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Neil deGrasse Tyson on Why You Should Never Say, "I Will Never Use This"

Neil deGrasse Tyson has a message for anyone who's ever looked at the board during math class and thought, "There's no way I'm going to use this information outside of school." While it's true that you may never again be asked to solve for x or calculate when trains will collide based on when they left the station, just learning how to approach basic math- and science-related topics helps your brain become a better problem solver in general. In the video above, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson explains why it's so important for even the most math-phobic among us to keep an open mind during Calculus class: 

"...the act of learning how to do the math establishes a new kind of brain wiring in your mind, a kind of problem solving brain wiring. So it’s not about what you learn, it’s about what methods, tools, and tactics you have to develop in order to solve the problem that you may never see again for the rest of your life. But you will see other problems where these methods and tools will become immensely valuable to you.”

[h/t: The Kid Should See This]

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The Evolution of "Two" in the Indo-European Language Family
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The Indo-European language family includes most of the languages of Europe as well as many languages in Asia. There is a long research tradition that has shown, though careful historical comparison, that languages spanning a huge linguistic and geographical range, from French to Greek to Russian to Hindi to Persian, are all related to each other and sprung from a common source, Proto-Indo-European. One of the techniques for studying the relationship of the different languages to each other is to look at the similarities between individual words and work out the sound changes that led from one language to the next.

This diagram, submitted to Reddit by user IronChestplate1, shows the word for two in various Indo-European languages. (The “proto” versions, marked with an asterisk, are hypothesized forms, built by working backward from historical evidence.) The languages cluster around certain common features, but the words are all strikingly similar, especially when you consider the words for two in languages outside the Indo-European family: iki (Turkish), èjì (Yoruba), ni (Japanese), kaksi (Finnish), etc. There are many possible forms two could take, but in this particular group of languages it is extremely limited. What are the chances of that happening by accident? Once you see it laid out like this, it doesn’t take much to put *dwóh and *dwóh together.

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infographics
Beyond Plumbing: 19 Other Jobs on Mario's Resume
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Nintendo made news this week by subtly announcing that Mario is no longer a plumber. In fact, they're really downplaying his whole plumbing career. On the character's Japanese-language bio, the company says, "He also seems to have worked as a plumber a long time ago."

But Mario has always had plenty of jobs on the side. Here's a look at his resume:

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