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M.S. Przybyła // PAP

Archaeologists Unearth 3700-Year-Old Wall in Poland

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M.S. Przybyła // PAP

Scientists in Poland say they have made a surprising find at a well-excavated archaeological site in the southeast: the oldest stone wall ever discovered in the country. Dating to the Bronze Age, the wall, constructed of thick stone slabs, was found at the site of Zyndram’s Hill in Maszkowice beneath a settlement occupied throughout the first millennium BCE. The early stone wall is much older; based on radiocarbon dating of organic materials discovered with the architectural elements, the researchers estimate it dates to between 1750 BCE and 1690 BCE.

It’s a highly unusual find not only for Poland but for the wider region, the archaeologists said. "In the whole Central Europe there are only a dozen sites dated so early with more or less well-preserved stone fortifications,”  Jagiellonian University researcher Marcin S. Przybyła said in a press statement. “At that time, the use of the stone as a building material was typical of the Mediterranean areas. In the temperate zone of Europe until the Middle Ages, fortifications were built with wood and clay."

The archaeological site on Zyndram’s Hill in Maszkowice, with the artificial flattening of the peak clearly visible. Image credit: A. Maślak via PAP

The structure was built on a hilltop that had been flattened in antiquity to create an inhabitable plateau of about 1.2 acres. Clay from the hilltop was used to build a terrace on the eastern and northern slopes of the hill. The interior wall was constructed of large, 1.5-foot-long sandstone blocks held together with clay. It was fortified with a retaining wall forged from huge, 3-foot-long blocks. The wall was almost 460 feet long and nearly nine feet tall, and bordered by a trench about five feet deep. This formidable wall was both structural and defensive, surrounding the eastern and northern sections of the settlement.

A researcher takes measurements near the base of the retaining wall where large stones slid down the slope and tipped over. Image credit: M.S. Przybyła via PAP

The archaeologists suspect its builders were not natives to the region—or at least likely imported the know-how to build such a structure from elsewhere. Przybyła says the size and style of the construction is closer to Bronze Age civilizations in the Mediterranean than to any cultural traditions of Central and Western Europe.

That idea is bolstered by the previous discovery of a foreign artifact at the site—a so-called violin idol. “Such statuettes were produced in large amounts in Mycenaean Greece, and [the] Northern Balkans," Przybyła said.

[h/t Archaeology]

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Antarctic Heritage Trust
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History
Researchers Find 100-Year-Old Antarctic Fruitcake in 'Excellent Condition'
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Antarctic Heritage Trust

If you want a snack that really won’t go bad, consider the fruitcake. Conservationists working with artifacts from Cape Adare, Antarctica, just discovered a remarkably well-preserved fruitcake dating back a full century, according to Gizmodo.

The fruitcake dates back to Robert Falcon Scott’s disaster-plagued Terra Nova expedition, which began in 1910. Documentation proves that Scott brought tins of the same Huntley & Palmers fruitcake with him to Cape Adare, about 1700 miles south of New Zealand.

The 106-year-old fruitcake tin is rusted and its paper wrapper damaged—though still largely intact—but the cake itself “was in excellent condition,” as a press release from the New Zealand-based Antarctic Heritage Trust, whose researchers discovered the tin, describes. The release says it “looked and smelt (almost) edible,” which is a glowing review for a food that dates back to William Taft’s presidency.

A rusted rectangular tin holds a century-old fruitcake.
Antarctic Heritage Trust

Why fruitcake? “It’s an ideal high-energy food for Antarctic conditions, and is still a favorite item on modern trips to the Ice,” according to the AHT’s project manager for artifacts, Lizzie Meek. Four AHT conservators have been working to preserve almost 1500 artifacts from Cape Adare, where Norwegian explorer Carsten Borchgrevink erected the first buildings in Antarctica. (Scott’s expedition later used the same huts.) They're still standing, and the AHT’s next project will be preserving the structures.

The Cape Adare site is an Antarctic Specially Protected Area, and the trust is working under a permit that requires its conservators to return any artifacts to the huts after they’ve been restored, meaning Scott’s fruitcake will eventually go back to where it was found.

Surprisingly, this is not the first fruitcake that has stayed edible for more than a century. Fidelia Ford made a holiday fruitcake in 1878, and it’s still in the family. It’s not quite fresh, though. One of Ford’s descendants reviewed it thusly: “Not much of a taste, no, and not good.” Given that Scott’s fruitcake is set to return to Cape Adare eventually, it’s doubtful that anyone will get a taste. We’ll just have to use our imaginations.

[h/t Gizmodo]

All images courtesy Antarctic Heritage Trust

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Jim Forest, Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
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Scientists Devise Clever Way to Test Old Manuscripts’ DNA
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Jim Forest, Flickr Creative Commons // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

When encountering an obstacle, some people stop and give up, some force their way through, and others find another way around. That's what scientists in the United Kingdom have done with a delicate manuscript from the Dark Ages. Barred from taking parchment samples, the resourceful researchers instead analyzed the eraser crumbs left behind after archivists cleaned the paper. They describe their findings in an article on the prepress server bioRxiv.

Co-author and archaeologist Matthew Collins of the University of York did not start out a manuscript man. Collins had been trying to extract DNA from animal bones unearthed at a Viking settlement to learn more about the culture's use of livestock. But the bones had decayed too far to offer much in the way of genetic material. "You can imagine the frustration," Collins said in an interview with The Atlantic.

Then he realized that animal remains can be more than just bones. There are skins, too—and those, at least, we've taken some pains to preserve. At least the ones we've written on.

"You look at [archive] shelves," Collins said, "and every one of them has a skin of an animal with a date written on it."

Collins's excitement at discovering this untapped bounty of data was soon tempered when he and his collaborator, biochemist Sarah Fiddyment, learned that sampling the manuscripts was completely off-limits.

But they weren't about to give up that easily. Fiddyment spent weeks following the conservators as they worked with the fragile animal-skin paper, learning their process and watching for possible openings. Finally, she saw it: eraser crumbs.

Conservators routinely use PVC erasers to lift stains, grime, and damage from historic documents. The friction created by gently rubbing the eraser against the paper creates an electric charge that pulls in molecules of dirt and oil. And probably other things, too, Fiddyment thought.

Fiddyment, Collins, and their colleagues began collecting eraser crumbs from manuscript conservators around the world. They analyzed each document's chemical makeup and were even able to compare proteins to identify the livestock species responsible for the skin.

The next step was to look at the DNA itself. The researchers turned to the York Gospels, a leatherbound Bible with pages dating back to the year 990. By collecting another tiny pile of eraser crumbs from cleanup of eight pages, they were able to collect enough of a sample to run thorough DNA tests.

Those pages had quite a lot to say about their creation and history. The tests revealed 1000-year-old genetic material from the cows and sheep that gave the book its parchment pages. Remarkably, the DNA was so intact that the scientists could identify the cows' ancestry (something close to our modern-day Norwegian reds and Holsteins) and sex (mostly female).

The pages also contained human DNA and even bacteria, most likely from the hands and saliva of the people who made, wrote, and used the book.

Speaking to The Atlantic, parchment expert Bruce Holsinger of the University of Virginia called the findings "an exciting breakthrough."

[h/t The Atlantic]

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