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15 Fab Facts About Help!

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The Beatles never claimed to be great actors, but it sure looked like they were having a ball whenever they appeared on the big screen. After the success of the cinema verité-style film A Hard Day’s Night in 1964, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr decided to go bigger and brighter for their second movie, Help! (quite literally: unlike its predecessor, Help! was in color). For their second go-round, The Beatles re-teamed with A Hard Day’s Night director Richard Lester for a madcap, globe-trotting romp that had them fighting off a kooky, Indian-esque (or “Eastern,” as they were called) cult determined to sacrifice a hapless Ringo to their deity, Kaili.

Its weak, politically incorrect plot aside, Help! is an iconic piece of 1960s moviemaking (a gushing Martin Scorsese even penned the introduction to the film’s 2007 DVD re-release). The movie further established Lester as one of the more daring directors of the period, and he helped (no pun intended) to usher in the music video format that would become standard over the next several decades. And let’s not forget that it starred The Beatles, who were at the height of their fame at the time. These guys probably could have gotten away with just lying on a Bahamian beach for the last 20 minutes of the movie and it still would have been a hit. But, fortunately for everyone who’s ever seen Help!, they opted instead to put their talents to good use, infusing the story with their trademark wit, charm, and—most importantly—seven quintessential Beatles tunes.

Help! premiered in London on July 29, 1965, and made its way stateside the following month. In celebration of the film's 50th anniversary, here are 15 things you might not have known about The Beatles’ second brush with Hollywood stardom.

1. HELP! WAS ALMOST CALLED EIGHT ARMS TO HOLD YOU.

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At first listen, “Eight Arms to Hold You” sounds like a nice idea: who wouldn’t want to be held by all four Beatles, right? But when Lester reveals that the Ringo Starr-suggested title was in fact a reference to the multi-armed statue of Kaili that appears in the film, and not a teenage girl’s fantasy of being cradled by The Fab Four, much of the romantic element fades away. In the book accompanying the film’s 2007 DVD re-release, Lester claims that he had wanted to call the movie Help from the get-go, but the title had already been registered. Luckily, thanks to The Beatles’ lack of enthusiasm to write a song called “Eight Arms to Hold You” and a legal loophole involving an exclamation point, the film was able to proceed as Help!

2. GEORGE HARRISON WAS FIRST TURNED ON TO SITAR MUSIC DURING THE FILM’S PRODUCTION.

In the months following the release of Help!, the sitar—an instrument synonymous with Indian music—began to pop up on several now-classic Beatles songs such as “Love You To,” “Tomorrow Never Knows,” and “Within You Without You.” The origins of this new direction can be traced back to a single scene in Help!, which took place at an Indian restaurant and featured several musicians playing Beatles songs (like “A Hard Day’s Night”) on the sitar. Guitarist George Harrison admitted in 2000’s The Beatles Anthology that this piqued his interest in the instrument. By the end of 1965, he was playing the sitar on the Rubber Soul tune “Norwegian Wood.”

To that end, John Lennon believed that The Beatles’ general fascination with Indian culture—studying yoga, working with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Harrison’s passion for the music, etc.—was all a result of working on the movie: “All of the Indian involvement came out of the film Help!” said Lennon in the Anthology (culled from a 1972 interview).

3. THE MOVIE’S INTERNATIONAL LOCALES WERE REALLY JUST AN EXCUSE FOR THE BEATLES TO TRAVEL.

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While A Hard Day’s Night stuck to the familiarity of London, Help! was a veritable travelogue, sending The Beatles to such far-flung destinations as the Bahamas and the Austrian Alps in their attempts to evade the evil Clang (Leo McKern) and his cult of Eastern sycophants. But as Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr revealed in Anthology interviews, the film’s travel budget was increased mainly because they wanted to go to the aforementioned locales. McCartney recalled how they would say to the writers, “We’ve never been to the Bahamas—could you write that in?” and “I’ve never been skiing. I wonder if you could write in a scene with skiing?”

But The Beatles learned the consequences of their actions the hard way: the weather in the Bahamas was freezing at the time (“It was absolutely bloody cold,” said Starr), and their crash course in skiing consisted of, according to the drummer, little more than being “edged down the mountain.”

4. THE BEATLES’ CO-STAR, ELEANOR BRON, PARTIALLY INSPIRED THE SONG “ELEANOR RIGBY.”

Thirty years before she terrified millennial children as the cruel Miss Minchin in A Little Princess, English actress Eleanor Bron had the most coveted acting gig in the world—as the beautiful and exotic Ahme, the member of the Eastern cult secretly helping the lads. She obviously left a lasting impression on Paul McCartney, who confirmed in the Anthology that he did get the name for The Beatles’ 1966 tune “Eleanor Rigby” from his Help! co-star. “I liked the name Eleanor,” he said.

5. JOHN LENNON IS READING HIS OWN BOOK DURING THE “BEATLES AT HOME” SCENE.

Getting excited over a good book is one thing, but kissing it? I guess if you’re John Lennon, and the book you selected from your personal library happens to be your own 1965 collection of stories and drawings called A Spaniard in the Works, you’d be showering it with affection, too.

6. THE BEATLES’ MAIN FORM OF NOURISHMENT ON THE HELP! SET WAS MARIJUANA.

The film itself is peppered with sly drug references (“Boys, are you buzzing?” “No, thanks!”; Paul to Ahme about the injection she’s about to give Ringo: “You sure it’s not mainlining or habit-forming?”), which made a lot of sense considering the amount of pot being smoked throughout the shoot. Lester attributed the movie’s “mad quality” to the abundance of weed The Beatles were smoking, and John Lennon, in a 1980 Playboy interview (referenced in the Anthology), made no bones about it either: “By then we were smoking marijuana for breakfast … and nobody could communicate with us because it was just all glazed eyes giggling all the time, in their own world.”

The heavy marijuana presence in Help! also made for this great on-set Anthology anecdote from Ringo Starr: While shooting a scene in the Austrian Alps, The Beatles were supposed to run away after a bomb planted in a curling stone goes off. Starr, craving another toke, admitted that “Paul and I ran about seven miles ... we just ran and ran so we could stop and have a joint.”

7. THE CROSS-CHANNEL SWIMMER WHO POPS UP BENEATH THE ALPINE SNOW ISN’T REALLY A CROSS-CHANNEL SWIMMER.

After the aforementioned bomb-in-the-curling-stone goes off, a man pops up from beneath the icy water asking for the “White Cliffs of Dover.” The swimmer is played by Mal Evans, The Beatles’ road manager and confidant. Evans’ character appears one more time in the movie’s final scene, swimming up to The Beatles on the beach in the Bahamas. No dialogue is exchanged, but the four lads merely point him in the opposite direction (for the White Cliffs of Dover are nowhere near Paradise Island).

8. ELEANOR BRON REFUSED THE GIFT OF A BEATLE JOINT.

The actress committed a major faux pas during filming when she turned down John Lennon’s offer of some pot. Since Bron wasn’t a smoker, she figured that the drug would be wasted on her, so she returned the joint to her famous co-star. That and she assumed any marijuana purchased by a Beatle had to be expensive, so she didn’t feel right accepting such high-end product when she wasn’t into it. Watch Bron discuss her exchange with Lennon in the video below.

9. THE TRIPPIEST MOMENT IN HELP! WAS NOT INFLUENCED BY DRUGS.

Photographer Robert Freeman, who shot several of The Beatles’ album covers—including the one for Help!—designed the end title sequence for the movie (he also designed the end titles for A Hard Day’s Night). In his book, The Beatles: A Private View, he explained that the idea for the credits, in which The Beatles and their co-stars seem to appear in an incredibly vivid drug trip, actually came from the bright red ring Ringo Starr wears throughout the movie:

“Since Ringo’s ring was the centerpiece of the plot, I filmed The Beatles and supporting cast—Leo McKern, Eleanor Bron, Victor Spinetti—through prisms and pieces of faceted glass to create an impression of the characters being inside the ring. The sequence has been described as ‘psychedelic’ because of the kaleidoscopic coloring and imagery, but the inspiration came from a plot element and not from a drug-induced trance!”

10. THE MUSICAL NOTES IN THE “TICKET TO RIDE” SEQUENCE WERE PRODUCED OUT OF NECESSITY RATHER THAN CREATIVITY.

There’s a cute moment in the “Ticket to Ride” sequence where The Beatles are skiing in the Austrian Alps and they appear to ski right underneath part of the song’s musical score (it starts at around 1:27 in the above video). But as Lester explained in the 2007 documentary that accompanied the film’s DVD release, the decision to add musical notes came from the fact that the lads were skiing under some unsightly "telegraph wires” (Lester’s words; for all we know they could’ve been telephone wires). Since he couldn’t remove the wires digitally—this was the pre-CGI era, after all—he figured they’d make an ideal musical staff instead!

11. RICHARD LESTER’S WORK ON HELP! PIONEERED THE MUSIC VIDEO FORMAT.

It really shouldn’t come as a surprise that Lester and The Beatles were the first-ever recipients of the MTV Video Vanguard Award in 1984 (they shared the honor with David Bowie). The rompy musical numbers in both A Hard Day’s Night and Help! paved the way toward the MTV (and now, YouTube) age. The performances of all seven songs in Help!— the title track, “Another Girl,” “You’ve Got to Hide Your Love Away,” “I Need You,” “Ticket to Ride,” “The Night Before,” and “You’re Going to Lose That Girl”—can each be considered early forms of what would eventually become the music video format. In the above clip, taken from the 2007 Help! documentary, Lester says that (in addition to the Video Vanguard Award) he was once “sent a parchment scroll declaring that I was the father of MTV.”

12. ELEANOR BRON HAS 14 COSTUME CHANGES THROUGHOUT THE FILM.

Ahme, as a member of the mysterious cult chasing Ringo, predominantly wears elaborate “Eastern” finery in all of her scenes, including a sequined cape when swimming. But there are a few instances where Ahme gets to embrace the burgeoning mod fashion movement of mid-1960s London, as in this head-to-toe pink leather ensemble, where the best part of her entire outfit has to be her matching pink gun.

 

13. THERE’S A GREAT HELP! INSIDE JOKE AT THE END OF A BOOK SPANNING THE BEATLES’ EARLY YEARS.

Spoiler alert! Upon reaching the end of Mark Lewisohn’s book The Beatles: All These Years, Tune in, Vol. 1, die-hard fans will get a kick out of how the author chose to close the first installment of his planned three-volume trilogy.

            “End of Part One”

            “Intermission”

This is a reference to an absurd pause less than halfway through the movie, in which the “intermission” consists of The Beatles acting silly in a wooded area.

14. VICTOR SPINETTI, WHO PLAYED ONE OF THE BUMBLING SCIENTISTS, ALSO APPEARED IN TWO OTHER BEATLES FILMS.

It wasn’t just a freaky Eastern cult following Ringo around the world in Help! The Beatles’ drummer was also being pursued by the power-hungry scientist Tiberius Foot (Victor Spinetti) and his naive assistant, Algernon (Roy Kinnear, a.k.a. Veruca Salt’s dad in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory). This was Welsh actor Spinetti’s second time playing opposite the Liverpudlian pop stars, having portrayed the uppity T.V. Director in A Hard Day’s Night the previous year. He was a personal favorite actor of The Beatles, who asked him to appear in A Hard Day’s Night after they saw one of his theater performances. (According to Spinetti, George Harrison told him, “You gotta be in all our films … if you’re not in them, me mum wouldn’t come and see them, because she fancies you.”) Two years after Help!, Spinetti showed up as an army sergeant in the band’s third movie, Magical Mystery Tour.

15. FOR ONE NIGHT ONLY, RICHARD LESTER GOT TO CALL HIMSELF “THE FIFTH BEATLE.”

During the Austrian Alps part of the shoot, there was a birthday party for assistant director Clive Reed held in the beer cellar of the resort where everyone was staying. Eventually The Beatles started up a jam session of all their old favorite 1950s tunes, and Lester joined in on the piano. As Lester tells it, he woke up the next morning with bleeding fingers: “My sheets were covered in blood, because I hadn’t played in so long.”

But it sounds like the pain was worth it, because the late Neil Aspinall (The Beatles’ onetime road manager), remarked to Lester around the time of the 2007 making-of documentary that he will forever be a member of a very elite club: “Do you realize that you’re probably one of the only musicians in the world that’s ever actually played a full set with The Beatles?”

Additional Sources:
2007 DVD Re-Release box set of Help! (retrospective book and documentary)
The Beatles Anthology (2000 book and 2003 DVD set)
The Beatles, by Bob Spitz
The Beatles: A Private View, by Robert Freeman

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15 Fascinating Facts About Candyman
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Helen Lyle (Virginia Madsen) is a Chicago graduate student with a deep fascination with urban legends, which she and her friend Bernadette (Kasi Lemmons) are using as the basis for a thesis project. After they stumble across the local legend of Candyman, a well-to-do black artist who fell in love with a white woman in the late 1800s and was murdered for it, Helen wants to learn more. When she’s told that Candyman still haunts Chicago's Cabrini-Green housing project, and that his spirit can be summoned by repeating his name into a mirror five times, Helen does just that … and all hell breaks loose.

What began as a low-budget indie film has morphed into a contemporary classic of the horror genre, and essential Halloween viewing. In 1992, English filmmaker Bernard Rose—who got his start working as a gopher on The Muppet Show—turned Clive Barker’s short story “The Forbidden” into Candyman, which was released in theaters 25 years ago today. In honor of the film’s anniversary, here are 15 things you might not have known about Candyman.

1. EDDIE MURPHY WAS CONSIDERED FOR THE LEAD.

Though the role of Candyman turned Tony Todd into a horror icon, he wasn’t the only actor in consideration for the film’s title role: Eddie Murphy was also reportedly a contender for the part. Though it’s unclear exactly why he wasn’t cast, sources have reported that it had to do with everything from his height (at 5 feet 9 inches, he wouldn’t seem nearly as intimidating as the 6-foot-5 Todd) to his salary demands.

2. AN UNEXPECTED PREGNANCY LANDED VIRGINIA MADSEN THE LEAD.

Virginia Madsen stars in 'Candyman'
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When asked by HorrorNewsNetwork about how she got the role of Helen in Candyman, Virginia Madsen shared that it was almost by accident: She was supposed to play Bernie, Helen’s friend and classmate, the role that eventually went to Kasi Lemmons.

“I was actually very good friends with Bernard [Rose] and his wife Alexandra,” Madsen said. “She is a wonderful actress, who actually brought Clive Barker’s short story ‘The Forbidden’ to her husband. She thought this would be a great film, and he could direct her. She was supposed to be Helen. I was going to play [Kasi Lemmons'] part, until they made the character African American. Then I was out.

“Right before shooting, Alexandra found out she was pregnant. It was great for me, but it was so sad for her because this was her role; she found this story and really wanted it. So when I was asked to step in I felt like ‘I can’t take my friend’s role.’ She actually came over one day and said ‘It would just kill me to see someone else play this role, you have to be the one who plays it.’ So with her blessing I took on the role. I really tried to work my butt off just to honor her.”

3. IT COULD HAVE STARRED SANDRA BULLOCK.

On the film’s DVD commentary, producer Alan Poul said that had Madsen been unable to step into the role of Helen, the part would have likely been offered to Sandra Bullock, who was still a relative unknown actress at that point. Though she had played the role of Tess McGill in the television adaptation of Working Girl, she was still a couple of years away from Speed (1994), the role that launched her into stardom.

4. ITS OPENING SHOT WAS GROUNDBREAKING.

The film’s opening credits feature a great aerial view of Chicago, which was pretty revolutionary for its time. “We did that with an incredible new machine called the Skycam, which can shoot up to a 500mm lens with no vibration,” Rose told The Independent. “You've never seen that shot before, at least not done that smoothly.”

5. NOT ALL OF THE FILM’S CREEPY DETAILS SPRUNG FROM CLIVE BARKER’S IMAGINATION.

While investigating one of Candyman’s crime scenes, Helen and Bernie discover that the design of the apartment’s medicine cabinet made it a possible point of entry for an intruder. This was not a made-up piece of horror movie fiction. While researching the film, Rose learned that a series of murders had been committed in Chicago in this very way.

6. BERNARD ROSE SEES CANDYMAN AS A ROMANTIC FIGURE.

Tony Todd stars in 'Candyman'
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Viewers may think of Candyman as one of the horror genre’s most terrifying villains, but Rose said that “the idea always was that he was kind of a romantic figure. And again, romantic in sort of the Edgar Allan Poe sense—it's the romance of death. He's a ghost, and he's also the resurrection of something that is kind of unspoken or unspeakable in American history, which is slavery, as well. So he's kind of come back and he's haunting what is the new version of the racial segregation in Chicago.

“And I think there's also something very seductive and very sweet and very romantic about him, and that's what makes him interesting. In the same way there is about Dracula. In the end, the Bogeyman is someone you want to surrender to. You're not just afraid of. There's a certain kind of joy in his seduction. And Tony was always so romantic. Tony ties him in so elegantly and is such a gentleman. He was wonderful.”

7. THE BEES IN THE FILM WERE BRED SPECIFICALLY TO APPEAR ONSCREEN.

No, that is not CGI! The bees that play a key role in Candyman are indeed real. So that they looked appropriately terrifying, but were less dangerous to the cast and crew, the filmmakers used newborn bees—they were just 12 hours old—so that they looked fully grown, but had less powerful stingers.

8. TONY TODD WAS STUNG 23 TIMES, AND GOT A BONUS EACH TIME IT HAPPENED.

Photo of Tony Todd in 'Candyman'
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In addition to allowing the filmmakers to cover his face with bees, Todd actually agreed to film a scene in which he had a mouthful of bees—and that, too, was all real. He told TMZ that he wore a dental dam to prevent any bees from sliding into his throat—which doesn’t mean that he didn’t suffer a sting or two … or 23, to be exact, over the course of three Candyman movies. Though it might have been worth it. “I had a great lawyer,” he told TMZ. “A thousand dollars a pop.”

9. THE BEES WEREN’T GREAT NEWS FOR MADSEN, EITHER.

Madsen, too, had to get up close and personal with those bees—a fact that almost forced her to pass on the role. “When Bernie was first asking me to do the role I said, ‘Well, I can’t. I’m allergic to bees,’” she told HorrorNewsNetwork. “He said ‘No you’re not allergic to bees, you’re just afraid.’ So I had to go to UCLA and get tested because he didn’t believe [me]. I was tested for every kind of venom. I was far more allergic to wasps. So he said, ‘We’ll just [have] paramedics there, it will be fine!’ You know actors, we’ll do anything for a paycheck! So fine, I’ll be covered with bees.

“So we a had a bee wrangler and he pretty much told us you can’t freak out around the bees, or be nervous, or swat at them, it would just aggravate them. They used baby bees on me. They can still sting you, but are less likely. When they put the bees on me it was crazy because they have fur. They felt like little Q-tips roaming around on me. Then you have pheromones on you, so they’re all in love with you and think you’re a giant queen. I really just had to go into this Zen sort of place and the takes were very short. What took the longest was getting the bees off of us. They had this tiny ‘bee vacuum,’ which wouldn’t harm the bees. After the scene where the bees were all over my face and my head, it took both Tony and I 45 minutes just to get the bees off. That’s when it became difficult to sit still. It was cool though, I felt like a total badass doing it.”

10. PHILIP GLASS COMPOSED THE SCORE, BUT WAS DISAPPOINTED IN THE MOVIE.

When Philip Glass signed on to compose the score for Candyman, he apparently envisioned the final film being something totally different. According to Rolling Stone, “What he'd presumed would be an artful version of Clive Barker's short story ‘The Forbidden’ had ended up, in his view, a low-budget slasher.” Glass was reportedly disappointed in the film, and felt that he had been manipulated. Still, the haunting music is considered a classic score—and Glass’s own view of it seems to have softened over time. “It has become a classic, so I still make money from that score, get checks every year,” he told Variety in 2014.

11. MANY OF THE FILM'S SCENES WERE SHOT AT CABRINI-GREEN.

In 2011, the last remaining high-rise in the Cabrini-Green housing project was demolished. Over the years, the property—which opened in 1942—gained a notorious reputation around the world for being a haven for violence, drugs, gangs, and other criminal activities. While the project’s real-life history weaves its way into the narrative of Candyman, it only makes sense that Rose would want to shoot there. Which he did. But in order to gain permission to shoot there, he had to agree to cast some of the residents as extras.

“I went to Chicago on a research trip to see where it could be done and I was shown around by some people from the Illinois Film Commission and they took me to Cabrini-Green,” Rose said. “And I spent some time there and I realized that this was an incredible arena for a horror movie because it was a place of such palpable fear. And rule number one when you're making a horror movie is set it somewhere frightening. And the fear of the urban housing project, it seemed to me, was actually totally irrational because you couldn't really be in that much danger. Yes, there was crime there, but people were actually afraid of driving past it. And there was such an aura of fear around the place and I thought that was really something interesting to look into because it's sort of a kind of fear that's at the heart of modern cities. And obviously, it's racially motivated, but more than that—it's poverty motivated.”

12. THE FILM’S PRODUCERS WERE WORRIED THAT THE FILM WOULD BE CONSIDERED RACIST.

During pre-production, Candyman’s producers began to worry that the film might draw criticism for being racist, given that its villain was black and it was largely set in an infamous housing project. “I had to go and have a whole set of meetings with the NAACP, because the producers were so worried,” Rose told The Independent. “And what they said to me when they'd read the script was 'Why are we even having this meeting? You know, this is just good fun.' Their argument was 'Why shouldn't a black actor be a ghost? Why shouldn't a black actor play Freddy Krueger or Hannibal Lecter? If you're saying that they can't be, it's really perverse. This is a horror movie.'”

13. STILL, SOME FILMMAKERS COMPLAINED THAT IT WAS RACIST.

In a 1992 story in the Chicago Tribune, some high-profile black filmmakers expressed their disappointment that the film seemed to perpetuate several racist stereotypes. “There’s no question that this film plays on white middle-class fears of black people,” director Carl Franklin (Out of Time, Devil in a Blue Dress) said. “It unabashedly uses racial stereotypes and destructive myths to create shock. I found it hokey and unsettling. It didn't work for me because I don’t share those fears, buy into those myths.”

Reginald Hudlin, who directed House Party, Boomerang, and Marshall, described the film as “worrisome,” though he didn’t want to speak on the record about his specific issues with the film. “I've gotten calls about [the movie], but I think I'm going to reserve comment,” he said. “Some of my friends are in it and I may someday want to work for TriStar.”

For Rose, those assessments may have been hard to hear, as his goal in adapting Barker’s story and directing it was to upend the myths about inner cities. “[T]he tradition of oral storytelling is very much alive, especially when it's a scary story,” he told The Independent. “And the biggest urban legend of all for me was the idea that there are places in cities where you do not go, because if you go in them something dreadful will happen—not to say that there isn't danger in ghettos and inner city areas, but the exaggerated fear of them is an urban myth.”

14. IT’S STILL THE ROLE THAT MADSEN IS MOST RECOGNIZED FOR (ESPECIALLY AT AIRPORTS).

Kasi Lemmons and Virginia Madsen in 'Candyman'
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Though she earned a Best Supporting Actress nomination in 2005 for Alexander Payne’s Sideways, in 2012 Madsen said that Candyman is still the role she is most recognized for—especially at airports.

“More people recognize me from that movie than anything I’ve done,” she told HorrorNewsNetwork. “It means a lot to me. It was after years of struggling. As an actor, you always want a film that’s annual, like It’s a Wonderful Life or A Christmas Story. I just love that I have a Halloween movie. Now it’s kind of legend this story. People have watched it since they were kids, and every Halloween it’s on, and they watch it now with their kids. That means a lot to me. The place I get recognized the most is the airport security for some reason. Every person in airport security has seen Candyman. Maybe it makes them a little afraid of me.”

15. THERE WAS AN ACTUAL CANDYMAN KILLER.

Though the Chicago-based legend of Candyman is a work of fiction, there was an actual serial killer known as “Candyman” or “The Candy Man.” Between 1970 and 1973, Dean Corll kidnapped, tortured, and murdered at least 28 young boys in the Houston area. Corll earned his sweet nickname from the fact that his family owned a candy factory.

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10 Facts About Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary
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October 16 is World Dictionary Day, which each year celebrates the birthday of the American lexicographer Noah Webster, who was born in Connecticut in 1758. Last year, Mental Floss marked the occasion with a list of facts about Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language—the enormous two-volume dictionary, published in 1828 when Webster was 70 years old, that established many of the differences that still divide American and British English to this day. But while Webster was America’s foremost lexicographer, on the other side of the Atlantic, Great Britain had Dr. Samuel Johnson.

Johnson—whose 308th birthday was marked with a Google Doodle in September—published the equally groundbreaking Dictionary of the English Language in 1755, three years before Webster was even born. Its influence was arguably just as great as that of Webster’s, and it remained the foremost dictionary of British English until the early 1900s when the very first installments of the Oxford English Dictionary began to appear.

So to mark this year’s Dictionary Day, here are 10 facts about Johnson’s monumental dictionary.

1. IT WASN’T THE FIRST DICTIONARY.

With more than 40,000 entries, Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language was certainly the largest dictionary in the history of the English language at the time but, despite popular opinion, it wasn’t the first. Early vocabularies and glossaries were being compiled as far back as the Old English period, when lists of words and their equivalents in languages like Latin and French first began to be used by scribes and translators. These were followed by educational word lists and then early bilingual dictionaries that began to emerge in the 16th century, which all paved the way for what is now considered the very first English dictionary: Robert Cawdrey’s Table Alphabeticall—in 1604.

2. SAMUEL JOHNSON BORROWED FROM THE DICTIONARIES THAT CAME BEFORE HIS.

In compiling his dictionary, Johnson drew on Nathan Bailey’s Dictionarium Britanicum, which had been published in 1730. (Ironically, a sequel to Bailey’s dictionary, A New Universal Etymological English Dictionary, was published in the same year as Johnson’s, and borrowed heavily from his work; its author, Joseph Nicoll Scott, even gave Johnson some credit for its publication.)

But just as Johnson had borrowed from Bailey and Scott had borrowed from Johnson, Bailey, too had borrowed from an earlier work—namely John Kersey’s Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum (1708)—which was based in part on a technical vocabulary, John Harris’s Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Lexicographic plagiarism was nothing new.

3. THE DICTIONARY WASN’T THE ONLY THING JOHNSON WROTE.

Although he’s best remembered as a lexicographer today, Johnson was actually something of a literary multitasker. As a journalist, he wrote for an early periodical called The Gentlemen’s Magazine. As a biographer, he wrote the Life of Mr Richard Savage (1744), a memoir of a friend and fellow writer who had died the previous year. Johnson also wrote numerous poems (London, published anonymously in 1738, was his first major published work), a novel (Rasselas, 1759), a stage play (Irene, 1749), and countless essays and critiques. He also co-edited an edition of Shakespeare’s plays. And in between all of that, he even found time to investigate a supposed haunted house in central London.

4. IT WAS THE FIRST DICTIONARY TO USE QUOTATIONS.

Johnson’s dictionary defined some 42,773 words, each of which was given a uniquely scholarly definition, complete with a suggested etymology and an armory of literary quotations—no fewer than 114,000 of them, in fact.

Johnson lifted quotations from books dating back to the 16th century for the citations in his dictionary, and relied heavily on the works of authors he admired and who were popular at the time—Shakespeare, John Milton, Alexander Pope, and Edmund Spenser included. In doing so, he established a lexicographic trend that still survives in dictionaries to this day.

5. IT TOOK MORE THAN EIGHT YEARS TO WRITE.

Defining 42,000 words and finding 114,000 quotes to help you do so takes time: Working from his home off Fleet Street in central London, Johnson and six assistants worked solidly for over eight years to bring his dictionary to print. (Webster, on the other hand, worked all but single-handedly, and used the 22 years it took him to compile his American Dictionary to learn 26 different languages.)

6. JOHNSON WAS WELL PAID FOR HIS TROUBLES.

Johnson was commissioned to write his dictionary by a group of London publishers, who paid him a princely 1,500 guineas—equivalent to roughly $300,000 (£225,000) today.

7. HE LEFT OUT A LOT OF WORDS.

The dictionary’s 42,000-word vocabulary might sound impressive, but it’s believed that the English language probably had as many as five times that many words around the time the dictionary was published in 1755. A lot of that shortfall was simply due to oversight: Johnson included the word irritable in four of his definitions, for instance, but didn’t list it as a headword in his own dictionary. He also failed to include a great many words found in the works of the authors he so admired, and in several of the source dictionaries he utilized, and in some cases he even failed to include the root forms of words whose derivatives were listed elsewhere in the dictionary. Athlete, for instance, didn’t make the final cut, whereas athletic did.

Johnson’s imposition of his own tastes and interests on his dictionary didn't help matters either. His dislike of French, for example, led to familiar words like unique, champagne, and bourgeois being omitted, while those he did include were given a thorough dressing down: ruse is defined as “a French word neither elegant nor necessary,” while finesse is dismissed as “an unnecessary word that is creeping into the language."

8. HE LEFT OUT THE LETTER X.

    At the foot of page 2308 of Johnson’s Dictionary is a note merely reading, “X is a letter which, though found in Saxon words, begins no word in the English language."

    9. HIS DEFINITIONS WEREN’T ALWAYS SO SCHOLARLY.

      As well as imposing his own taste on his dictionary, Johnson also famously employed his own sense of humor on his work. Among the most memorable of all his definitions is his explanation of oats as “a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people.” But he also defined monsieur as “a term of reproach for a Frenchman,” excise as “a hateful tax levied upon commodities and adjudged not by the common judges of property but wretches hired by those to whom excise is paid,” and luggage as “anything of more weight than value.” As an example of how to use the word dull, he explained that “to make dictionaries is dull work.”

      10. HE POKED LOTS OF FUN AT HIS OWN OCCUPATION.

      Listed on page 1195 of his dictionary, Johnson’s definition of lexicographer was “a writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge.”

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