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screencap from the Lule-Sami website samedigge.no
screencap from the Lule-Sami website samedigge.no

How Social Media Is Helping to Save Endangered Languages

screencap from the Lule-Sami website samedigge.no
screencap from the Lule-Sami website samedigge.no

The far-northern European group of indigenous Sami languages is dying. Some, like Ter Sami from the eastern Kola Peninsula, only have two remaining speakers in the world. Sami youth are not learning their language, and if they know it, aren’t engaging with others in it. Aili Keskitalo, president of the Sami Parliament in Norway, wanted to find a modern way to solve this problem—so in 2013, she took to social media in an effort to revitalize the languages.

Using the Sami, Norwegian, and English-language hashtags #sámásmuinna, #saemesthmnnjien, #sámástamujna, #snakksamisktemæ, and #speaksamitome, Keskitalo encouraged Sami speakers to post a single word or phrase, paired with a photo and sometimes voice recording, on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter.

“We wanted to motivate young people to see social media as an arena for Sami language, and to show them that even if you only can write one word in your own language, you can still make a difference,” she says. “Language is a strong identity symbol, and it contains the Sami collective memory. It is important that the language is being transferred to the younger generations, and that they feel connected to it. We could lose our connection to our culture and our past without it.”

The campaign prospered for three years, bolstered by events, competitions, physical products, music and video programming, and blogs, before ending this year—but the hashtags and word packages still make an appearance online. In fact, the project had such a positive response that it sparked a similar social media campaign for the fast-dying Gwich’in language in Canada and Alaska: #SpeakGwichinToMe.

Social media has evolved to be so much more than just an outlet for personal chatter. According to the United Nations, more than 6,000 languages exist across the world—and half of them face extinction by the end of the century. But thanks to the incredible reach of platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, speakers of endangered languages may be able to reverse this trend.

Ayapaneco, a language from Ayapa, Mexico, faces a similar fate to Ter Sami—only two living native speakers are left. In 2014, Vodafone collaborated with Professor James Fox from Stanford University to help preserve the language and reintroduce it to young children. They rehabbed an Ayapaneco language school in Mexico (where the two native speakers teach) and launched a website, Viva Ayapaneco, a social media-fueled language "adoption" service. Users either search for a word or receive a random word to adopt, listen to a recording of the pronunciation, and then record a video of themselves saying the word. Each video is stored on the website with easy links to share via Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus.

Facebook groups have a hand in language preservation as well. One of the five remaining speakers of Thao participates in a group called the Omniglot Fan Club—a 20,335-member page dedicated to language learning and linguistics-based culture on which users, including that Thao speaker, can share information about fading languages.

“Members of the group who speak endangered languages post information about them, which might encourage others to take an interest in those languages, and maybe learn them,” says Simon Ager, the group’s administrator. “Efforts to revive and revitalize languages are discussed and some members will find ways to support them, and even be inspired to set up similar projects in other communities.”

The Omniglot group and a similar group called Polyglots have taken it a step further, too. Members do a twice-yearly Lingua Franca Challenge, aiming to learn one language over the course of six months. Groups exist for minority languages, Uralic languages, European languages, and more.

“This kind of group gives people with a common interest in languages a place to talk and meet one another, if only virtually, to help each other and to learn from one another,” Ager says.

Keskitalo believes social media has become an essential tool in the preservation of endangered languages.

“We have lost so many arenas to speak [endangered languages],” she says, “that we need to conquer new ones.”

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10 Surprising Facts about Alexander Graham Bell
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Alexander Graham Bell may have been born in Scotland and become an American citizen, but he called Nova Scotia, Canada home for the last few decades of his life. By the time Bell was 38, he was living in Washington, D.C. and involved in endless draining lawsuits concerning patents over the telephone. He came across a book by Charles Dudley Warner called Baddeck and That Sort of Thing, which described the small fishing village of Baddeck in Nova Scotia as “the most beautiful saltwater lake I have even seen … its embracing hills, casting a shadow from its wooded islands … here was an enchanting vision.” After reading that description, Bell moved there with his wife and two children. He made the idyllic Canadian village his home for nearly 40 years, until his death.

1. BELL’S FIRST PASSION WAS HELPING THE DEAF.

Alexander Graham Bell and his family
Alexander Graham Bell and his wife, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and two of their children
Library of Congress, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Alexander Graham Bell’s primary focus was on helping deaf students communicate. His grandfather had been an elocutionist, and his father, Melville, developed a system called Visible Speech, a collection of written symbols designed to help the deaf while speaking. (Melville was name-checked in George Bernard Shaw’s preface to Pygmalion, and is thought to be a possible basis for Professor Higgins.) Both Alexander Graham Bell’s mother and wife were deaf, and became the inspiration for his work. In 1872, when he was 25, he opened a “School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech” in Boston.

2. THE TELEPHONE WAS INVENTED FOR LOVE


Luke Spencer

One of Bell’s pupils was Mabel Hubbard, the daughter of a wealthy Massachusetts family, with whom he fell in love. Her father, lawyer Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the first president of the National Geographic Society, opposed the marriage due to Bell’s poor finances. But only a few days after establishing the Bell Telephone Company and securing his fortune, Bell married Mabel. For a wedding present, he gave her all but ten of his 1507 shares in the company. On his desk in his study at Baddeck, Bell kept a photograph of his beloved Mabel; written on the back, in his own hand, it says: “the girl for whom the telephone was invented.”

3. THE FIRST TELEPHONE MESSAGE MAY HAVE BEEN A CALL FOR HELP.

It was while experimenting with acoustic telegraphy alongside his assistant Thomas Watson, a machinist, that Bell invented the telephone. On the evening of March 10, 1876, with a receiver set up in Watson’s room and the prototype transmitter in his own room down the hallway, Bell uttered the first words sent down a telephone wire: “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.” As Watson recalled, “I rushed down the hall … and found he had upset the acid of a battery over his clothes … his shout for help that night … doesn’t make as pretty a story as did the first sentence ‘What Hath God Wrought’ which Morse sent over his new telegraph ... 30 years before, but it was an emergency call.”

However, according to Watson’s great-granddaughter Susan Cheever, the acid was an invention of Watson’s 50 years after the fact. To make her case, she quotes a letter from Watson soon after the momentous call, in which he said, “[T]here was little of dramatic interest in the occasion.”

Bell's patent 174,465 was filed with the U.S. Patent Office at almost the same time as another engineer, Elisha Gray, filed a caveat (a document saying he was going to file for a patent in three months) for a similar invention. That sparked one of more than 500 various lawsuits over the telephone—all of which were unsuccessful.

4. BELL PIONEERED WHAT WOULD BECOME CASSETTE TAPES, FLOPPY DISCS, AND FIBER OPTICS.

In 1880, the French government awarded Bell 50,000 francs for the invention of the telephone. With the prize money he founded the Volta Laboratory, dedicated to the “increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf.”

Of the 18 patents held by Bell alone, and the 12 he shared with collaborators, many related to improving the lives of deaf people. Bell considered once such patent, the photophone, the “greatest invention I have ever made, greater than the telephone.” The photophone was designed for optical wireless communication, which was quite a feat for 1880. Bell and an assistant, Charles Summer Tainter, transmitted a wireless voice message by light beam over a distance of 200 meters from a school roof to their laboratory—a precursor to fiber-optics one hundred years later

They are also said to have attempted to impress magnetic fields as a way of reproducing sound. Although they abandoned the idea after failing to produce a workable prototype, Bell had in fact been pioneering the principle that would one day become the tape recorder and the computer floppy disc. One of their improvements to the gramophone was patented under the Volta Graphophone Company, which would one day evolve into Columbia Records and Dictaphone.

5. HE ALSO INVENTED THE WORLD’S FASTEST SPEEDBOAT …

After becoming interested in hydroplanes, Bell sketched out an early model of what would become known as a hydrofoil boat. Along with aviation pioneer Frederick “Casey” Baldwin, Bell began building and testing what they called the HD-4 in the laboratory at Baddeck. On the Bras d’Or lake outside Bell’s home, the boat set the world speed record of 70.86 mph on September 9, 1919. The remnants of the world’s fastest boat can still be seen at the Alexander Graham Bell Historic site and museum in Baddeck.

6. … AND HELPED OUT WITH CANADA’S FIRST CONTROLLED PLANE.

The Bras d’Or lake also saw another milestone in Canadian history, when the AEA Silver Dart, one of the earliest aircraft, made the first powered flight in Canada in February 1909. As early as 1892, Bell had been developing motor-powered aircraft, and had done extensive experiments with tetrahedron kites. Under Bell’s guidance, co-designer John McCurdy managed to fly the Silver Dart a half-mile over Nova Scotia. A few weeks later, after more tinkering in Bell’s workshops, the flight managed more than 22 miles. By the summer of 1909, the Silver Dart carried the first-ever passenger in Canadian airspace.

7. HE WAS HELPFUL TO NEIGHBORS.

Alexander Graham Bell with family and friends
Library of Congress, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

There is a local story told in Baddeck of how, one day soon after moving to the town, Bell was walking along the main street and saw the editor of the local newspaper having problems with his wall-mounted telephone. Bell walked in and promptly unscrewed the earpiece, revealing a trapped fly, which he blew out of it. The astonished newspaper editor asked how the stranger had known how to fix the newfangled invention, to which Bell replied, “because I am the inventor of that instrument.”

8. HE INVENTED A METAL DETECTOR TO SAVE A PRESIDENT’S LIFE.


A metal detector like the one Bell invented, on display at the Bell Historic Site in Baddeck.
Luke Spencer

The first known use of the metal detector was not for beachcombing or gold prospecting, but rather as an attempt to save the life of a U.S. President. James Garfield had been shot at the Baltimore & Potomac Railway station in July 1881 by Charles J. Guiteau. The bullet was lodged somewhere in the president’s back and couldn’t be located by the attending doctors. Alexander Graham Bell, a visitor to the stricken Garfield, quickly developed a metal detector with the purpose of finding the bullet. Inspired by French inventor Gustave Trouvé’s earlier handheld device, Bell built a device based on electromagnetics. Unfortunately, the metal springs in the mattress Garfield was lying on confused the detector—or so Bell would later claim—and the 20th president of the United States died of an infection in the wound that September.

9. YOU CAN ALSO THANK HIM FOR NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE.

The National Geographic magazine as we know it today was largely the brainchild of Alexander Graham Bell. Under his father-in-law, the exclusive society’s first president, the prestigious club house in Washington D.C. was struggling. Membership was dwindling to just under a thousand people when Bell was elected its second president. He immediately set to work to revitalize the society, and in particular its journal, which, according to Bell, “everyone put on his library shelf and few people read.”

Bell relaunched the journal with a new slogan, “The World And All That Is In It.” He promoted illustrations and good photography, introducing “pictures of life and action … pictures that tell a story.”

10. AFTER HIS DEATH, THE PHONE COMPANIES PAID TRIBUTE.

Alexander Graham Bell died in his adopted home of Nova Scotia on August 2, 1922, with his beloved Mabel by his side. It’s a common custom to hold a minute’s silence when someone of note has passed away, but for Alexander Graham Bell, a remarkable tribute took place after his funeral. Every phone in North America was silenced for a minute in “honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance.”

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Did You Get a 'Free Cruise' Robocall? You Might Be Owed Up To $900
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Robocalls are the telecommunications plague of the 21st century. With call centers located outside of the United States, illicit telemarketers are able to pester and harass consumers without any real fear of repercussion, even if the call recipient has registered their phone number with the Do Not Call Registry. Usually, these scammers try to extract money from people who believe they owe the IRS money or via some other fiction. A recent settlement, however, has turned the tables, as Today reports.

A Chicago judge recently approved a class-action settlement involving Resort Marketing Group acting on behalf of Royal, Caribbean, and Norwegian cruise lines. The calls claiming that people were owed a “free cruise” were found to be an unauthorized use of phone numbers that Resort Marketing didn’t have permission to use, a violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA).

What does that mean for you? If you’ve gotten a call with an offer involving a cruise, you’ll want to head to the suit’s landing page to see if your phone number was among those used during the marketing effort. If the site indicates it was, you can print and mail in a claim form. The suit will pay claimants $300 per call received, up to a maximum of three calls, or $900. It might be the easiest money you ever collect—and a nice bonus for putting up with the dozens of robocalls blowing up your phone. Claims will be accepted through November 3, 2017.

[h/t Today]

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