Welcome to One of the World's Last Matriarchal Societies

Travel to Kihnu, a small island off the coast of Estonia, and you’ll immediately notice that the island’s dirt roads, rock-strewn beaches, and tiny villages are bereft of men. Its inhabitants are mostly middle-aged women; they zip across the island astride vintage motorcycles, clad in traditional woven skirts and head scarves.

Kihnu is one of the world’s last remaining matriarchal societies. Its economy is reliant on the island’s fishermen, who leave home for months at a time to sail the Baltic Sea. Their wives are left behind to work in the fields, raise the children, and essentially run the island. They’re also responsible for passing down centuries-old traditions to the island’s younger generations—a challenging task thanks to a faltering economy and a dwindling population.

It’s easy to romanticize Kihnu’s pastoral shores, which attract European tourists during the summer months. However, the small community lacks industry and opportunities for adolescents. According to Visions of Kihnu, a short documentary that was screened at last year’s Estonian Documentary Film Festival & Competition in Toronto, young people often leave Kihnu to seek higher education and never return. Therefore, aspects of the island’s rich cultural heritageelaborate weddings filled with ancient rituals, and bright, hand-woven traditional dresses, for example—are in danger of dying out.

However, officials have taken steps to ensure that the island’s legacy is preserved. The Kihnu wedding has been named a UNESCO Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. And the recently renovated Kihnu Museum celebrates local history, notable residents, and the customs and conventions that make Kihnu unlike any other island in the Baltic region—or for that matter, the world.

[h/t Al Jazeera]

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25 Endangered Languages You Should Hear Before They Disappear
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Irish isn't just a nationality or heritage—it’s also a language. Otherwise known as Gaelic, the language has less than 450,000 speakers, making it one of 2500 endangered languages around the world. By the turn of the century, at least half of the world’s spoken languages are expected to go extinct, according to UNESCO [PDF].

Financial services website GoCompare reached out to native speakers of 25 endangered languages and had them record a translation of a quote by Italian filmmaker Federico Fellini in their mother tongue. The phrase was “a different language is a different vision of life”—a reference to scientific evidence that language not only shapes the way we think and perceive the world around us, but also shapes our culture.

One of the languages featured in the project, the Australian indigenous language of Wiradjuri, is spoken by just 30 people. The continent was once home to 250 indigenous languages, but only 40 of those are still spoken. Wiradjuri is seeing something of a revival, though, and schools in several areas are now starting to teach the language.

Nawat, a language spoken in El Salvador, has just 200 speakers remaining. Also known as Pipil, the language evolved from Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. According to historian Laura Matthew of Marquette University, some Nahuatl speakers in El Salvador are too ashamed to speak their mother tongue in public because of prejudice that persists in the country. Matthew and others around the world have started projects in an effort to preserve important documents in endangered languages and encourage more people to learn about them.

Below is the full list of languages that were included in the project:

Aymara: Bolivia, Chile, Peru
Balti: India, Pakistan
Basque: Spain, France
Belarusian: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine
Breton: France
Choctaw: USA
Cornish: England
Guaraní: Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil
Irish: Ireland
Kalmyk: Russia
Limburgian: Netherlands, Germany
Lombard: Italy, Switzerland
Nafusi: Libya
Nawat: El Salvador
North Frisian: Germany
North Sami: Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia
Ojibwe: USA
Ossete: Georgia, Russia
Quechua: Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina
Venetan: Italy, Croatia, Slovenia, Brazil, Mexico
Walloon: Belgium, France, Luxembourg
Welsh: Wales
West Frisian: Netherlands
Wichi: Argentina, Bolivia
Wiradjuri: Australia

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These Are the Most Popular Baby Names of 2017
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Millions of babies were born in the U.S. last year, and the most popular names chosen by American parents were Emma and Liam. Exactly 19,738 Emmas and 18,728 Liams were born in 2017, accounting for 1.053 percent of female births and .954 percent of male births, according to data recently released by the Social Security Administration.

Liam's ascension to the top of the boys' list marks the end of Noah's three-year streak as No.1. This year Noah was bumped to the No.2 slot, followed by William in third place for the second consecutive year. James, Logan, Benjamin, Mason, Elijah, Oliver, and Jacob round out the top 10.

On the female side, Emma continues to dominate. It was listed as the most popular name for baby girls for the fourth year in a row. Also for the fourth year running, Emma was followed by Olivia in second place. Ava, Isabella, Sophia, Mia, Charlotte, Amelia, Evelyn, and Abigail make up the rest of the list.

For an idea of what baby naming trends will look like a few years down the road, you have to look at the names that saw popularity spikes between 2016 and 2017. On the boy's list, Wells enjoyed the biggest boost, jumping 504 spots from 1419th to 915th place. Kairo, Caspian, and Nova all climbed high up the list as well.

The girls saw even more dramatic increases. After ranking No.2426 in 2016, Ensley now occupies the 965th spot. Oaklynn, Dream, and Oaklyn also made impressive gains. Melania made the fifth biggest jump last year from No.1650 to No.930 (the popularity of the name Donald, meanwhile, remains unchanged from 2016 to 2017 at No.488).

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