CLOSE

20 Cognitive Biases That Affect Your Decisions

You’ve always considered yourself a sound decision-maker. From that heavily researched car that you drove to work this morning to the carefully prepared meal you’ll cook up for dinner this evening, you put a lot of thought into every choice that you make—maybe too much thought. 

Business Insider recently sifted through a pile of research to create the infographic below, which highlights 20 of the most common cognitive biases that can lead to bad decision-making, including the idea that the more information you have, the more likely you are to make the smartest choice.

[h/t Business Insider]

Original image
iStock
arrow
science
The Brain Chemistry Behind Your Caffeine Boost
Original image
iStock

Whether it’s consumed as coffee, candy, or toothpaste, caffeine is the world’s most popular drug. If you’ve ever wondered how a shot of espresso can make your groggy head feel alert and ready for the day, TED-Ed has the answer.

Caffeine works by hijacking receptors in the brain. The stimulant is nearly the same size and shape as adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter that slows down neural activity. Adenosine builds up as the day goes on, making us feel more tired as the day progresses. When caffeine enters your system, it falls into the receptors meant to catch adenosine, thus keeping you from feeling as sleepy as you would otherwise. The blocked adenosine receptors also leave room for the mood-boosting compound dopamine to settle into its receptors. Those increased dopamine levels lead to the boost in energy and mood you feel after finishing your morning coffee.

For a closer look at how this process works, check out the video below.

[h/t TED-Ed]

Original image
iStock
arrow
science
Anesthesia May Not Work the Way We Thought It Did
Original image
iStock

You lie back, and a nurse fits a mask over your face. Somebody tells you to count backward from 100. Your eyelids grow heavy. The next thing you know, you’re waking up. We thought we knew why this happens, but new research published in the journal PLOS Computational Biology suggests we may have had it wrong.

The brains of people on general anesthesia are far quieter than those of folks who haven’t been drugged. Previous studies have suggested that this quieting happens when anesthesia interferes with conversations, or couplings, between different parts of our brain. Less information is exchanged, and the volume of the conversation drops.

It seemed like a solid enough explanation. But a team of German neuroscientists saw a possible flaw in the logic. The amount of information being exchanged often depends on the amount of information available, not on the strength of the connection.

To explore this puzzle further, they brought two female ferrets into the lab and hooked them up to brain activity monitors. (Ferret brains’ similarity to primates’ makes them a good lab substitute for humans, at least in initial studies.)

Both ferrets went through three rounds of anesthesia and recovery, receiving slightly more of the drug each time as the scientists watched their brains produce, process, and exchange information.

As in previous studies, the conversations in the ferrets’ brains were indeed more subdued while they were anesthetized. But it wasn’t interference that quieted their brains. The brain regions that ordinarily do the listening were just as active as usual. But the talkative brain regions seemed to have less to say. They were making and sending less information.

Lead author Patricia Wollstadt is a neuroscientist at the Brain Imaging Center at Goethe University Frankfurt. "The relevance of this alternative explanation goes beyond anesthesia research,” she said in a statement, "since each and every examination of neuronal information transfer should categorically take into consideration how much information is available locally and is therefore also transferable."

SECTIONS

More from mental floss studios