The Evolution of "Two" in the Indo-European Language Family

The Indo-European language family includes most of the languages of Europe as well as many languages in Asia. There is a long research tradition that has shown, though careful historical comparison, that languages spanning a huge linguistic and geographical range, from French to Greek to Russian to Hindi to Persian, are all related to each other and sprung from a common source, Proto-Indo-European. One of the techniques for studying the relationship of the different languages to each other is to look at the similarities between individual words and work out the sound changes that led from one language to the next.

This diagram, submitted to Reddit by user IronChestplate1, shows the word for two in various Indo-European languages. (The “proto” versions, marked with an asterisk, are hypothesized forms, built by working backward from historical evidence.) The languages cluster around certain common features, but the words are all strikingly similar, especially when you consider the words for two in languages outside the Indo-European family: iki (Turkish), èjì (Yoruba), ni (Japanese), kaksi (Finnish), etc. There are many possible forms two could take, but in this particular group of languages it is extremely limited. What are the chances of that happening by accident? Once you see it laid out like this, it doesn’t take much to put *dwóh and *dwóh together.

4 Times Caps Lock Got Someone Into Trouble

iStock.com/ufukguler
iStock.com/ufukguler

The caps lock key, as we know it today, debuted in 1984 with the release of IBM's Model M keyboard. Prior to that, there had been a lock key, and a shift lock key before that. According to Daily Infographic’s history of the caps lock, the idea that typing in all caps is akin to yelling originated in the early days of the internet. You couldn’t use bold or italics on message boards, so block letters were the only way to ensure your comments would get noticed. It’s still a necessary key, but it can also get people into a whole lot of trouble when it’s used inappropriately. In honor of Caps Lock Day (which is today), here are four cases where typing in all caps went all wrong.

1. THE NEW YORK LAWYER WHO GOT SUSPENDED

Gino L. Giorgini III wasn’t pleased with a judge’s decision. In 2005, the Long Island-based lawyer sent the judge a note requesting reargument which read, “THIS IS LA LA LAND ON STEROIDS ... I CAN NOT COMPREHEND THE #%*%#$^%* THAT IS THIS DECISION.” Three years later, in an unrelated case, he hit the caps lock button again and included this comment in an affidavit: “Nice Joke. DISGUSTING.” According to The New York Times, a state appeals court issued an opinion last month which determined that Giorgini’s caps-riddled comments had gone “beyond the bounds of zealous advocacy and were derogatory, undignified, and inexcusable.” To be fair, three of the six comments that had been submitted to the court for review contained no unnecessary capitalization (although one had seven exclamation points). The shouting tone of the other written comments likely didn’t help Giorgini’s case, though.

2. THE NEW ZEALAND WOMAN WHO SENT WORK EMAILS IN BIG, BOLD, BLUE LETTERS

Vicki Walker, a financial controller for a cooperative of healthcare workers in New Zealand, was fired in 2007 for sending “confrontational” emails in bold, capital letters—often in a red or blue font. Walker subsequently sued her employer, and although her colleagues had complained about several of her emails, only one was submitted into evidence. It concerned the proper procedure for filling out staff claim forms, and in it, Walker wrote an otherwise ordinary sentence in bold, blue font: “TO ENSURE YOUR STAFF CLAIM IS PROCESSED AND PAID, PLEASE DO FOLLOW THE BELOW CHECKLIST.” The joke was on her employers, though. Two years after her firing, Walker was awarded just over $11,000 for “unfair dismissal,” partly because her workplace didn’t have any corporate guidelines pertaining to emails.

3. THE DAD WHO KEPT EMAILING HIS KIDS IN ALL CAPS

In 2014, a father found himself in court for a custody dispute involving his 13-year-old son and 9-year-old daughter, who had moved back and forth between England and his native Israel. To help restore relations, a judge in England’s High Court told the dad he must stop sending emails to his children in capital letters because it was insensitive and looked like he was shouting at them. A family assistance officer was appointed to help the man write more “suitable” emails. "He needs help to make his messages appropriate and child-friendly," the judge said, according to The Telegraph. "There's nothing worse than an email suggestive that the sender is shouting at you."

4. THE PENNSYLVANIA MAN WHO WAS FIRED FOR WRITING AN OMINOUS EMAIL

Joseph F. Aversa, a sales manager in Pennsylvania, was terminated in 2011 after sending an email to another manager which read, “Hey Jim, you set me up pretty good ... I WON'T FORGET IT." The man was reportedly angry that one of his clients had been reassigned to another sales manager—the recipient of his ill-fated email. Unfortunately for Aversa, the all-caps message was perceived as a threat, and he was subsequently fired for threatening a fellow employee and violating the employer’s violence prevention policy. However, he filed suit against the Unemployment Compensation Board of Review, which denied his claim for benefits, and the Pennsylvania court reversed the decision. The judge in this case argued that writing “neutral words” in capital letters doesn’t automatically make an email a threat.

Why Do We Call a Leg Cramp a Charley Horse?

iStock.com/Jan-Otto
iStock.com/Jan-Otto

If you’re unlucky enough to have experienced a charley horse—a painful muscle spasm or cramp in your leg—then you may have found yourself wondering what this nonsensical phrase even means. Who is this Charley character? Where did he come from? And what does he know about my pain?

Like the words flaky and jazz, this term likely entered the language from the baseball field. While the idiom’s etymology isn’t 100 percent certain, archived newspaper articles suggest it was coined by a baseball player in the 1880s. We just don’t know which player said it first, or why.

According to a January 1887 article in the Democrat and Chronicle, the phrase was well-known to baseball players at the time—but to the average person, charley horses were as enigmatic as “an Egyptian hieroglyphic.” That year, charley horses were mentioned in a slew of newspapers across America, and some attempted to tackle the phrase’s murky origin. “Nearly every sporting journal gives a different version as to how the term charley horse originated in baseball circles,” the Oakland Daily Evening Tribune reported at the time.

The likeliest tale, according to the paper, centered around John Wesley "Jack" Glasscock, a shortstop who at the time was playing for Indianapolis. At some point a few years earlier, the player had strained a tendon in his thigh during a game and afterwards went home to his farm, where his father looked after a lame old horse called a "Charley horse." When the senior Glasscock saw his son limping along, he reportedly exclaimed, “Why, John, my boy, what is the matter; you go just like the old Charley horse?” John supposedly shared the funny turn of phrase with his teammates, and from there it spread. Similar accounts were reported in other newspapers, but they were attributed to various other players.

Other reports say the phrase has nothing to do with a live animal, but rather the fact that an injured player, while running, resembles a rocking horse or a child riding astride a wooden hobby horse.

The New Dickson Baseball Dictionary by Paul Dickson details a few other theories. In two versions of the same basic tale, Orioles or Chicago Cubs players went to the races and bet on a horse named Charlie who "pulled up lame in the final stretch." The next day, a player pulled a tendon in his leg and was said to resemble “our old Charlie horse.”

Alternatively, its origin may relate to an old workhorse that was tasked with pulling a roller across the infield. “Often in the 1800s, old workhorses kept on the grounds of ballparks were called Charley. The movements of the injured, stiff-legged ballplayers were likened to the labored plodding of these old horses, and the injury itself eventually became known as a ‘charley’ or ‘charley horse,'" Tim Considine wrote in 1982's The Language of Sport.

It also appears that charley horse originally implied a much more serious injury—or perhaps there was a bit of hysteria surrounding a condition that seemed new and scary in the late 19th century. The Democrat and Chronicle described a charley horse as a “giving way of one of the small tendons of the leg” and said an injured baseball player might need an entire season to recover. Another article from 1887 said ballplayer George Van Haltren’s relatives were worried he would get a charley horse, “although they do not know what that is.” He was said to have been “very fortunate” because he had “not yet encountered the terrible charley horse.”

For comparison, Healthline.com now says charley horses “are generally treatable at home” by stretching, massaging, or icing the afflicted area, although the muscle pain can linger for up to a day in some cases. So there you have it. We may never know the exact etymology of the charley horse, but the next time you get a sharp pain in your leg, you can thank an old-timey ballplayer for making your struggle sound so silly.

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