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6 Early Boxing Women Who Could Kick Your Ass

Ronda Rousey is the new hotness when it comes to boxing and mixed martial arts, and with good reason: She’s among the fastest and most brutal fighters the sport has ever seen. But even though Rousey is rising to meteoric fame with her quick punches, she’s not the only woman who’s made it in the boxing ring. In fact, women have been putting up their fists in public since at least the 1700s—but unlike anyone who’s ever stood up to Rousey, they’ve often been subject to ridicule and not taken too seriously. Here are a few once-famous lady boxers of the past who set the stage for today’s boxing women.

1. ELIZABETH WILKINSON

There may have been other hard-fisted females before her, but Elizabeth Wilkinson Stokes—a.k.a. “The Cockney Championess”—has gone down in history as the first well-known female boxer. She was reportedly a boxer’s wife and delighted in taking on men in public. In 1722, Wilkinson had the earliest recorded public bout between two women in London, beating Martha Jones.

2. BRUISING PEG

Bruising Peg didn’t just have what is perhaps the best name in the history of boxing—she also packed a mean punch. In a time when women boxers were described as “she-devils” in sensationalistic poses (one observer of a two-woman bout wrote that the contenders’ faces were “entirely covered with blood, bosoms bare, and the clothes nearly torn from their bodies”), Bruising Peg (who is now referred to as Margaret Malloy or Molloy after a popular 19th century fictitious biography) and boxing seemed like a match made in heaven. In 1768, she is said to have “beat her antagonist in a terrible manner” in exchange for a new outfit.

3. AND 4. NELLY SAUNDERS AND ROSE HARLAND

In 1876, the operator of Harry Hill’s gambling resort in New York, Prof. James Campbell, decided to do something a bit different: hold a boxing match for the then-princely sum of $200 and a silver plate. Two variety show dancers, one Irish and one English, took up the challenge. “The match being made, both women at once went into training,” wrote The New York Times. They fought in front of “an appreciative but noisy audience,” and Saunders won by a single point before the women “left the stage arm in arm.”

5. AND 6. BESSIE AND MINNIE GORDON

Thomas Edison, Wikimedia Commons

By the end of the 19th century, the only place women’s boxing could be seen regularly was on the vaudeville stage. In 1901, Thomas Edison captured the pratfalling, pirouetting moves of The Gordon Sisters, an East coast act that sparred on stage, in an early moving picture. They were billed as “champion lady boxers of the world.” In a magazine published that same year, a vaudeville news roundup noted that “Bessie and Minnie Gordon are still punching the bag and doing a burlesque bout, but they don’t get any thinner.”

BONUS: THE UNKNOWN WOMEN OF THE OLYMPICS

The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri happened concurrently with the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, a huge World’s Fair that featured everything new and amazing. Accordingly, the Olympics itself had lots of new sports to showcase, including exhibition games. Though women were not allowed to compete in any sport but archery, a few now-unknown women boxed in public at demonstration bouts. It was the last time women would box at the Olympics until 2012. 

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
Animals
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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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