NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR/NRAO/GB
NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR/NRAO/GB

See Radar Images of the Asteroid That Zipped by Earth on Halloween

NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR/NRAO/GB
NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR/NRAO/GB

Two weeks before Halloween, researchers observed a fast-moving asteroid approaching Earth closer than anything else has in the past 11 years. Asteroid 2015 TB145 maintained its trajectory and safely passed our planet around 10 a.m. PDT on Halloween at around 1.3 lunar distances, which gave scientists the opportunity to take a series of photos while it flew by.

Using the 70-meter DSS 14 antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in Fort Irwin, California, the scientists bounced high power microwaves off the asteroid. The echoes were received by another antenna, the NRAO's Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, which produced high-resolution images with a spatial resolution up to 13 feet per pixel, revealing more information about the speedy rock. "The radar images of asteroid 2015 TB145 show portions of the surface not seen previously and reveal pronounced concavities, bright spots that might be boulders, and other complex features that could be ridges," said Lance Benner, lead on the radar research team and research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Previous radar images of the asteroid, taken by the National Science Foundation's 1000-foot Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, were at a lower resolution and made the space rock appear more sinister. Some reported seeing a skull in the images, which, while entirely imaginary, was at least appropriately spooky for Halloween.

NAIC-Arecibo/NSF
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NASA, Getty Images
Watch Apollo 11 Launch
Vice President Spiro Agnew and former President Lyndon Johnson view the liftoff of Apollo 11
Vice President Spiro Agnew and former President Lyndon Johnson view the liftoff of Apollo 11
NASA, Getty Images

Apollo 11 launched on July 16, 1969, on its way to the moon. In the video below, Mark Gray shows slow-motion footage of the launch (a Saturn V rocket) and explains in glorious detail what's going on from a technical perspective—the launch is very complex, and lots of stuff has to happen just right in order to get a safe launch. The video is mesmerizing, the narration is informative. Prepare to geek out about rockets! (Did you know the hold-down arms actually catch on fire after the rocket lifts off?)

Apollo 11 Saturn V Launch (HD) Camera E-8 from Spacecraft Films on Vimeo.

Why Do Astronauts Use Space Pens Instead of Pencils?

by Alex Carter

It's often said that NASA spent millions of dollars developing a pen that could write in zero gravity, while the Russians just used pencils. It was a warning about looking for a high-tech solution to a mundane problem, of American excess vs. Russian sensibility.

It's also entirely false.

To understand why NASA was so keen on a workable space pen, you have to understand that the pencil is not suited for space travel. The problem is that they have a habit of breaking, shattering, and leaving graphite dust behind. The wood, too, can make it a serious fire risk in the pressurized, oxygen-rich capsule. All of these common issues become life-threatening hazards in space.

Still, there were attempts to bring pencils into space. In 1965, the agency famously ordered 34 specially designed mechanical pencils in hopes of finding the perfect writing tool for astronauts. But at $128 each, they weren't exactly cheap, and it only got worse when the public got wind of the price. Thankfully, an alternative was not too far behind.

Astronaut Walt Cunningham, pilot of the Apollo 7 mission, uses the Fisher Space Pen while in flight.
Astronaut Walt Cunningham, pilot of the Apollo 7 mission, uses the Fisher Space Pen while in flight.
NASA

The Space Pen was invented by Paul Fisher, head of Fisher Pen Company. Unlike a typical pen, the Fisher Space Pen uses compressed nitrogen to force ink out of the nozzle, instead of using gravity to make it flow. This made it the ideal device for writing in space, while upside down, or submerged underwater. It wrote crisp and clean, without the safety concerns of a pencil.

Fisher contacted NASA to give his pens a try in 1965 and in 1967, after months of testing, they were impressed enough to bulk buy 400 of them for future missions. Contrary to those urban legends, NASA didn't commission the pen or contribute any funding to it. The Soviets soon ditched their grease pencils and were eventually buying the same Fisher pens as NASA, too. The price? After a 40 percent discount from Fisher, both space agencies were paying $2.39 a pen.

The Fisher Space Pens made their debut in 1968 on the Apollo 7 mission and have been involved in all manned missions since.

So, the short reason is that astronauts only used pencils when they were waiting for something better to come along. As soon as it did, they switched and never looked back. Even the Russians thought it was a good idea.

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