely, it won’t hurt the small child in your care who has been gleefully shoveling orange glitter into his mouth. The major exception is glass glitter, which is used by hardcore crafters for a vintage sparkle and would be very bad if consumed; if you’ve swallowed glass glitter, go directly to the hospital. 

There is glitter that you are allowed to eat, but this glitter comes with its own warnings and can be confusing. Some shops sell “edible glitter,” which is typically made from colored sugar or gum arabic. There’s also glitter that can touch food but isn’t meant to be eaten. And you can find glitter that’s only intended to be on removable decorations (think princess cake toppers). Just make sure you read the labels, or you know—sparkle poo. 

10. WHY IS GLITTER SO GOOD AT SOLVING MURDER TRIALS?

Forensic pathologists love the stuff. They’ve been mounting a case for glitter’s usefulness since 1987, explaining that glitter’s steadfast adherence to persons and clothing make it “near perfect” as trace evidence. In fact, it’s been a star witness in several court cases. In 1987, for example, a Fairbanks, Alaska man, Michael Alexander, was convicted of the abduction and murder of 15-year-old Kathy Stockholm after glitter found on her body was linked to glitter found in his car and homes

11. HOW MUCH GLITTER DO WE ACTUALLY USE?

It’s difficult to say. Wikipedia claims that between 1989 and 2009, more than 10 million pounds of glitter were purchased, but at first blush, this fact seems suspicious. Since individual companies are hesitant to release sales and output figures, we’re left with anecdote and extrapolation: The Toronto Santa Claus Parade used nearly 155 pounds of glitter in 2011. If 200 cities and towns each bought that much for their celebrations, that would be around 31,000 pounds for one holiday event alone.

So given that, and coupled with the fact that, according to Vanity Fair, pop star Ke$ha spends thousands of dollars a month on glitter alone, 10 million pounds may be a fair estimate.

12. CAN YOU GET ARRESTED FOR GLITTER BOMBING?

Well, yes. Glitter bombing first became a thing in 2011, when Nick Espinosa, a gay rights activist, dumped a Cheez-Its box full of glitter all over erstwhile presidential candidate Newt Gingrich and his wife. “Feel the rainbow, Newt!” he shouted, as multicolored sparkles enveloped Gingrich’s head. From then on, it was open season on what was billed as a non-violent yet effective form of protest: Most targets were conservatives, and most bombers were gay or women’s rights activists. But while glitter-bombing is more annoying than it is threatening, authorities took a dim view of the protest: In 2012, a Denver college student who tried to nail Mitt Romney with a fistful of blue glitter pleaded guilty to disturbing the peace; he only narrowly avoided being charged with a more serious crime of throwing a missile. And naturally, the people who were glittered were fuming: Mike Huckabee demanded glitter-bombers be arrested while Gingrich called his glitter-bombing “assault.”

Though “assault” seems a bit harsh, is glitter-bombing safe? Every year around the holidays, ophthalmologists warn that glitter can get into the eye and scratch the cornea; it’s also not terribly pleasant to inhale glitter.

13. WHAT ABOUT GLITTER AS A PRANK?

Clearly, there’s a market for glitter pranks. In January 2015, Matthew Carpenter, an Australian 20-something, started a website called Ship Your Enemies Glitter, which soon garnered headlines across the globe. After orders poured in and he found he couldn’t keep up with demand, Carpenter sold the business for about 85,000 Australian dollars. But glitterbugs can go overboard, too. In October of this year, an Akron, Ohio woman was found guilty of fifth-degree felony vandalism after she glitter-bombed her former supervisor’s office. When Samantha Lockhart, 25, resigned from her job at the Summit County Fiscal Office in January 2015, she spent her last day “decorating” her boss’s office with toilet paper, silly string, and fistfuls of multi-colored glitter. The glitter, which piled up in sparkly drifts about the office like evil festive snow, damaged office computers. She was recently sentenced to 18 months probation and a fine of $1000.

14. WHY ISN’T GLITTER ALLOWED IN JAIL?

In recent years, prison authorities have seen an uptick in people smuggling drugs, particularly Suboxone, into prison using glitter glue and crayons. How? Suboxone, which is used to treat the symptoms of withdrawal from opiate addiction but is also a powerful drug, can be made into a paste. That paste is then applied to paper, dried, and covered with something bright and distracting like crayon scribbles or glitter glue. Inmates lick the drug right off the page. Today, any letters containing glitter glue or crayon markings are immediately pulled out and destroyed (which seems terribly sad, given that crayon and glitter are the preferred mediums of small children).

15. HOW DID BODY GLITTER BECOME A THING?

Though glitter had been around for ages, you couldn’t really get away with wearing it out in public until the late ‘60s. Mod culture, Iggy Pop—who used to coat his body with peanut butter on stage before discovering glitter was better—David Bowie’s surreal turn as Ziggy Stardust, disco, and glam-rock all helped the stuff go mainstream. Sparkle, whether on shoes or eyelids, was in.

By 1984, Clairol had noticed. The company filed for a patent for glitter hair mousse—specifically, the “process for imparting temporary high fashion ‘glitter’ to hair”—and though this wasn’t the first or only way to apply glitter to your head, the game was changed. By the 1990s, body glitter was being sold at fine tweenager emporiums everywhere. (This patent, filed in 1997, is not the first for body glitter, but it does have this fantastic drawing to accompany it.) Glitter fever died down by the end of the decade. Or, at least, teenagers were no longer bathing in it before a night out. But that doesn’t mean that our love affair with glitter in all its sparkly forms is over: after all, we’re hardwired to love a bit of shimmer.

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10 Things You Might Not Know About Steve Martin
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NBC Television/Courtesy of Getty Images

Is there anything Steve Martin can't do? In addition to being one of the world's most beloved comedians and actors, he's also a writer, a musician, a magician, and an art enthusiast. And he's about to put a number of these talents on display with Steve Martin and Martin Short: An Evening You Will Forget for the Rest of Your Life, a new comedy special that just arrived on Netflix. To commemorate the occasion, here are 10 things you might not have known about Steve Martin.

1. HE WAS A CHEERLEADER.

As a yellleader (as he refers to it in a yearbook signature) at his high school in Garden Grove, California, Martin tried to make up his own cheers, but “Die, you gravy-sucking pigs,” he later told Newsweek, did not go over so well.

2. HIS FIRST JOB WAS AT DISNEYLAND.

Martin’s first-ever job was at Disneyland, which was located just two miles away from his house. He started out selling guidebooks, keeping $.02 for every book he sold. He graduated to the Magic Shop on Main Street, where he got his first taste of the gags that would later make his career. He also learned the rope tricks you see in ¡Three Amigos! from a rope wrangler over in Frontierland.

3. HE OWES HIS WRITING JOB WITH THE SMOTHERS BROTHERS TO AN EX-GIRLFRIEND.

Thanks to a girlfriend who got a job dancing on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, Martin landed a gig writing for the show. He had absolutely no experience as a writer at the time. He shared an office with Bob Einstein—better known to some as Super Dave Osborne or Marty Funkhauser—and won an Emmy for writing in 1969.

4. HE WAS A CONTESTANT ON THE DATING GAME.

While he was writing for the Smothers Brothers, but before he was famous in his own right, Martin was on an episode of The Dating Game. (Spoiler alert: He wins. But did you have any doubt?)

5. MANY PEOPLE THOUGHT HE WAS A SERIES REGULAR ON SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE.

Martin hosted and did guest spots on Saturday Night Live so often in the 1970s and '80s that many people thought he was a series regular. He wasn't. 

6. HIS FATHER WROTE A REVIEW OF HIS FIRST SNL APPEARANCE.

After his first appearance on SNL, Martin’s father, the president of the Newport Beach Association of Realtors, wrote a review of his son’s performance in the company newsletter. “His performance did nothing to further his career,” the elder Martin wrote. He also once told a newspaper, “I think Saturday Night Live is the most horrible thing on television.”

7. HE POPULARIZED THE AIR QUOTE.

If you find yourself making air quotes with your fingers more than you’d really like, you have Martin to thank. He popularized the gesture during his guest spots on SNL and stand-up performances.

8. HE QUIT STAND-UP COMEDY IN THE EARLY 1980S.

Martin gave up stand-up comedy in 1981. “I still had a few obligations left but I knew that I could not continue,” he told NPR in 2009. “But I guess I could have continued if I had nothing to go to, but I did have something to go to, which was movies. And you know, the act had become so known that in order to go back, I would have had to create an entirely new show, and I wasn't up to it, especially when the opportunity for movies and writing movies came around.”

9. HE'S A MAJOR ART COLLECTOR.

As an avid art collector, Martin owns works by Pablo Picasso, Roy Lichtenstein, David Hockney, and Edward Hopper. He sold a Hopper for $26.9 million in 2006. Unfortunately, being rich and famous doesn’t mean Martin is immune to scams: In 2004, he spent about $850,000 on a piece believed to be by German-Dutch modernist painter Heinrich Campendonk. When Martin tried to sell the piece, “Landschaft mit Pferden” (or "Landscape With Horses") 15 months later, he was informed that it was a forgery. Though the painting still sold, it was at a huge loss.

10. HE'S AN ACCOMPLISHED BLUEGRASS PERFORMER.

Many people already know this, but we’d be remiss if we didn’t mention that he’s an extremely accomplished bluegrass performer. With the help of high school friend John McEuen, who later became a member of the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, Martin taught himself to play the banjo when he was 17. He's been picking away ever since. If you see him on stage these days, he’s likely strumming a banjo with his band, the Steep Canyon Rangers. As seen above, they make delightful videos.

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10 Things You Might Not Know About Wine
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by Tilar J. Mazzeo

Between the vine and the liquor store, plenty of secrets are submerged in your favorite bottle of vino. Here, the author of Back Lane Wineries of Sonoma spills some of the best.

1. DIGITAL EYES ARE EVERYWHERE IN VINEYARDS.

Certain premium estates in Bordeaux and Napa are beginning to look a little more like an army base—or an Amazon.com warehouse. They’re using drones, optical scanners, and heat-sensing satellites to keep a digital eye on things. Some airborne drones collect data that helps winemakers decide on the optimal time to harvest and evaluate where they can use less fertilizer. Others rove through the vineyard rows, where they may soon be able to take over pruning. Of course, these are major investments. At $68,000 a pop, the Scancopter 450 is about twice as costly as a 1941 Inglenook Cabernet Sauvignon!

2. THERE ARE ALSO LOTS OF COW SKULLS.

They’re not everywhere, but biodynamic farming techniques are on the rise among vintners who don’t want to rely on chemicals, and this is one trick they’ve been known to use to combat plant diseases and improve soil PH. It’s called Preparation No. 505, and it involves taking a cow’s skull (or a sheep’s or a goat’s), stuffing it with finely ground oak chips, and burying it in a wet spot for a season or two before adding it to the vineyard compost.

3. FEROCIOUS FOLIAGE IS A VINTNER’S FRIEND.

The mustard flowers blooming between vineyard rows aren’t just for romance. Glucosinolates in plants like radishes and mustard give them their spicy bite, and through the wonders of organic chemistry, those glucosinolates also double as powerful pesticides. Winemakers use them to combat nematodes—tiny worms that can destroy grape crops.

4. WHAT A CANARY IS TO A COAL MINE, ROSES ARE TO A VINEYARD.

Vintners plant roses among their vines because they get sick before anything else in the field. If there’s mildew in the air, it will infect the roses first and give a winemaker a heads-up that it’s time to spray.

5. VINTNERS EXPLOIT THE FOOD CHAIN.

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Small birds like blackbirds and starlings can clear out 20 percent of a crop in no time. But you know what eats little birds? Big birds. Falconry programs are on the rise in vineyards from California to New Zealand. Researchers have found that raptors eat a bird or two a day (along with a proportion of field mice and other critters) and cost only about as much to maintain as your average house cat.

6. THE BIG PROBLEMS IN TASTING ROOMS ARE VERY SMALL.

Winemakers are constantly seeking ways to manage the swarms of Drosophila melanogaster that routinely gather around the dump buckets in their swanky showrooms. You know these pests as fruit flies, and some vintners in California are exploring ways to use carnivorous plants to tackle the problem without pesticides. Butterworts, sundews, and pitcher plants all have sweet-sounding names, but the bugeating predators make for terrific fruit fly assassins, and you’ll see them decorating tasting rooms across wine country.

7. WINE NEEDS CLEANING.

Winemaking produces hard-to-remove sediments. Filters can catch most of the debris, but winemakers must add “fining agents” to remove any suspended solids that sneak by. Until it was banned in the 1990s, many European vintners used powdered ox blood to clean their wines. Today, they use diatomaceous earth (the fossilized remains of hard-shelled algae), Isinglass (a collagen made from fish swim bladders), and sometimes bentonite (volcanic clay). Irish moss and egg whites are also fine wine cleaners.

8. ATOMS HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS.

About 5 percent of the premium wine sold for cellaring doesn’t contain what the label promises. So how do top-shelf buyers avoid plunking down serious cash on a bottle of something bunk? Most elite wine brokerages, auction houses, and collectors use atomic dating to detect fraud. By measuring trace radioactive carbon in the wine, most bottles can be dated to within a year or two of the vintage.

9. FINE WINES GET MRIs.

Even with atomic dating, there are certain perils involved in buying a $20,000 bottle of wine. Leaving a case in the hot trunk of your car is enough to ruin it, so imagine what can happen over a couple of decades if a wine isn’t kept in the proper conditions. Back in 2002, a chemistry professor at University of California at Davis patented a technique that uses MRI technology to diagnose the condition of vintage wines. Not planning any $20,000 wine purchases? This is still good news for the consumer. This technique may soon be used at airport security, meaning you’ll be able to carry on your booze.

10. THERE’S A TRICK TO AGING YOUR WINE.

If you end up with a bottle of plonk, Chinese scientists have developed a handy solution. Zapping a young wine with electricity makes it taste like something you’ve cellar aged. Scientists aren’t quite sure how it happens yet, but it seems that running your wine for precisely three minutes through an electric field changes the esters, proteins, and aldehydes and can “age” a wine instantly.

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