You're Not Allowed to Go to this Island Overrun with Snakes

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iStock

Brazilians quibble over whether there are five venomous golden lancehead snakes per square meter on Ilha da Queimada Grande or just one. Either way, it's the highest density of snakes on the planet—far too many to make the island, located around 90 miles off the São Paulo coast, safe for anyone except experts to visit.

The snakes evolved their legendary venom after the island was isolated from the mainland around 11,000 years ago. The lanceheads that were trapped on what became known as Snake Island flourished in the absence of predators but were soon starved for available prey. Since the spit of land serves as a stopover point for migratory birds, the snakes soon began hunting in the treetops. But to do so, they needed fast-acting venom. As Smithsonian explains:

Often, snakes stalk their prey, bite and wait for the venom to do its work before tracking the prey down again. But the golden lancehead vipers can't track the birds they bite—so instead they evolved incredibly potent and efficient venom three to five times stronger than any mainland snake's—capable of killing most prey (and melting human flesh) almost instantly.

After a series of horror stories emerged from the island—such as the last lighthouse keeper's family to live there being killed by snakes after leaving a window open—the Brazilian government began strictly controlling visits. No one is allowed to even stop at the island without express permission to do so. And even on approved visits, like to maintain the lighthouse (which has been automated since that family's deaths in the 1920s) or conduct scientific research, a doctor must be present.

But just because there are laws against visiting Ilha da Queimada Grande unsupervised doesn't mean there aren't people who go anyway. You would think the snakes would be sufficient deterrent but, in fact, they're the source of the attraction. The island is the only place in the world where the golden lanceheads live, and with strict regulations limiting research, the demand from scientists and animal collectors means that a single snake can fetch $10,000 to $30,000 on the black market.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

Climate Change Is Threatening Nearly All UNESCO Sites Around the Mediterranean

iStock.com/tunart
iStock.com/tunart

The Mediterranean is home to some of the world's most famous cultural wonders, with 49 UNESCO-recognized world heritage sites in the region in total. Now, the organization warns that all but two of these sites are threatened by flooding and erosion linked to climate change, Artnet News reports.

For a recent study, published in the journal Nature Communications, a team of researchers looked at how various possible outcomes of rising sea levels could impact the Mediterranean coast between now and 2100. They found that even if global temperatures rise just 2°C (about 3.6°F) above pre-industrial numbers, the area's most treasured sites will still be at risk.

The places most vulnerable to rising sea levels include the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia, the Renaissance city of Ferrara, and the city of Venice. When it comes to erosion, Tyre in Lebanon, the archaeological sites of Tárraco in Spain, and the Ephesus in Turkey face the most pressing danger.

A handful of world heritage sites along the Mediterranean Sea, like the Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna and the Cathedral of St. James, could potentially be relocated as an extreme final option. Only two sites on the list—Medina of Tunis and Xanthos-Letoon—would be safe from the flooding and erosion spurred by climate change.

Rising global temperatures are on track to reshape coasts, not just in the Mediterranean, but around the world. In addition to historic sites, homes and airports are also under threat.

[h/t Artnet News]

Today is National Necktie Day in Croatia—Birthplace of the Necktie

Srdjan Stevanovic, Getty Images
Srdjan Stevanovic, Getty Images

If you're wearing a necktie to work today, you can thank (or blame) the Croatians for this stylish invention. The necktie's predecessor, a short knotted garment called the cravat, is a source of pride in this Western Balkan nation—so much so that they celebrate Cravat Day each year on October 18.

It's unclear when exactly the necktie was invented, but Croatian soldiers wore red cravats as part of their uniform during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). According to The Atlantic, Croatian mercenaries carried it to Western Europe that same century, and the French borrowed the idea and dubbed it the cravate. It became even more stylish when Louis XIV of France started wearing a lace cravat in 1646 at the tender age of 7, according to The Dubrovnik Times. The English eventually helped spread the accessory around the world, and it morphed into the elongated form we're most familiar with today.

In 1997, a nonprofit organization called the Academia Cravatica was founded to promote the cravat as a symbol of Croatian ingenuity. "By spreading the truth about the cravat, we improve Croatia's image in the international public," the organization states. "The fact that Croats invented the Cravat makes us proud to be Croats." (According to Time Out, Croatia also invented the first MP3 player, the zeppelin, the parachute, and fingerprint identification.)

The cravat is also tied up with national identity. The words Croat and cravat are etymologically linked, and were once different spellings of the same word. One sample sentence by David Hume in 1752 reads, "The troops are filled with Cravates and Tartars, Hussars, and Cossacs."

The holiday isn't normally a big to-do, but the county's capital city, Zagreb, occasionally gets pretty festive. In 2003, when the holiday first debuted in Croatia, the Academia Cravatica wrapped an oversized red necktie around Pula Arena, a Roman amphitheater. It took two years to prepare and five days to install—and at 2650 feet long, it ended up being the largest necktie in the world, as recognized by Guinness World Records.

Cravat Day was formally declared a holiday by Croatian Parliament in 2008, and it's been a hallmark of Croatian culture ever since. A few events were planned in Zagreb today, including a march featuring the "city's famous Cravat Regiment." So if you happen to be in the Croatian capital, now you know why more than 50 historic statues are looking dapper in their red cravats.

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