9 Transparently Amazing Facts About X-Rays

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen, a professor of Physics in Worzburg, Bavaria, was the first to find a way to peer inside the body without surgery. On the evening of November 8, he was experimenting with the conduction of electricity through low-pressure gases using an induction coil and a partially-evacuated glass tube when he accidentally discovered a mysterious ray capable of lighting up a fluorescent screen a few meters away. When he passed his hand between the ray and the screen, he glimpsed a shadow of his own bones. Further experimentation showed that the screen could be replaced by a photographic plate—and the x-ray was born. Roentgen would later earn the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery.

Since then, x-rays have revolutionized medical diagnosis and made a huge impact on astronomy, chemistry, and other branches of science. They’ve allowed us to peer inside our own DNA, as well as into distant galaxies. In 2009, the x-ray was named the most important modern scientific discovery by nearly 50,000 people in a Science Museum of London poll; even penicillin came in second.

1. THE X MEANS UNKNOWN.

Roentgen named his discovery X-strahlenstrahlen being German for “beam” or “ray,” and “x” being used in mathematics to indicate an unknown quantity.  Even though we now know much more about how x-rays work, their name has retained a sense of their original mystery. The rays have also been called “Roentgen's rays,” and the images they produce are sometimes known as “roentgenograms.”

2. ONE OF THE EARLIEST X-RAYS WAS OF THE DISCOVERER’S WIFE’S HAND.

Like many scientists, Roentgen started out by experimenting on his wife. One of his first x-rays—if not the first—was of his wife Anna Bertha's hand with her wedding ring on her finger (above). She was reportedly unimpressed by the image; by some accounts, she exclaimed “I have seen my death!” after looking at it for the first time. (You can see other very early x-rays courtesy of the British Library here.)

3. THEY WERE ALMOST IMMEDIATELY PUT TO USE.

Within weeks of Roentgen’s announcement, European surgeons were using x-rays to find bullets and other foreign substances in human bodies. One of the earliest diagnoses was by a British doctor who found a needle embedded in a woman's hand. By the following year, an x-ray department had been set up at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and x-rays were being used clinically in the US to diagnose bone fractures and gunshot wounds.

Not all uses were medically necessary, however—the daughter of one early adopter later reported that “at one of my birthday parties we had fancy rings for the children to wear and showed them their skeletal hands to loud shrieks of excitement: knowing what we do today, of course, he wouldn’t have done it.” 

4. PEOPLE USED TO THINK THEY WERE HARMLESS.

In the early days, people thought x-rays passed through the body as harmlessly as normal light. It wasn’t until Thomas Edison’s assistant Clarence Dally, who had worked extensively with X-rays, died of skin cancer in 1904 that people started taking the health concerns about the new technology seriously. 

Partly as a result of the perceived harmlessness—but mostly because of the novelty factor—there was a late-19th-century and early 20th-century vogue for x-ray machines, which started to appear at carnivals and as a curiosity in theatrical shows. The word “x-ray” was even added as a promotional gimmick to products like headache tablets and stove polish—part of a brief “x-ray mania” that saw the rays frequently mentioned in advertising, songs, and cartoons. 

During the 1930s, '40s, and early '50s, x-ray machines were also a not-infrequent feature of American shoe stores, which used them to ensure a better fit. You can see a demonstration of the concept in this clip from the 1920s silent film, General Personal Hygiene:

5. THEY REVOLUTIONIZED THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS.

Until the advent of antibiotics for tuberculosis in the mid-20th century, rest in a sanatorium was generally considered the only cure for TB. Early detection was thought to be key for the cure to work, but the traditional method of diagnosing was to listen to chest sounds, which could sometimes be difficult to diagnose accurately. X-rays finally allowed doctors to see the characteristic shadows and spots on the lungs caused by masses of the M. tuberculosis bacteria, and mass radiography began to be used in armies, factories, and mines, with many lives saved as a result.

6. THEY CAN KILL CANCER.

Early experimenters with x-rays noticed that the rays had a tendency to burn skin, a tendency made worse by the fact that older machines exposed people to much higher doses of radiation than today. But while overexposure to the rays can cause cancer, they can also cure it. Even back in Roentgen's day, doctors were using x-rays to burn off moles. Besides being used for diagnosis, today narrowly focused beams of x-rays are used in some forms of cancer radiotherapy to destroy tumor tissues.

7. THEY ALLOWED US TO FIND THE STRUCTURE OF DNA.


Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Our understanding of the double-helix shape of DNA was provided in part by x-ray crystallography—a technique in which x-rays bounce off the three-dimensional pattern of atoms within a crystal lattice to form a shadow image of its structure. In the early 1950s, a British researcher name Rosalind Franklin took the x-ray photos that first showed DNA’s structure, but died before she could share the Nobel Prize with the men more generally given credit for discovering the shape of the “secret of life”—James Watson and Francis Crick.

8. THEY’VE HELPED US SEE INTO SPACE

More than a dozen telescopes that detect x-rays have been launched into space, which have allowed us to make discoveries far beyond our own solar system. In 1999, NASA deployed their Chandra X-ray Observatory aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, which has since discovered black holes, advanced our understanding of dark matter, and looked at the huge black hole at the center of the Milky Way, among other achievements.

9. THEY’VE CHANGED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ART AND ARTIFACTS.

X-rays have allowed scientists and art historians to see “underpaintings”—the rough sketches painters once used to guide their work—among other secrets. Seeing these underpaintings can help art historians gain a better understanding of the way artists once worked. X-rays can also show how paintings have been changed and restored over time, sometimes allowing for more authentic restorations.

X-rays have also been to study priceless artifacts—like Egyptian mummies—without damaging them. And they’ve revealed surprises, like the human corpse inside one Chinese statue. They’ve even been used to peer inside opaque amber to view otherwise invisible fossils of ancient animals, insects, and plants.

All 73 Game of Thrones Episodes Ranked, According to IMDb Users

Kit Harington in "The Battle of the Bastards" episode of Game of Thrones
Kit Harington in "The Battle of the Bastards" episode of Game of Thrones
HBO

Next time you're in the middle of a large gathering of Game of Thrones fans, try this little experiment: Ask them to rattle of their five favorite episodes of the series, in order of preference. While you'll likely hear some of the same titles—"The Rains of Castamere" and "Battle of the Bastards" are practically givens—the order in which each person's favorite episodes rank will surely vary, as entertainment is a subjective thing.

Though it may be impossible to create a definitive ranking of the best Game of Thrones episodes, you can find a general consensus—just like IMDb has. And according to the online movie database's users, "The Rains of Castamere" (a.k.a. The Red Wedding episode), "Hardhome," "Battle of the Bastards," and "The Winds of Winter" each score a near-perfect 9.9 out of 10.

At the bottom of the list for these same users? "The Iron Throne," the series finale that has audiences divided and only managed to score a 4.6 rating on the site so far (though that's according to more than 100,000 people—and growing).

Where does your favorite episode rank? Check out IMDb's ranking of all 73 episodes of the series below to find out.

  1. “The Rains of Castamere,” Season 3, Episode 9 // 9.9
  2. “Hardhome,” Season 5, Episode 8 // 9.9
  3. “Battle of the Bastards,” Season 6, Episode 9 // 9.9
  4. “The Winds of Winter,” Season 6, Episode 10 // 9.9
  5. “The Spoils of War,” Season 7, Episode 4 // 9.8
  6. “Blackwater,” Season 2, Episode 9 // 9.7
  7. “The Children,” Season 4, Episode 10 // 9.7
  8. “The Laws of Gods and Men,” Season 4, Episode 6 // 9.7
  9. “The Mountain and the Viper,” Season 4, Episode 8 // 9.7
  10. “The Lion and the Rose,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 9.7
  11. “The Door,” Season 6, Episode 5 // 9.7
  12. “Baelor,” Season 1, Episode 9 // 9.6
  13. “And Now His Watch Is Ended,” Season 3, Episode 4 // 9.6
  14. “The Watchers on the Wall,” Season 4, Episode 9 // 9.6
  15. “Fire and Blood,” Season 1, Episode 10 // 9.5
  16. “The Dance of Dragons,” Season 5, Episode 9 // 9.5
  17. “The Dragon and the Wolf,” Season 7, Episode 7 // 9.5
  18. “Valar Morghulis,” Season 2, Episode 10 // 9.4
  19. “Home,” Season 6, Episode 2 // 9.4
  20. “You Win or You Die,” Season 1, Episode 8 // 9.3
  21. “The Queen’s Justice,” Season 7, Episode 3 // 9.3
  22. “A Golden Crown,” Season 1, Episode 6 // 9.2
  23. “Mhysa,” Season 3, Episode 10 // 9.2
  24. “Mockingbird,” Season 4, Episode 7 // 9.2
  25. “Book of the Stranger,” Season 6, Episode 4 // 9.2
  26. “Winter is Coming,” Season 1, Episode 1 // 9.1
  27. “The Wolf and the Lion,” Season 1, Episode 5 // 9.1
  28. “The Pointy End,” Season 1, Episode 8 // 9.1
  29. “The Old Gods and the New,” Season 2, Episode 6 // 9.1
  30. “Kissed by Fire,” Season 3, Episode 5 // 9.1
  31. “Second Songs,” Season 3, Episode 8 // 9.1
  32. “Two Swords,” Season 4, Episode 1 // 9.1
  33. “The Gift,” Season 5, Episode 7 // 9.1
  34. “Mother’s Mercy,” Season 5, Episode 10 // 9.1
  35. “Beyond the Wall,” Season 7, Episode 6 // 9.1
  36. “A Man Without Honor,” Season 2, Episode 7 // 9.0
  37. “Stormborn,” Season 7, Episode 2 // 9.0
  38. “The North Remembers,” Season 2, Episode 1 // 8.9
  39. “What Is Dead May Never Die,” Season 2, Episode 3 // 8.9
  40. “Garden of Bones,” Season 2, Episode 4 // 8.9
  41. “The Ghost of Harrenhal,” Season 2, Episode 5 // 8.9
  42. “The Prince of Winterfell,” Season 2, Episode 8 // 8.9
  43. “The Climb,” Season 3, Episode 6 // 8.9
  44. “Valar Dohaeris,” Season 3, Episode 1 // 8.9
  45. “Walk of Punishment,” Season 3, Episode 3 // 8.9
  46. “Breaker of Chains,” Season 4, Episode 3 // 8.9
  47. “Oathkeeper,” Season 4, Episode 4 // 8.9
  48. “Eastwatch,” Season 7, Episode 5 // 8.9
  49. “The Kingsroad,” Season 1, Episode 2 // 8.8
  50. “Cripples, Bastards, and Broken Things,” Season 1, Episode 4 // 8.8
  51. “The Bear and the Maiden Fair,” Season 3, Episode 7 // 8.8
  52. “First of His Name,” Season 5, Episode 5 // 8.8
  53. “Sons of the Harpy,” Season 5, Episode 4 // 8.8
  54. “Oathbreaker,” Season 6, Episode 3 // 8.8
  55. “Lord Snow,” Season 1, Episode 3 // 8.7
  56. “Dark Wings, Dark Words,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 8.7
  57. “Kill the Boy,” Season 5, Episode 5 // 8.7
  58. “The Broken Man,” Season 6, Episode 7 // 8.7
  59. “Dragonstone,” Season 7, Episode 1 // 8.7
  60. “The Night Lands,” Season 2, Episode 2 // 8.6
  61. “The Wars to Come,” Season 5, Episode 1 // 8.6
  62. “The House of Black and White,” Season 5, Episode 2 // 8.6
  63. “High Sparrow,” Season 5, Episode 3 // 8.6
  64. “The Red Woman,” Season 6, Episode 1 // 8.6
  65. “Blood of My Blood,” Season 6, Episode 6 // 8.5
  66. “No One,” Season 6, Episode 8 // 8.5
  67. “A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms,” Season 8, Episode 2 // 8.2
  68. “Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken,” Season 5, Episode 6 // 8.1
  69. “Winterfell,” Season 8, Episode 1 // 7.9
  70. “The Long Night,” Season 8, Episode 3 // 7.8
  71. “The Bells,” Season 8, Episode 5 // 6.5
  72. “The Last of the Starks,” Season 8, Episode 4 // 5.9
  73. “The Iron Throne,” Season 8, Episode 6 // 4.6

6 Things You Might Have Missed in 'The Iron Throne,' Game of Thrones's Series Finale

Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Helen Sloan, HBO

No matter how you feel about "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale, it goes without saying that many fans of the show are in a state of mourning right now. One of the greatest shows in television history has come to an end. And while the ending, unsurprisingly, didn't please everyone, we're still sad to see the series go.

You can, of course, re-watch Game of Thrones at any time—and a repeat viewing of the finale might be a good idea. Emotions were running high during the final episode, which means that you might have missed a few small-but-important details.

1. The Opening Sequence Tweak that Signified the End of the Lannisters' Reign

Game of Thrones's opening credits are regularly tweaked to illustrate changes within the Seven Kingdoms. So it would make sense that the finale’s opening credits contained a few adjustments to account for the destruction of King’s Landing in "The Bells." One change that might have gone unnoticed by many was that above the Iron Throne, the lion head representing House Lannister was absent, signaling that Cersei Lannister was no longer the queen.

2. Daenerys's Depiction as the Angel of Death

Many fans on social media were quick to point out how beautiful the shot of Drogon flying up behind Daenerys was toward the beginning of the episode, which momentarily made it look as if the Mother of Dragons had her own wings. But it also made her look like an angel of death, with the dark lighting and considering the darker tone of the scene. This, of course, seemed to foreshadow her death, which came shortly thereafter at the hands of Jon Snow.

3. An Obvious Nod to The Lord of the Rings

There are multiple references to The Lord of the Rings throughout Game of Thrones, but the finale saw one major parallel between the two fantasy franchises. As Vanity Fair predicted, Game of Thrones's Iron Throne basically became the ring from The Lord of the Rings. And unfortunately, that brings up a comparison between Daenerys and Gollum.

“Like Tolkien’s Ring of Power, the Iron Throne seems to corrupt and breaks all who touch it and all that would possess it. You win the game of thrones, or you die. Daenerys may want the throne the most, and, arguably, has done the most to get it,” Vanity Fair wrote.

Ultimately, the final episode showed the Iron Throne being destroyed—just as the ring was in The Lord of the Rings—and Daenerys was brought down with it. While it’s difficult to see similarities between Dany and a character like Gollum, they did meet very similar fates.

4. Brienne’s Callback to Season 4

Although Brienne of Tarth had her heart broken by Jaime Lannister, she still took it upon herself to fill out his history in the White Book during the finale. We saw the pair discuss this “duty of the Lord Commander” back in season 4, as Vanity Fair pointed out. In the scene, Jaime told Brienne that there was “still plenty of room” on his page. So after his death, Brienne, now the head of the Kingsguard, respectfully recorded all of Jaime’s heroic acts, concluding with how he “died protecting his queen.”

5. Tormund's Prediction of Jon’s Fate

As a fan on Reddit had theorized earlier in the season, it seems Tormund knew that Jon would be back at Castle Black after the battle at King’s Landing. During their farewell at Winterfell, the wildling was not convinced the two would never see each other again. After embracing, Tormund told Jon, “You got the north in you, the real north.” Some thought the conversation hinted at Jon’s fate in the finale, and they were spot-on.

6. The Series' Final Scene Mirroring the Series' First Scene

While countless events have happened between the show’s pilot and its finale—events that changed Westeros forever—the final moments of "The Iron Throne" were almost identical to the opening scene in Game of Thrones's pilot episode. As the finale saw Jon going back up north with the wildlings, we get a scene of them traveling beyond the wall. This is similar to how the series started, which showed a few members of the Night’s Watch treading into the same unknown territory.

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