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15 Electrifying Facts About Jellyfish

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Diana Robinson via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

Colorful, dangerous, and mesmerizing, there's a lot more going on with these gelatinous creatures than meets the eye. Here are 15 electrifying facts about these undersea beauties.

1. JELLYFISH CAN STING WHEN THEY'RE DEAD.

Even when they’re attached to a carcass, the cells of a jellyfish’s venomous tentacles will sometimes continue to fire: In 2010, about 150 New Hampshire beach-goers were stung by the disembodied tentacles of a dead lion’s mane jelly.

2. JELLYFISH ARE 95 PERCENT WATER.

From the outside, jellyfish look like squishy, insubstantial blobs, and this is reflected in their structural makeup.  Jellyfish are 95 percent water with the rest of them accounting for minerals and proteins. Between their two dermis layers is a gelatinous, water-based substance called mesoglea that contains muscle cells, nerve cells, and structural proteins.

3.  JELLYFISH ARE GOOD AT SHUTTING DOWN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. 

Nuclear power plants in Scotland, Sweden, California, Israel, and Japan have all been taken offline by slimy swarms of jellyfish. Power plants use outside water sources to cool down the fuel rods inside their reactor core. If this water contains jellies, they can clog up the system and force plants to shut down.

4. ONE SPECIES CAN AGE BACKWARD.

At any stage in its development, Turritopsis dohrnii—also known as the “immortal jellyfish” or the “Benjamin Button jellyfish”—is capable of reversing its life cycle until it reverts to a polyp, from which it starts the whole process over again. Some scientists believe by aging backward to escape death this jellyfish has unlocked the key to immortality.

5. JELLYFISH ARE OLDER THAN DINOSAURS.

Jellyfish have inhabited the earth’s oceans for over 650 million years, making them more ancient than sharks and dinosaurs.

 6. THERE’S A JELLYFISH SPECIES NAMED AFTER FRANK ZAPPA.

The Phialella zappai was named in honor of Frank Zappa, the favorite musician of the scientist who discovered it. Zappa was quoted as saying, “There is nothing I'd like better than having a jellyfish named after me."

7. JELLYFISH HAVE BEEN TO SPACE.

In 1991, NASA made history by sending 2478 jellyfish polyps to space. It was part of an experiment called “The Effects of Microgravity-Induced Weightlessness on Aurelia Ephyra Differentiation and Statolith Synthesis.” The creatures were kept in flasks and bags that contained artificial seawater, which astronauts then injected with chemicals that encouraged them to reproduce. By the end of the experiment there were approximately 60,000 jellyfish in the Earth’s orbit.

8. JELLYFISH DON’T HAVE ORGANS.

Jellies don’t have lungs, intestines, or stomachs, but they do use a much simpler system that’s able to get the job done. Their bodies are composed of two cell layers—the external epidermis and the internal gastrodermis. The gastrodermis has one opening it uses to consume food, expel waste, and exchange reproductive materials. They are able to absorb oxygen and nutrients through the cell walls of their inner layer and even through their outer layer.

9.  THEY COME IN MANY SIZES.

The largest jelly is the lion’s mane jellyfish, which grows up to 6 meters in diameter and has stinging tentacles up to 50 meters long. The smallest species is the Common Kingslayer. It’s smaller than a fingernail and it’s also one of the most venomous creatures on earth.

10. JELLYFISH HAVE IMPORTANT MEDICAL APPLICATIONS.

A few years ago, scientists from the Mayo Clinic injected unfertilized cat eggs with a green fluorescent protein found in crystal jellies and a gene from rhesus monkeys known to block the virus that causes feline AIDS. The only significance of the jellyfish protein was that it would indicate if the gene had successfully transferred. Sure enough, when the kittens were born, they glowed bright green when placed under a black light.

11. A GROUP OF JELLYFISH WAS ONCE CALLED A SMACK.

Sadly, that’s not often used anymore. The preference these days is to call a large gathering of jellies a "swarm."

12. JELLYFISH REPRODUCE SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY.

Jellyfish can reproduce sexually by releasing sperm and eggs into the ocean where they form tiny, free-swimming larvae. These larvae then grow into polyps which attach to smooth surfaces and can split into numerous young jellyfish, thus reproducing asexually.

13. RESEARCHERS HAVE BUILT A HUMAN-SIZED JELLYFISH ROBOT.

Researchers at Virginia Tech hoping to build self-powered aquatic robots used jellyfish as a model, building a 170 pound aquatic bot they dubbed Cyro to test their idea. The propulsion system of a jellyfish runs on very little energy, which makes it a great model for autonomous, undersea robots of the future.

14.  JELLYFISH ARE EDIBLE.

Sea turtles aren’t the only creatures that like to feast on jellies now and then. Blubber jellies, for example, are considered a delicacy in parts of Asia, and students at a Japanese high school once used powdered jellyfish to make salted caramels.

15. THEIR NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE MOST BASIC OF ANY MULTICELLULAR ANIMAL.

Instead of a brain, jellies use a “nerve net” to process sensory information. Specialized structures like statocysts help jellyfish know if they're facing up or down, and rhopalia allow them to sense light, chemicals and movement in the water. This is the most basic nervous system a multicellular organism can have, and it’s also found in hydras and anemones.

All photos via Getty Images unless otherwise noted.

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Big Questions
Why Do Cats Freak Out After Pooping?
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Cats often exhibit some very peculiar behavior, from getting into deadly combat situations with their own tail to pouncing on unsuspecting humans. Among their most curious habits: running from their litter box like a greyhound after moving their bowels. Are they running from their own fecal matter? Has waste elimination prompted a sense of euphoria?

Experts—if anyone is said to qualify as an expert in post-poop moods—aren’t exactly sure, but they’ve presented a number of entertaining theories. From a biological standpoint, some animal behaviorists suspect that a cat bolting after a deposit might stem from fears that a predator could track them based on the smell of their waste. But researchers are quick to note that they haven’t observed cats run from their BMs in the wild.

Biology also has a little bit to do with another theory, which postulates that cats used to getting their rear ends licked by their mother after defecating as kittens are showing off their independence by sprinting away, their butts having taken on self-cleaning properties in adulthood.

Not convinced? You might find another idea more plausible: Both humans and cats have a vagus nerve running from their brain stem. In both species, the nerve can be stimulated by defecation, leading to a pleasurable sensation and what some have labeled “poo-phoria,” or post-poop elation. In running, the cat may simply be working off excess energy brought on by stimulation of the nerve.

Less interesting is the notion that notoriously hygienic cats may simply want to shake off excess litter or fecal matter by running a 100-meter dash, or that a digestive problem has led to some discomfort they’re attempting to flee from. The fact is, so little research has been done in the field of pooping cat mania that there’s no universally accepted answer. Like so much of what makes cats tick, a definitive motivation will have to remain a mystery.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Animals
Listen to the Impossibly Adorable Sounds of a Baby Sloth
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RODRIGO ARANGUA/AFP/GettyImages

Sometimes baby sloths seem almost too adorable to be real. But the little muppet-faced treasures don't just look cute—turns out they sound cute, too. We know what you're thinking: How could you have gone your whole life without knowing what these precious creatures sound like? Well, fear not: Just in time for International Sloth Day (today), we have some footage of how the tiny mammals express themselves—and it's a lot of squeaking. (Or maybe that's you squealing?)

The sloths featured in the heart-obliterating video below come from the Sloth Sanctuary of Costa Rica. The institution rescues orphaned sloths, rehabilitates them, and gets them ready to be released back into the wild.

[h/t The Kid Should See This]

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