Diana Robinson via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
Diana Robinson via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

15 Electrifying Facts About Jellyfish

Diana Robinson via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0
Diana Robinson via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

Colorful, dangerous, and mesmerizing, there's a lot more going on with these gelatinous creatures than meets the eye. Here are 15 electrifying facts about these undersea beauties.

1. JELLYFISH CAN STING WHEN THEY'RE DEAD.

Even when they’re attached to a carcass, the cells of a jellyfish’s venomous tentacles will sometimes continue to fire: In 2010, about 150 New Hampshire beach-goers were stung by the disembodied tentacles of a dead lion’s mane jelly.

2. JELLYFISH ARE 95 PERCENT WATER.

From the outside, jellyfish look like squishy, insubstantial blobs, and this is reflected in their structural makeup.  Jellyfish are 95 percent water with the rest of them accounting for minerals and proteins. Between their two dermis layers is a gelatinous, water-based substance called mesoglea that contains muscle cells, nerve cells, and structural proteins.

3.  JELLYFISH ARE GOOD AT SHUTTING DOWN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. 

Nuclear power plants in Scotland, Sweden, California, Israel, and Japan have all been taken offline by slimy swarms of jellyfish. Power plants use outside water sources to cool down the fuel rods inside their reactor core. If this water contains jellies, they can clog up the system and force plants to shut down.

4. ONE SPECIES CAN AGE BACKWARD.

At any stage in its development, Turritopsis dohrnii—also known as the “immortal jellyfish” or the “Benjamin Button jellyfish”—is capable of reversing its life cycle until it reverts to a polyp, from which it starts the whole process over again. Some scientists believe by aging backward to escape death this jellyfish has unlocked the key to immortality.

5. JELLYFISH ARE OLDER THAN DINOSAURS.

Jellyfish have inhabited the earth’s oceans for over 650 million years, making them more ancient than sharks and dinosaurs.

 6. THERE’S A JELLYFISH SPECIES NAMED AFTER FRANK ZAPPA.

The Phialella zappai was named in honor of Frank Zappa, the favorite musician of the scientist who discovered it. Zappa was quoted as saying, “There is nothing I'd like better than having a jellyfish named after me."

7. JELLYFISH HAVE BEEN TO SPACE.

In 1991, NASA made history by sending 2478 jellyfish polyps to space. It was part of an experiment called “The Effects of Microgravity-Induced Weightlessness on Aurelia Ephyra Differentiation and Statolith Synthesis.” The creatures were kept in flasks and bags that contained artificial seawater, which astronauts then injected with chemicals that encouraged them to reproduce. By the end of the experiment there were approximately 60,000 jellyfish in the Earth’s orbit.

8. JELLYFISH DON’T HAVE ORGANS.

Jellies don’t have lungs, intestines, or stomachs, but they do use a much simpler system that’s able to get the job done. Their bodies are composed of two cell layers—the external epidermis and the internal gastrodermis. The gastrodermis has one opening it uses to consume food, expel waste, and exchange reproductive materials. They are able to absorb oxygen and nutrients through the cell walls of their inner layer and even through their outer layer.

9.  THEY COME IN MANY SIZES.

The largest jelly is the lion’s mane jellyfish, which grows up to 6 meters in diameter and has stinging tentacles up to 50 meters long. The smallest species is the Common Kingslayer. It’s smaller than a fingernail and it’s also one of the most venomous creatures on earth.

10. JELLYFISH HAVE IMPORTANT MEDICAL APPLICATIONS.

A few years ago, scientists from the Mayo Clinic injected unfertilized cat eggs with a green fluorescent protein found in crystal jellies and a gene from rhesus monkeys known to block the virus that causes feline AIDS. The only significance of the jellyfish protein was that it would indicate if the gene had successfully transferred. Sure enough, when the kittens were born, they glowed bright green when placed under a black light.

11. A GROUP OF JELLYFISH WAS ONCE CALLED A SMACK.

Sadly, that’s not often used anymore. The preference these days is to call a large gathering of jellies a "swarm."

12. JELLYFISH REPRODUCE SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY.

Jellyfish can reproduce sexually by releasing sperm and eggs into the ocean where they form tiny, free-swimming larvae. These larvae then grow into polyps which attach to smooth surfaces and can split into numerous young jellyfish, thus reproducing asexually.

13. RESEARCHERS HAVE BUILT A HUMAN-SIZED JELLYFISH ROBOT.

Researchers at Virginia Tech hoping to build self-powered aquatic robots used jellyfish as a model, building a 170 pound aquatic bot they dubbed Cyro to test their idea. The propulsion system of a jellyfish runs on very little energy, which makes it a great model for autonomous, undersea robots of the future.

14.  JELLYFISH ARE EDIBLE.

Sea turtles aren’t the only creatures that like to feast on jellies now and then. Blubber jellies, for example, are considered a delicacy in parts of Asia, and students at a Japanese high school once used powdered jellyfish to make salted caramels.

15. THEIR NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE MOST BASIC OF ANY MULTICELLULAR ANIMAL.

Instead of a brain, jellies use a “nerve net” to process sensory information. Specialized structures like statocysts help jellyfish know if they're facing up or down, and rhopalia allow them to sense light, chemicals and movement in the water. This is the most basic nervous system a multicellular organism can have, and it’s also found in hydras and anemones.

All photos via Getty Images unless otherwise noted.

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Whale Sharks Can Live for More Than a Century, Study Finds
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Some whale sharks alive today have been swimming around since the Gilded Age. The animals—the largest fish in the ocean—can live as long as 130 years, according to a new study in the journal Marine and Freshwater Research. To give you an idea of how long that is, in 1888, Grover Cleveland was finishing up his first presidential term, Thomas Edison had just started selling his first light bulbs, and the U.S. only had 38 states.

To determine whale sharks' longevity, researchers from the Nova Southeastern University in Florida and the Maldives Whale Shark Research Program tracked male sharks around South Ari Atoll in the Maldives over the course of 10 years, calculating their sizes as they came back to the area over and over again. The scientists identified sharks that returned to the atoll every few years by their distinctive spot patterns, estimating their body lengths with lasers, tape, and visually to try to get the most accurate idea of their sizes.

Using these measurements and data on whale shark growth patterns, the researchers were able to determine that male whale sharks tend to reach maturity around 25 years old and live until they’re about 130 years old. During those decades, they reach an average length of 61.7 feet—about as long as a bowling lane.

While whale sharks are known as gentle giants, they’re difficult to study, and scientists still don’t know a ton about them. They’re considered endangered, making any information we can gather about them important. And this is the first time scientists have been able to accurately measure live, swimming whale sharks.

“Up to now, such aging and growth research has required obtaining vertebrae from dead whale sharks and counting growth rings, analogous to counting tree rings, to determine age,” first author Cameron Perry said in a press statement. ”Our work shows that we can obtain age and growth information without relying on dead sharks captured in fisheries. That is a big deal.”

Though whale sharks appear to be quite long-lived, their lifespan is short compared to the Greenland shark's—in 2016, researchers reported they may live for 400 years. 

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Animal Welfare Groups Are Building a Database of Every Cat in Washington, D.C.
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There are a lot of cats in Washington, D.C. They live in parks, backyards, side streets, and people's homes. Exactly how many there are is the question a new conservation project wants to answer. DC Cat Count, a collaboration between Humane Rescue Alliance, the Humane Society, PetSmart Charities, and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, aims to tally every cat in the city—even house pets, The New York Times reports.

Cities tend to support thriving feral cat populations, and that's a problem for animal conservationists. If a feline is born and grows up without human contact, it will never be a suitable house cat. The only options animal control officials have are to euthanize strays or trap and sterilize them, and release them back where they were found. If neither action is taken, it's the smaller animals that belong in the wild who suffer. Cats are invasive predators, and each year they kill billions of birds in the U.S. alone.

Before animal welfare experts and wildlife scientists can tackle this problem, they need to understand how big it is. Over the next three years, DC Cat Count will use various methods to track D.C.'s cats and build a feline database for the city. Sixty outdoor camera traps will capture images of passing cats, relying on infrared technology to sense them most of the time.

Citizens are being asked to help as well. An app is currently being developed that will allow users to snap photos of any cats they see, including their own pets. The team also plans to study the different ways these cats interact with their environments, like how much time pets spend indoors versus outdoors, for example. The initiative has a $1.5 million budget to spend on collecting data.

By the end of the project, the team hopes to have the tools both conservationists and animal welfare groups need to better control the local cat population.

Lisa LaFontaine, president and CEO of the Humane Rescue Alliance, said in a statement, “The reality is that those in the fields of welfare, ecology, conservation, and sheltering have a common long-term goal of fewer free-roaming cats on the landscape. This joint effort will provide scientific management programs to help achieve that goal, locally and nationally."

[h/t The New York Times]

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